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At the edge of the Laurentide Ice Sheet: Stratigraphy and chronology of glacial deposits in central Indiana

By
Henry M. Loope
Henry M. Loope
Indiana Geological and Water Survey, Indiana University, 611 N. Walnut Grove Ave., Bloomington, Indiana 47405, USA
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José Luis Antinao
José Luis Antinao
Indiana Geological and Water Survey, Indiana University, 611 N. Walnut Grove Ave., Bloomington, Indiana 47405, USA
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G. William Monaghan
G. William Monaghan
Department of Anthropology, Indiana University–Purdue University Indianapolis, 425 University Blvd., Indianapolis, Indiana 46202, USA
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Robert J. Autio
Robert J. Autio
Indiana Geological and Water Survey, Indiana University, 611 N. Walnut Grove Ave., Bloomington, Indiana 47405, USA
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B. Brandon Curry
B. Brandon Curry
Illinois State Geological Survey, Prairie Research Institute, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 615 E. Peabody Dr., Champaign, Illinois 61820, USA
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David A. Grimley
David A. Grimley
Illinois State Geological Survey, Prairie Research Institute, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 615 E. Peabody Dr., Champaign, Illinois 61820, USA
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Sébastien Huot
Sébastien Huot
Illinois State Geological Survey, Prairie Research Institute, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 615 E. Peabody Dr., Champaign, Illinois 61820, USA
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Thomas V. Lowell
Thomas V. Lowell
Department of Geology, University of Cincinnati, 500 Geology-Physics Building, Cincinnati, Ohio 45221, USA
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Thomas A. Nash
Thomas A. Nash
Division of Geological Survey, Ohio Department of Natural Resources, 2045 Morse Rd., Building C, Columbus, Ohio 43229, USA
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Published:
December 10, 2018
Publication history
18 August 2018

ABSTRACT

This field guide provides an updated synthesis of the stratigraphy and chronology of glacial deposits in central Indiana near the southern limit of glaciation in the midcontinent. Central Indiana contains evidence of multiple glaciations—deposits from the last two glaciations (Oxygen Isotope Stages [OIS] 2 [Wisconsin Episode] and 6 [Illinois Episode]) have been the focus of recent stratigraphic and chronologic investigation. New radiocarbon and optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating from outcrop and core has refined the timing of OIS 2 and OIS 6 ice sheet advances, outwash/slackwater aggradation, glacial lake formation, and eolian activity. Radiocarbon ages within or below late Wisconsin till from three sites within 5 km (3 mi) of the late Wisconsin maximum limit indicate an age of 24.0 k cal yr B.P. for maximum OIS 2 ice sheet extent in central Indiana, consistent with chronology from Illinois and Ohio. A subsequent >50 km (31 mi) readvance (21.6 k cal yr B.P.) across central Indiana came within 10 km (6 mi) of the maximum limit and in the western part of the field-trip area, terminated in glacial Lake Eminence. The start of outwash aggradation and associated slackwater sedimentation in the West Fork White River valley and tributaries began ca. 27 k cal yr B.P. and continued until ca. 20.5 k cal yr B.P., representing the timing of ice sheet advance into and out of the paleo–White River drainage basin. Ice sheet advance and retreat rates average ~40 m/yr before and after the global Last Glacial Maximum (ca. 26−21 k cal yr B.P.) when ice was within ~50 km of the late Wisconsin maximum. OSL dating of pre-Wisconsin outwash and glacio-lacustrine sediment return ages between ca. 218 and 127 ka, confirming deposition during OIS 6. These ages document spatially complex sedimentation in bedrock valleys beyond the Wisconsin limit.

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GSA Special Papers

Ancient Oceans, Orogenic Uplifts, and Glacial Ice: Geologic Crossroads in America’s Heartland

Lee J. Florea
Lee J. Florea
Indiana Geological and Water Survey Indiana University 611 N. Walnut Grove Avenue Bloomington, Indiana 47405, USA
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Geological Society of America
Volume
51
ISBN electronic:
9780813756516
Publication date:
December 10, 2018

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