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Note: This previously unpublished paper was written by Ray Gutschick in 1994. It is a fitting addition to this guidebook and a reminder of the influence that Ray still has on our thinking in regard to the Kentland structure and related dynamic processes. Details of his work on the paper are given in a companion article in this guidebook (Voight et al., 2018).

Deceased. Correspondence: Barry Voight, bxv1@psu.edu.

ABSTRACT

The extremely important role of groundwater has been largely overlooked in studies of meteorite and comet impact processes. Beyond the radius of plasma generation, impacts can produce massive shattering in saturated porous rocks. Fluid pressure rise reduces rock strength and facilitates hydrofracture, to produce intraformational monomict breccias, faulting, and generation of mobile polymict breccia slurries. Decompression of a deep “transient” crater accounts for complex central uplift and gravitational collapse of tremendous slide blocks that in turn cause injection and ejection of fluidized breccia. As pore fluid pressures equilibrate, frictional strength increases, and the structural form is locked into stability. Evidence is reported here for Kentland, Indiana, where quarry rocks display relatively low pressure-temperature (elastic to ductile transition, 100 kb–100 °C) impact phases of the model of D. Stöffler. Breccias include monomict, polymict, mixed polymict-fault, and conventional fault types. The monomict breccias are associated with aquifer beds and formed by pervasive shockwave transmission on impact. Polymict breccias are derived from all rock types and formed from late stage injection-ejection pseudoviscous slurries. These processes can apply to similar impacts like Wells Creek, Flynn Creek, Decaturville, Sierra Madre, and many others.

INTRODUCTION

The process of bolide impact is divided into stages for convenient reference, as first considered by Gault et al. (1968; cf. Short, 1966; Roddy, 1968, 1976). The first-stage of contact and compression begins with first contact of the striking bolide at tens of km per second. The projectile compresses and squeezes target material out of the path, and simultaneously decelerates because of target resistance. Strong shock waves are created at the interface between compressed and uncompressed material, creating shock pressures as much as 102 GPa. The duration of its entire stage is only about one second or less. Most of the initial kinetic energy of the projectile is transferred to compression, heat, and acceleration of target rocks, initiating the phase of excavation (Melosh, 1989; Stöffler, 1971). Subsonic excavation flow opens a “transient” crater many times larger than the projectile that produced it. The shock wave expands and weakens, degrades to a stress wave and ultimately decays into an elastic wave.

The modification stage follows, during which the walls of large craters collapse, while central uplifts occur, e.g., Sierra Madera, Ries, and Manicouagan (Grieve, 1991; Melosh, 1989). Alterations to the complex form are achieved mainly by collapse of an initially deep transient crater, with structural and stratigraphic uplift dominant near the center, accompanied by downward and inward slumping of rim materials. Gravity is claimed to be the principal force driving these modifications (Melosh, 1977, 1982), but an alternative mechanism is the so-called hydrodynamic theory of central peak formation, in which a central jet of target fluid rises behind the projectile and only partly collapses (Baldwin, 1963, 1981). Obviously, preservation of the uplift implies that the fluid is complex and has, or gains strength. The process is considered as a kind of dynamic decompression or rebound, in materials possessing both mobility, e.g., complex viscosity, and strength.

What is the effect of pore fluids on impact development? The idea has also been expressed that materials surrounding an impact crater may be mobilized by pore fluids (Kieffer and Simonds, 1980). The concept may apply for impacts on Earth and Mars but not for dry lunar or Mercurian craters. Explosion craters on earth are known to be influenced by subsurface water, notably the Prairie Flat Crater produced by a TNT sphere embedded in saturated silt and clay, and nuclear crater KOA in Eniwetok Atoll; possibly the exaggerated development of central peaks in Martian craters have a similar origin (Melosh, 1989; cf. Greeley et al., 1980; Fink et al., 1981). The question remains whether significant differences generally exist between cratering phenomena in wet and dry materials, and whether the presence or absence of pore water can account for such differences. The question is debatable; for example, Melosh (1989) argues that brecciation should create new porosity and decrease pore fluid pressure, and thereby prevent fluidization by water.

Some alternative explanations for mobile behavior of crater materials have been proposed, notably acoustic fluidization (Melosh, 1979); even this theory, invented to account for mobility in “dry” environments, remains speculative and would require modification to account for interstitial fluid interactions in a “wet” environment. Finally, much emphasis to date has concerned the behavior of loose rock debris in crater formation, rather than intensely fragmented but stratigraphically coherent materials.

This paper examines the role of ground water in bolide impact, and evidence is assembled from the Kentland uplift structure that bears particularly on crater excavation and modification stage processes, and the role of brecciation and pressurized pore fluid in promoting rheodynamic behavior.

THE KENTLAND ANOMALOUS STRUCTURAL COMPLEX

The Kentland anomalous structural complex is defined by an uplifted, erosionally truncated dome with central core, as revealed in six quarry pits as much as 120 m deep, supplemented by exploratory core drill holes over 100 m deep. Geological mapping of the pit floor and walls has kept pace with quarry operations from 1937 to the present, providing three-dimensional documentation of the structure (Shrock, 1937; Boyer, 1953; Gutschick, 1961, 1976, 1982, 1983, 1987, and unpublished company reports to the present; Laney and Van Schmus, 1978). Regional gravity and seismic refraction and reflection studies have outlined the boundary of the anomaly with surrounding flat-lying Paleozoic strata (Tudor, 1971) (see Figs. 1 and 2).

Figure 1.

Geologic map of Kentland impact, based on quarry exposures, subsurface drilling, and rock core. Most subsurface information from Tudor (1971) and cores from Indiana Geological Survey drilling. Holes to bedrock shown by black circles. Figure after Gutschick (1983).

Figure 1.

Geologic map of Kentland impact, based on quarry exposures, subsurface drilling, and rock core. Most subsurface information from Tudor (1971) and cores from Indiana Geological Survey drilling. Holes to bedrock shown by black circles. Figure after Gutschick (1983).

Figure 2.

West-east geological section of Kentland impact illustrating faulted asymmetrical domal nature of the structure. See Figure 1 for line of section. Normal undisturbed stratigraphic sections are shown at east and west edges, for deep townsite water wells in Kentland and Goodland. Note the 2- and 4-mile gaps between these sections and the quarries. Shakopee Dolomite is the oldest rock exposed in the quarry so that well-site sections are projected to the top of the Shakopee to provide a reference for structural displacement. After Gutschick (1983).

