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Reconnaissance surveys are usually carried out to establish the main topographical, geological and engineering criteria that will influence the selection and design of a new alignment (e.g. Brunsden et al. 1975) or the key issues that need to be addressed in the case of a road improvement project (environmental and social impact reviews also form critical elements of these surveys). Reconnaissance surveys also allow validation of the desk study interpretations, and provide field information that can then be used to calibrate the desk study outputs.

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