Figure 2.

West-east geological section of Kentland impact illustrating faulted asymmetrical domal nature of the structure. See Figure 1 for line of section. Normal undisturbed stratigraphic sections are shown at east and west edges, for deep townsite water wells in Kentland and Goodland. Note the 2- and 4-mile gaps between these sections and the quarries. Shakopee Dolomite is the oldest rock exposed in the quarry so that well-site sections are projected to the top of the Shakopee to provide a reference for structural displacement. After Gutschick (1983).

At the heart of the centrally uplifted dome is the complexly deformed Ordovician core, ~1.8 km in diameter. Erosional truncation of the dome, commensurate with uplift, has exposed the roots of impact. The Oneota Dolomite, the oldest exposed bedrock in the core, is stratigraphically uplifted ~700 m. The youngest rocks in the truncated central uplift are Lower Silurian Salamonie Dolomite. Upper Silurian (Niagaran and Cayugan) reef dolomite, Middle Devonian carbonates, and lower Mississippian rocks have been removed by erosion and are absent in the quarries; however, they are present along the flanks of the central uplift (Fig. 3).

Figure 3.

Stratigraphic section in Kentland Quarry illustrating groundwater aquifer and aquitard stratigraphy in relation to bolide impact features and processes. W—aquifers, M—monomict breccia, S—shattercones, U—unconformities, KQF—Kentland Quarry fault. Hydrology and strata thicknesses taken from Rupp (1989, 1991).

Figure 3.

Stratigraphic section in Kentland Quarry illustrating groundwater aquifer and aquitard stratigraphy in relation to bolide impact features and processes. W—aquifers, M—monomict breccia, S—shattercones, U—unconformities, KQF—Kentland Quarry fault. Hydrology and strata thicknesses taken from Rupp (1989, 1991).

By analogy with Stöffler’s (1971) model for the Ries basin impact, features observed in the Kentland quarries such as shattercones, breccias, microstructural elements in quartz, pseudotachylites (Gutschick, 1987; Dietz, 1947, 1972; S. de Silva, 1994, personal commun.; Q.S. Huss, 1994, personal commun.) suggest the impact deformation fit stages 0–1, indicating low to moderate impact pressures and temperatures. Kentland quarries thus represent an ideal field laboratory for that range of structures and dynamic metamorphic features. It is likely that eroded Upper Silurian to Lower Mississippian rocks were affected by higher dynamic pressures and temperatures than rocks now exposed.

Kentland Aquifers

Kopf (1982) recognized a role for groundwater in hydrotectonic elements related to some cryptoexplosion structures. He used such groundwater-related evidence to support an endogenic origin for these structures, thus challenging bolide impact interpretations. An alternative view is considered below.

It is reasonable to assume that at the time of impact the Kentland aquifers maintained similar qualities as do the present ones. Reconstruction of the stratigraphic column from quarry exposures and core drilling in the central uplift (Fig. 3) reveals three major aquifer zones: Silurian-Devonian carbonates, Trenton (Galena) dolomite, and Knox dolomite–St. Peter Sandstone (Rupp, 1989, 1991; State of Indiana Department of Natural Resources, Division of Water, 1990). These units total 450 m thickness, including the Cambrian Potosi Dolomite, not exposed or cored, to complete the Knox Group. All aquifers are considered heterogeneous.

Probably, impact dynamics also affected the Cambrian section below the Knox Group. This adds two other important aquifers, Galesville-Ironton (Davis Formation) and Mount Simon–Eau Claire sandstones. The aggregate thickness of aquifers is 1340 m, compared to 1585 m for the total sedimentary column. All other formations, ~245 m thick, are either aquitards or low quality aquifers which lack significant free flow permeability; still, some may have been saturated with significant porosity.

Tudor (1971) concluded from his gravity survey that Precambrian rocks were uplifted 600–900 m, and advocated an endogenic origin for the Kentland structure. However, the positive gravity anomaly can be accounted for by density variations in the sedimentary column and do not require basement involvement (Laney and Van Schmus, 1978). The Cambrian section has yet to be drilled to confirm its relationship to the aquifers and assess its breccia content.

The Breccias

Rocks at Kentland have sustained considerable deformation, as is manifest in three types of breccia (fault, monomict, and polymict), and shattercones (Gutschick, 1983, fig. 13 therein; 1987). Focus here is on the origin and roles of monomict and polymict breccias, as these are common to many impact structures (Sharpton and Grieve, 1990). Monomict and polymict breccias are distinct in appearance, habitat, timing, and genesis. Monomict breccias contain angular clasts and pulverized matrix of a single lithology that are formed by dilatant crushing of a host bed. These breccias are found throughout the Kentland structure associated with aquifer-rock-units—typically competent dolomites and sandstones; in contrast, rocks of low permeability, such as fine-grained limestones and dolomites, and shales, lack monomict breccias. Monomict breccias account for considerable dilation of the stratigraphic section.

Polymict breccias are characterized by angular clasts derived from diverse rock types in the central uplift, set in a fine-grained, mortar-like groundmass. Variations in these breccias occur, depending on the sources of the clasts. The clasts-in-matrix texture resembles concrete, and indeed the emplacement mechanism inferred for these breccias—commonly found in small clastic dikes—is analogous to pressurized cement grout. Polymict breccias are closely associated with faults and related fractures, and are absent within large rock blocks unaffected by faulting. These breccias are faintly streaked with flow lineations and swirl traces, probably reflecting preferred grain orientations; tabular clasts are aligned parallel to fault contact walls, and locally the breccias are interbedded with the strata along fault walls.

DYNAMICS OF THE KENTLAND BOLIDE IMPACT

Kentland quarries reveal much concerning the dynamics of impact, as they contain the exhumed roots of central uplift rocks subjected to lower stages of shock metamorphism. Rocks or impact products associated with high stages of shock metamorphism are missing at Kentland, including the crater and enclosed polymict breccia lens. Coesite has been reported by Cohen et al. (1961), but remains unconfirmed. The reconstruction of events presented here is based on geologic maps and sections by the author, as well as analysis of structural details, and consideration of the role of formation fluids. The physical model for the impact process at Kentland is a gigantic, rapidly striking and penetrating piston-and-cylinder assemblage, producing the sequence of contact and compression, followed by shock wave expansion and complex interference; explosive decompression, with inward and upward expansion producing the central uplift; and compressional readjustment due to partial collapse of the central uplift. How do the breccias fit into this pattern?

Shockwave Expansion and Rock Fragmentation

Expansion of the shock wave and near-field excavation flow are the two major processes of the so-called excavation stage of bolide-induced deformation. The “detached” shock wave (Melosh, 1989; Bjork et al., 1967) expands away from the impact site, characterized by pressure and particle velocity as established by Hugoniot relations, with initially high values declining roughly as 1/r2. The shock front is abrupt, with shock wave thickness only several meters or less in rocks, depending on rate-dependent pore closure and other processes. Pressure contours are approximately hemispherical and grade outward from vapor to melt, to the limit of crushing at the Hugoniot elastic limit. Below a surface spall zone defined by the tensile rarefaction wave, tensile and shear stresses break the rock into Grady-Kipp fragments to great depths below the impact site (Grady, 1980; Melosh, 1989).

In this process, competent aquifer rocks were affected by complex coupled elastic and hydrodynamic shock waves that caused intense hydrofracture and brecciation; non-aquifer-bearing rock units were less affected and unbrecciated. Brittle shattering was aided by high dynamic fluid pressures, in part reflecting thermal expansion or vaporization under pressure which reduced the effective confining pressure on the medium, and permitted the occurrence of transient effective tensile stresses. Rupture occurred when these stresses exceeded critical values.

With critical temperature increase, shock waves may convert water into steam. This seems less likely for aquifers in stage 0 shock metamorphism of Stöffler (1971), for which temperatures <100 °C (cf. conodont Color Alteration Index, CAI = 1.5 [50°–90 °C]) in Platteville-Galena rocks (Votaw, 1980; Jackson and Van Der Voo, 1986; Nasser and Howe, 1993).

Monomict brecciation at Kentland is thus interpreted to have formed during the shock wave expansion. In addition to shattering, transient fluid pressures generated tensile hydrofractures, a process that may have become explosive when groundwater was flashed to steam. The brecciation-hydrofracture processes were accompanied by dilation, and the associated increased aquifer reservoir permeability enhanced subsequent fluid transfer into the central uplift.

Rheodynamic Hypotheses for Formation of Central Uplift

Modification from a deep, bowl-shaped transient crater to a shallow complex form may be achieved by gravitationally driven collapse, associated with uplift of rocks underlying the crater (Melosh, 1989). The process may also involve components of “rebound” energy, and central uplifts and peak rings have indeed been compared to the central jet raised in a lowviscosity fluid following the impact of a projectile (see Melosh, 1989, fig. 8.19).

The term hydrodynamics has been applied to such a mechanism (Melosh, 1989, p. 147), although it is obvious that the term must be used only in a qualitative sense, as the ultimate fate of a disturbance in a perfect Newtonian fluid is a plane surface lacking surface relief. Clearly the medium must have strength in order to retain a dynamically produced structural form. Thus the term rheodynamic is introduced to imply dynamic deformation of a medium with qualities of both mobility (e.g., viscosity) and strength. The Bingham fluid is the simplest example of such materials (Melosh, 1982), but another approach, probably more realistic, is to consider that mechanical properties may change over the duration of the process. Thus, a rheodynamically generated structure may be “frozen” into position, a view which recalls the “frozen tsunami” theory of Baldwin (1972, 1981) to explain the morphology of complex impact craters. Here the view is explored that shattered rock may be fluidized by an influx of pressurized groundwater. The concept is inapplicable to lunar or Mercurian craters produced in a dry environment, but may apply elsewhere.

At Kentland, the field evidence is consistent with rheodynamic rebound of the transient crater, augmented by upward tumescent release of depressurized, dilatant water and steam initially associated with monomict brecciation. Boundary decompression led to rapid inflow from surrounding aquifers, at a rate constrained by hydraulic diffusivity. Collectively, these processes—in which groundwater played a vital role—resulted in significant uplift of the central region. The rate of uplift may also have been constrained by hydraulic diffusivity, and thus may not have been “nearly instantaneous.”

Faulting with associated polymict brecciation formed throughout the uplift, with rock types from all formations juxtaposed by faults mixed into a slurry. With rheologic mobility enhanced by supercritical pore fluid gradients, pseudoviscous polymict grout generated along faults was emplaced in an array of related fault splays, fault-associated fractures, and hydrofractures. These clastic intrusives indicate high pore fluid pressures at the time of faulting and clastic dike injection (Voight, 1973). Although it cannot be demonstrated at Kentland, due to subsequent surficial erosion, polymict breccias can potentially be ejected into the crater by polymict feeder dikes (Sharpton and Grieve, 1990, their fig. 4).

Rheodynamic mobility may be qualitatively expressed by the factors which produce and influence it:

 

RM=f(DB,GW,EA,Pp,S,P-TG,TFS),
(1)

where RM is rheodynamic mobility of liquefied slurry; DB is the characteristics of dry breccia (polymict); GW represents the amount, distribution, and properties of groundwater; EA is entrained air; Pp is pore fluid pressure; S is (three-dimensional) state of stress; P-T G are pressure-temperature conditions and gradients; and TFS is transient free space (development of openings and paths for transmission of slurry).

In the case of the Kentland impact, detailed structural mapping also indicates collapse by massive coherent blocks of rock and slurries sliding off the rising central uplift. Breakaway separation occurred along the Kentland Quarry Fault (KQF) of Gutschick (1976, 1987), which apparently circumscribes the central uplifted core (Gutschick, 1987, fig. 5 therein). Sliding was facilitated along the bedding shear between weakly cemented, cataclastically deformed St. Peter Sandstone and overlying hard, brittle, intricately fractured Joachim Dolomite, probably aided by high fault pressures. The KQF is characterized by planar, polished slickensided surfaces, mullion, quartz lamellae, breccias and ductile gouge (Gutschick, 1983, figs. 12 and 13 therein).

CONCLUSIONS

New perspectives into meteorite and comet impacts are gained from consideration of the important role of groundwater in impact processes. Consideration of these processes leads to the following conclusions.

  • (1) On earth and some other planets, groundwater is stored in large quantities in aquifers and in lesser quantities in aquitards. In both instances the available pore space is water saturated, and thus water must be considered in treatments of bolide impact dynamics. Impacts preserving lower stages of metamorphism like the Kentland structure furnish this evidence.

  • (2) Groundwater transmits high-energy shock waves, and aquifers are compressed as a consequence of shock-wave expansion and thermal strains established in poro-elastic or poro-plastic media.

  • (3) Pore fluid pressures reduce rock and rock-fragment interface strength, and encourage brittle behavior via the Terzaghian principle of effective stress, expressed in dynamic terms.

  • (4) Heat produced by dynamic impact may locally cause explosive steam generation; the process is complex and is coupled to dynamic fluid pressures, in association with thermodynamic pressure-boiling relations.

  • (5) Tensile and shear shattering and hydrofracture processes are prevalent due to (3) above and account for monomict brecciation associated with aquifers.

  • (6) Fracture initiation occurs with shock-wave expansion in saturated, fluid-pressurized media. Dilation occurs as a result of fracturing, thus momentarily reducing fluid pressures—but only after the fractures had formed with passage of the shock wave.

  • (7) As a consequence of (3), resistance to faulting is reduced in the core of the central uplift; gravitational collapse of the uplift, including breakaway sliding of coherent rock mass blocks, is likewise facilitated (Hubbert and Rubey, 1959).

  • (8) Fault-related generation of polymict breccia slurries due to (3) and (4) above, and pseudoviscous injection of slurries into adjacent fault blocks, are aided by hydrofractures. The clastic breccia injection features observed at Kentland and elsewhere are evidence that strongly suggests high fluid pressures at the time of deformation.

  • (9) Some central peak (and peak scale rings) may be explained by rheodynamic rebound in a collapsing transient impact cavity. The gross fluid-like aspect of uplift may be accounted for by pressurized groundwater and pseudoviscous slurries engendered by supercritical (relative to liquefaction) interstitial-fluid pressure gradients in pervasively shattered media.

  • (10) Ultimately, fluid pressure gradient dissipation associated with uplift and massive dilation causes a recovery in frictional strength via (3), providing a mechanical basis for “freezing” the morphology of structures developed by rheodynamically generated uplift.

  • (11) Nearer to the projectile contact region, groundwater may serve as a flux to reduce the melting temperature of the rock matrix (Kieffer and Simonds, 1980).

  • (12) Buildup of the hydraulic head of rheodynamic polymict slurries may cause effusive ejection into the crater to account for the polymict breccia lens resting on in situ monomict brecciated strata formed earlier. It can also account for a buoyancy factor in uplift.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

The author values helpful discussions on impact dynamics with Gordon Bennett, David Stearns, and Barry Voight.

The author values helpful discussions on impact dynamics with Gordon Bennett, David Stearns, and Barry Voight.

The author values helpful discussions on impact dynamics with Gordon Bennett, David Stearns, and Barry Voight.

The author values helpful discussions on impact dynamics with Gordon Bennett, David Stearns, and Barry Voight.

The author values helpful discussions on impact dynamics with Gordon Bennett, David Stearns, and Barry Voight.

The author values helpful discussions on impact dynamics with Gordon Bennett, David Stearns, and Barry Voight.

The author values helpful discussions on impact dynamics with Gordon Bennett, David Stearns, and Barry Voight.

The author values helpful discussions on impact dynamics with Gordon Bennett, David Stearns, and Barry Voight.

The author values helpful discussions on impact dynamics with Gordon Bennett, David Stearns, and Barry Voight.

The author values helpful discussions on impact dynamics with Gordon Bennett, David Stearns, and Barry Voight.

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Division of Water, Water Resource Assessment
 
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471
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76
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Northeastern Section 8th Annual Meeting
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Allentown, Pennsylvania
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5
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2
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361
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Voight
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Mechanics of Thrust Faults and Décollement, Benchmark Papers in Geology 32
:
Stroudsburg, Pennsylvania
,
Dowden, Hutchinson, and Ross
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471
p.)
Voight
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B.
,
Hoff
,
R.
,
Turner
,
A.
,
Neal
,
W.
,
Sandberg
,
C.A.
, and
Suttner
,
L.
,
2018
,
Raymond C. Gutschick—Hero of the Kentland impact structure investigations
, in
Florea
,
L.J.
, ed.,
Ancient Oceans, Orogenic Uplifts, and Glacial Ice: Geologic Crossroads in America’s Heartland
:
Geological Society of America Field Guide
 
51
, https://doi.org/10.1130/2018.0051(17)
Votaw
,
R.B.
,
1980
,
Middle Ordovician conodonts from the Kentland structure, Indiana
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Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs
 , v.
12
, p.
259
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H.J.
,
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H.J.
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Impact Cratering: A Geologic Process
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M.N.
, III
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Howe
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R.C.
,
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 , 8 September
1993
,
Purdue University
.
Roddy
,
D.J.
,
1968
,
The Flynn Creek Crater, Tennessee
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French
,
B.M.
, and
Short
,
N.M.
, eds.,
Shock Metamorphism of Natural Materials: Proceedings of a conference, Greenbelt, Maryland, 1966
:
Baltimore
, Mono Book Corporation, p.
291
332
.
Roddy
,
D.J.
,
1976
,
High-explosive cratering analogs for bowl-shaped, central uplift, and multi- ringed impact craters:
Proceedings of the seventh Lunar Planetary Science Conference
:
New York
,
Pergamon Press
, p.
3027
3056
.
Rupp
,
J.A.
,
1989
,
Bedrock hydrostratigraphy of the Kankakee Basin, Indiana Geological Survey
,
Division of Water, Water Resource Assessment
 
90-3
,
17
p.
Rupp
,
J.A.
,
1991
,
Structure and Isopach Maps of the Paleozoic Rocks of Indiana
:
Indiana Geological Survey Report
 
48
,
106
p., 41 maps.
Sharpton
,
V.L.
, and
Grieve
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R.A.F.
,
1990
,
Meteorite impact, cryptoexplosion, and shock metamorphism—A perspective on the evidence at the K/T boundary
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Sharpton
,
V.L.
, and
Ward
,
P.D.
, eds.,
Global Catastrophes in Earth History; An Interdisciplinary Conference on Impacts, Volcanism, and Mass Mortality
:
Geological Society of America Special
  Paper
247
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301
318
, https://doi.org/10.1130/SPE247-p301.
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,
N.M.
,
1966
,
Shock processes in geology
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14
, p.
149
166
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Shrock
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R.R.
,
1937
,
Stratigraphy and structure of the area of disturbed rocks near Kentland, Indiana
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American Midland Naturalist
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18
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471
531
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State of Indiana Department of Natural Resources, Division of Water
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1990
,
Water resource availability in the Kankakee River Basin, Indiana
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Indiana Department of Natural Resources Water Resource Assessment
 
90-3
,
247
p., https://www.in.gov/dnr/water/4108.htm (accessed August
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Stöffler
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D.
,
1971
,
Progressive metamorphism, and classification of shocked and brecciated crystalline rocks at impact craters
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76
, p.
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5551
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Tudor
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D.S.
,
1971
,
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Bloomington
,
Indiana University
,
111
p.
Voight
,
B.
,
1973
,
Clastic fluidization phenomena and the role of fluid pressure in mechanics of natural rock deformation [abs.]
:
Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs
  (
Northeastern Section 8th Annual Meeting
,
Allentown, Pennsylvania
), v.
5
, no.
2
, p.
233
. (Reprinted, p.
361
, in
Voight
,
B.
, ed.,
1976
,
Mechanics of Thrust Faults and Décollement, Benchmark Papers in Geology 32
:
Stroudsburg, Pennsylvania
,
Dowden, Hutchinson, and Ross
,
471
p.)
Voight
,
B.
,
Hoff
,
R.
,
Turner
,
A.
,
Neal
,
W.
,
Sandberg
,
C.A.
, and
Suttner
,
L.
,
2018
,
Raymond C. Gutschick—Hero of the Kentland impact structure investigations
, in
Florea
,
L.J.
, ed.,
Ancient Oceans, Orogenic Uplifts, and Glacial Ice: Geologic Crossroads in America’s Heartland
:
Geological Society of America Field Guide
 
51
, https://doi.org/10.1130/2018.0051(17)
Votaw
,
R.B.
,
1980
,
Middle Ordovician conodonts from the Kentland structure, Indiana
:
Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs
 , v.
12
, p.
259
.

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R.B.
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Chicago
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University of Chicago Press
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508
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Baldwin
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R.B.
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1972
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The tsunami model of the origin of ring structures concentric with large lunar craters
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Physics of the Earth and Planetary Interiors
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6
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327
339
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, and
Merrill
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275
288
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M.H.
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p.
Boyer
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Bloomington
,
Indiana University
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54
p.
Cohen
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A.J.
,
Bunch
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T.E.
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Reid
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A.M.
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Coesite discoveries establish cryptovolcanics are fossil meteorite craters
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134
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1625
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Science
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105
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R.A.
,
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Shatter cones (shock features) in astroblemes: 24th International Geological Congress
,
Montreal, Section
 
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118
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de Silva
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S.L.
,
1994
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The Kentland Dome, Indiana: An astrobleme
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Geological Society of America North-Central Section Meeting Guidebook
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29
p.
Fink
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J.H.
,
Greeley
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R.
, and
Gault
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D.E.
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Impact cratering experiments in Bingham materials and the morphology of craters on Mars and Ganymede:
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1666
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W.L.
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V.R.
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B.M.
, and
Short
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Baltimore
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Mono Book Corporation
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99
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Grady
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D.E.
,
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85
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924
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Greeley
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Fink
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D.E.
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D.B.
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Guest
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Grieve
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Terrestrial impact: the record in the rocks
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Geological Society of America, North-Central Section Meeting Guidebook
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Gutschick
,
R.C.
,
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R.H.
, and
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J.A.
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138
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84
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, III
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Rupp
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Bedrock hydrostratigraphy of the Kankakee Basin, Indiana Geological Survey
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Division of Water, Water Resource Assessment
 
90-3
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17
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Rupp
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J.A.
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Shock processes in geology
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471
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State of Indiana Department of Natural Resources, Division of Water
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Water resource availability in the Kankakee River Basin, Indiana
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90-3
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247
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D.
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76
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5541
5551
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Northeastern Section 8th Annual Meeting
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Allentown, Pennsylvania
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5
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2
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233
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Voight
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B.
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1976
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Mechanics of Thrust Faults and Décollement, Benchmark Papers in Geology 32
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Stroudsburg, Pennsylvania
,
Dowden, Hutchinson, and Ross
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471
p.)
Voight
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B.
,
Hoff
,
R.
,
Turner
,
A.
,
Neal
,
W.
,
Sandberg
,
C.A.
, and
Suttner
,
L.
,
2018
,
Raymond C. Gutschick—Hero of the Kentland impact structure investigations
, in
Florea
,
L.J.
, ed.,
Ancient Oceans, Orogenic Uplifts, and Glacial Ice: Geologic Crossroads in America’s Heartland
:
Geological Society of America Field Guide
 
51
, https://doi.org/10.1130/2018.0051(17)
Votaw
,
R.B.
,
1980
,
Middle Ordovician conodonts from the Kentland structure, Indiana
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Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs
 , v.
12
, p.
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R.C.
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Geology of the Kentland dome structurally complex anomaly, northwestern Indiana
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R.H.
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J.A.
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Field Trips in Midwestern Geology
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D.L.
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M.K.
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Rubey
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W.W.
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70
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115
166
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Terre Haute, Indiana
,
Indiana State University
,
32
p.
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M.
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R.
,
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W.R.
,
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,
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Houston, Texas
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2632
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H.J.
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D.J.
,
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, and
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R.B.
, eds.,
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1260
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H.J.
,
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84
, p.
7513
7520
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Melosh
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H.J.
,
1982
,
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87
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371
380
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,
H.J.
,
1989
,
Impact Cratering: A Geologic Process
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New York
,
Oxford University Press
,
245
p.
Nasser
,
M.N.
, III
, and
Howe
,
R.C.
,
1993
,
Lack of Silurian conodont alteration, Kentland anomaly, Indiana [abs.]
:
Indiana Academy of Science presentation
 , 8 September
1993
,
Purdue University
.
Roddy
,
D.J.
,
1968
,
The Flynn Creek Crater, Tennessee
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French
,
B.M.
, and
Short
,
N.M.
, eds.,
Shock Metamorphism of Natural Materials: Proceedings of a conference, Greenbelt, Maryland, 1966
:
Baltimore
, Mono Book Corporation, p.
291
332
.
Roddy
,
D.J.
,
1976
,
High-explosive cratering analogs for bowl-shaped, central uplift, and multi- ringed impact craters:
Proceedings of the seventh Lunar Planetary Science Conference
:
New York
,
Pergamon Press
, p.
3027
3056
.
Rupp
,
J.A.
,
1989
,
Bedrock hydrostratigraphy of the Kankakee Basin, Indiana Geological Survey
,
Division of Water, Water Resource Assessment
 
90-3
,
17
p.
Rupp
,
J.A.
,
1991
,
Structure and Isopach Maps of the Paleozoic Rocks of Indiana
:
Indiana Geological Survey Report
 
48
,
106
p., 41 maps.
Sharpton
,
V.L.
, and
Grieve
,
R.A.F.
,
1990
,
Meteorite impact, cryptoexplosion, and shock metamorphism—A perspective on the evidence at the K/T boundary
, in
Sharpton
,
V.L.
, and
Ward
,
P.D.
, eds.,
Global Catastrophes in Earth History; An Interdisciplinary Conference on Impacts, Volcanism, and Mass Mortality
:
Geological Society of America Special
  Paper
247
, p.
301
318
, https://doi.org/10.1130/SPE247-p301.
Short
,
N.M.
,
1966
,
Shock processes in geology
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Journal of Geological Education
 , v.
14
, p.
149
166
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Shrock
,
R.R.
,
1937
,
Stratigraphy and structure of the area of disturbed rocks near Kentland, Indiana
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American Midland Naturalist
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18
, p.
471
531
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State of Indiana Department of Natural Resources, Division of Water
,
1990
,
Water resource availability in the Kankakee River Basin, Indiana
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Indiana Department of Natural Resources Water Resource Assessment
 
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,
247
p., https://www.in.gov/dnr/water/4108.htm (accessed August
2018
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D.
,
1971
,
Progressive metamorphism, and classification of shocked and brecciated crystalline rocks at impact craters
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Journal of Geophysical Research
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76
, p.
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5551
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Tudor
,
D.S.
,
1971
,
A geophysical study of the Kentland disturbed area [Ph.D. thesis]
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Bloomington
,
Indiana University
,
111
p.
Voight
,
B.
,
1973
,
Clastic fluidization phenomena and the role of fluid pressure in mechanics of natural rock deformation [abs.]
:
Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs
  (
Northeastern Section 8th Annual Meeting
,
Allentown, Pennsylvania
), v.
5
, no.
2
, p.
233
. (Reprinted, p.
361
, in
Voight
,
B.
, ed.,
1976
,
Mechanics of Thrust Faults and Décollement, Benchmark Papers in Geology 32
:
Stroudsburg, Pennsylvania
,
Dowden, Hutchinson, and Ross
,
471
p.)
Voight
,
B.
,
Hoff
,
R.
,
Turner
,
A.
,
Neal
,
W.
,
Sandberg
,
C.A.
, and
Suttner
,
L.
,
2018
,
Raymond C. Gutschick—Hero of the Kentland impact structure investigations
, in
Florea
,
L.J.
, ed.,
Ancient Oceans, Orogenic Uplifts, and Glacial Ice: Geologic Crossroads in America’s Heartland
:
Geological Society of America Field Guide
 
51
, https://doi.org/10.1130/2018.0051(17)
Votaw
,
R.B.
,
1980
,
Middle Ordovician conodonts from the Kentland structure, Indiana
:
Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs
 , v.
12
, p.
259
.

REFERENCES CITED

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R.B.
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1963
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Chicago
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University of Chicago Press
,
508
p.
Baldwin
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R.B.
,
1972
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The tsunami model of the origin of ring structures concentric with large lunar craters
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Physics of the Earth and Planetary Interiors
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6
, p.
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339
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275
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,
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p.
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,
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A.M.
,
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Science
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134
, p.
1624
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, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.134.3490.1624.
Dietz
,
R.S.
,
1947
,
Meteorite impact suggested by orientation of shatter cones at the Kentland, Indiana disturbance
:
Science
 , v.
105
, p.
42
, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.105.2715.42.
Dietz
,
R.A.
,
1972
,
Shatter cones (shock features) in astroblemes: 24th International Geological Congress
,
Montreal, Section
 
15
, p.
112
118
.
de Silva
,
S.L.
,
1994
,
The Kentland Dome, Indiana: An astrobleme
:
Geological Society of America North-Central Section Meeting Guidebook
,
29
p.
Fink
,
J.H.
,
Greeley
,
R.
, and
Gault
,
D.E.
,
1981
,
Impact cratering experiments in Bingham materials and the morphology of craters on Mars and Ganymede:
Proceedings of the Lunar and Planetary Science Conference, 12B
:
New York and Oxford
,
Pergamon Press
, p.
1649
1666
.
Gault
,
D.E.
,
Quaide
,
W.L.
, and
Oberbeck
,
V.R.
,
1968
,
Impact cratering mechanics and structures
, in
French
,
B.M.
, and
Short
,
N.M.
, eds.,
Shock Metamorphism of Natural Materials: Proceedings of a conference, Greenbelt, Maryland, 1966
:
Baltimore
,
Mono Book Corporation
p.
87
99
.
Grady
,
D.E.
,
1980
,
Shock deformation of brittle solids
:
Journal of Geophysical Research
 , v.
85
, p.
913
924
, https://doi.org/10.1029/JB085iB02p00913.
Greeley
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R.
,
Fink
,
J.
,
Gault
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D.E.
,
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D.B.
,
Guest
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, and
Schultz
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P.
,
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,
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Proceedings of the 11th Annual Lunar and Planetary Science Conference
, p.
2075
2097
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Grieve
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26
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,
R.C.
,
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,
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38
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2018330
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,
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,
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, and
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J.A.
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Field Trips in Midwestern Geology
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1
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105
138
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Gutschick
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,
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,
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Biggs
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D.L.
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Boulder, Colorado
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3
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337
342
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Rubey
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,
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,
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Geological Society of America Bulletin
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70
, p.
115
166
, https://doi.org/10.1130/0016-7606(1959)70[11:ROFPIM]2.0.CO;2.
Huss
,
Q.S.
,
1994
,
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Terre Haute, Indiana
,
Indiana State University
,
32
p.
Jackson
,
M.
, and
Van Der Voo
,
R.
,
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,
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The Journal of Geology
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94
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713
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18
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Pergamon Press
, p.
2609
2632
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Melosh
,
H.J.
,
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,
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Roddy
,
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,
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,
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, and
Merrill
,
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, eds.,
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New York
,
Pergamon Press
, p.
1245
1260
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Melosh
,
H.J.
,
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,
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Journal of Geophysical Research
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84
, p.
7513
7520
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Melosh
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H.J.
,
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,
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87
, p.
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380
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,
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p.
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M.N.
, III
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Howe
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R.C.
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,
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,
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,
The Flynn Creek Crater, Tennessee
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French
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, and
Short
,
N.M.
, eds.,
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:
Baltimore
, Mono Book Corporation, p.
291
332
.
Roddy
,
D.J.
,
1976
,
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Proceedings of the seventh Lunar Planetary Science Conference
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New York
,
Pergamon Press
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3027
3056
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Rupp
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J.A.
,
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Division of Water, Water Resource Assessment
 
90-3
,
17
p.
Rupp
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J.A.
,
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,
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R.C.
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R.C.
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R.C.
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2018330
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R.C.
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R.H.
, and
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70
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166
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Terre Haute, Indiana
,
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p.
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R.
,
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,
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, and
Van Schmus
,
W.R.
,
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,
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,
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, March 13–17,
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,
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, p.
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2632
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,
H.J.
,
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,
Pepin
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R.O.
, and
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,
R.B.
, eds.,
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New York
,
Pergamon Press
, p.
1245
1260
.
Melosh
,
H.J.
,
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84
, p.
7513
7520
, https://doi.org/10.1029/JB084iB13p07513.
Melosh
,
H.J.
,
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87
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371
380
, https://doi.org/10.1029/JB087iB01p00371.
Melosh
,
H.J.
,
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Impact Cratering: A Geologic Process
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,
Oxford University Press
,
245
p.
Nasser
,
M.N.
, III
, and
Howe
,
R.C.
,
1993
,
Lack of Silurian conodont alteration, Kentland anomaly, Indiana [abs.]
:
Indiana Academy of Science presentation
 , 8 September
1993
,
Purdue University
.
Roddy
,
D.J.
,
1968
,
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, in
French
,
B.M.
, and
Short
,
N.M.
, eds.,
Shock Metamorphism of Natural Materials: Proceedings of a conference, Greenbelt, Maryland, 1966
:
Baltimore
, Mono Book Corporation, p.
291
332
.
Roddy
,
D.J.
,
1976
,
High-explosive cratering analogs for bowl-shaped, central uplift, and multi- ringed impact craters:
Proceedings of the seventh Lunar Planetary Science Conference
:
New York
,
Pergamon Press
, p.
3027
3056
.
Rupp
,
J.A.
,
1989
,
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,
Division of Water, Water Resource Assessment
 
90-3
,
17
p.
Rupp
,
J.A.
,
1991
,
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Indiana Geological Survey Report
 
48
,
106
p., 41 maps.
Sharpton
,
V.L.
, and
Grieve
,
R.A.F.
,
1990
,
Meteorite impact, cryptoexplosion, and shock metamorphism—A perspective on the evidence at the K/T boundary
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Sharpton
,
V.L.
, and
Ward
,
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,
Neal
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Suttner
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Votaw
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B.
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,
Turner
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A.
,
Neal
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W.
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Sandberg
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C.A.
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Suttner
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L.
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2018
,
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L.J.
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Ancient Oceans, Orogenic Uplifts, and Glacial Ice: Geologic Crossroads in America’s Heartland
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51
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R.H.
, and
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Terre Haute, Indiana
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32
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, and
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R.
,
1986
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94
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713
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,
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Impact Cratering: A Geologic Process
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, III
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,
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Rupp
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J.A.
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Division of Water, Water Resource Assessment
 
90-3
,
17
p.
Rupp
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J.A.
,
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Structure and Isopach Maps of the Paleozoic Rocks of Indiana
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471
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State of Indiana Department of Natural Resources, Division of Water
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Water resource availability in the Kankakee River Basin, Indiana
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247
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76
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Allentown, Pennsylvania
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5
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2
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361
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Voight
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Mechanics of Thrust Faults and Décollement, Benchmark Papers in Geology 32
:
Stroudsburg, Pennsylvania
,
Dowden, Hutchinson, and Ross
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471
p.)
Voight
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B.
,
Hoff
,
R.
,
Turner
,
A.
,
Neal
,
W.
,
Sandberg
,
C.A.
, and
Suttner
,
L.
,
2018
,
Raymond C. Gutschick—Hero of the Kentland impact structure investigations
, in
Florea
,
L.J.
, ed.,
Ancient Oceans, Orogenic Uplifts, and Glacial Ice: Geologic Crossroads in America’s Heartland
:
Geological Society of America Field Guide
 
51
, https://doi.org/10.1130/2018.0051(17)
Votaw
,
R.B.
,
1980
,
Middle Ordovician conodonts from the Kentland structure, Indiana
:
Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs
 , v.
12
, p.
259
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H.J.
,
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Impact Cratering: A Geologic Process
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M.N.
, III
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R.C.
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 , 8 September
1993
,
Purdue University
.
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,
D.J.
,
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,
The Flynn Creek Crater, Tennessee
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French
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B.M.
, and
Short
,
N.M.
, eds.,
Shock Metamorphism of Natural Materials: Proceedings of a conference, Greenbelt, Maryland, 1966
:
Baltimore
, Mono Book Corporation, p.
291
332
.
Roddy
,
D.J.
,
1976
,
High-explosive cratering analogs for bowl-shaped, central uplift, and multi- ringed impact craters:
Proceedings of the seventh Lunar Planetary Science Conference
:
New York
,
Pergamon Press
, p.
3027
3056
.
Rupp
,
J.A.
,
1989
,
Bedrock hydrostratigraphy of the Kankakee Basin, Indiana Geological Survey
,
Division of Water, Water Resource Assessment
 
90-3
,
17
p.
Rupp
,
J.A.
,
1991
,
Structure and Isopach Maps of the Paleozoic Rocks of Indiana
:
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48
,
106
p., 41 maps.
Sharpton
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V.L.
, and
Grieve
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R.A.F.
,
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,
Meteorite impact, cryptoexplosion, and shock metamorphism—A perspective on the evidence at the K/T boundary
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Sharpton
,
V.L.
, and
Ward
,
P.D.
, eds.,
Global Catastrophes in Earth History; An Interdisciplinary Conference on Impacts, Volcanism, and Mass Mortality
:
Geological Society of America Special
  Paper
247
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301
318
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Short
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N.M.
,
1966
,
Shock processes in geology
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14
, p.
149
166
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Shrock
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R.R.
,
1937
,
Stratigraphy and structure of the area of disturbed rocks near Kentland, Indiana
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American Midland Naturalist
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18
, p.
471
531
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State of Indiana Department of Natural Resources, Division of Water
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1990
,
Water resource availability in the Kankakee River Basin, Indiana
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Indiana Department of Natural Resources Water Resource Assessment
 
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247
p., https://www.in.gov/dnr/water/4108.htm (accessed August
2018
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Stöffler
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D.
,
1971
,
Progressive metamorphism, and classification of shocked and brecciated crystalline rocks at impact craters
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76
, p.
5541
5551
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Tudor
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D.S.
,
1971
,
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Bloomington
,
Indiana University
,
111
p.
Voight
,
B.
,
1973
,
Clastic fluidization phenomena and the role of fluid pressure in mechanics of natural rock deformation [abs.]
:
Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs
  (
Northeastern Section 8th Annual Meeting
,
Allentown, Pennsylvania
), v.
5
, no.
2
, p.
233
. (Reprinted, p.
361
, in
Voight
,
B.
, ed.,
1976
,
Mechanics of Thrust Faults and Décollement, Benchmark Papers in Geology 32
:
Stroudsburg, Pennsylvania
,
Dowden, Hutchinson, and Ross
,
471
p.)
Voight
,
B.
,
Hoff
,
R.
,
Turner
,
A.
,
Neal
,
W.
,
Sandberg
,
C.A.
, and
Suttner
,
L.
,
2018
,
Raymond C. Gutschick—Hero of the Kentland impact structure investigations
, in
Florea
,
L.J.
, ed.,
Ancient Oceans, Orogenic Uplifts, and Glacial Ice: Geologic Crossroads in America’s Heartland
:
Geological Society of America Field Guide
 
51
, https://doi.org/10.1130/2018.0051(17)
Votaw
,
R.B.
,
1980
,
Middle Ordovician conodonts from the Kentland structure, Indiana
:
Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs
 , v.
12
, p.
259
.

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R.B.
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Chicago
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508
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Baldwin
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R.B.
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1972
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The tsunami model of the origin of ring structures concentric with large lunar craters
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Physics of the Earth and Planetary Interiors
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6
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327
339
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275
288
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K.N.
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M.H.
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NASA Report CR-757
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p.
Boyer
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Bloomington
,
Indiana University
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54
p.
Cohen
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A.J.
,
Bunch
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T.E.
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Reid
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A.M.
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1961
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Coesite discoveries establish cryptovolcanics are fossil meteorite craters
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134
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1624
1625
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Science
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105
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42
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R.A.
,
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,
Montreal, Section
 
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118
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de Silva
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S.L.
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1994
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The Kentland Dome, Indiana: An astrobleme
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Geological Society of America North-Central Section Meeting Guidebook
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29
p.
Fink
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J.H.
,
Greeley
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R.
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Gault
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D.E.
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Impact cratering experiments in Bingham materials and the morphology of craters on Mars and Ganymede:
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1666
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V.R.
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B.M.
, and
Short
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N.M.
, eds.,
Shock Metamorphism of Natural Materials: Proceedings of a conference, Greenbelt, Maryland, 1966
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Baltimore
,
Mono Book Corporation
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99
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Grady
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D.E.
,
1980
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Shock deformation of brittle solids
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85
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924
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Greeley
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R.
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Fink
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Gault
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D.E.
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Snyder
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D.B.
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Guest
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J.E.
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Schultz
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P.
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1980
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Impact cratering in viscous targets: Laboratory experiments
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2097
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Grieve
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R.A.F.
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1991
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Terrestrial impact: the record in the rocks
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Meteorites
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26
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194
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R.C.
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The Kentland structural anomaly
:
Geological Society of America, Guidebook for field trips
 ,
Cincinnati
, p.
12
17
. [This material is available as GSA Data Repository item 2018330, at http://www.geosociety.org/datarepository/2018 or by request to editing@geosociety.org.]
Gutschick
,
R.C.
,
1976
,
Geology of the Kentland structural anomaly northwestern Indiana
:
Geological Society of America, North-Central Section Meeting Guidebook
,
59
p. [This material is available as GSA Data Repository item
2018330
, at http://www.geosociety.org/datarepository/2018 or by request to editing@geosociety.org.]
Gutschick
,
R.C.
,
1982
,
Geology of the Kentland structural anomaly, northwestern Indiana—update
:
Geological Society of America, North-Central Section Meeting Guidebook
,
38
p. [This material is available as GSA Data Repository item
2018330
, at http://www.geosociety.org/datarepository/2018 or by request to editing@geosociety.org.]
Gutschick
,
R.C.
,
1983
,
Geology of the Kentland dome structurally complex anomaly, northwestern Indiana
, in
Shaver
,
R.H.
, and
Sunderman
,
J.A.
, eds.,
Field Trips in Midwestern Geology
:
Bloomington, Indiana
,
Geological Society of America, Indiana Geological Survey, and Indiana University Department of Geology
, Guidebook, v.
1
, p.
105
138
. [This material is available as GSA Data Repository item 2018330, at http://www.geosociety.org/datarepository/2018 or by request to editing@geosociety.org.]
Gutschick
,
R.C.
,
1987
,
The Kentland dome, Indiana: A structural anomaly
, in
Biggs
,
D.L.
, ed.,
North-Central Section of the Geological Society of America
:
Boulder, Colorado
,
Geological Society of America, Centennial Field Guide
 , v.
3
, p.
337
342
, https://doi.org/10.1130/0-8137-5403-8.337.
Hubbert
,
M.K.
, and
Rubey
,
W.W.
,
1959
,
Role of fluid pressure in mechanics of overthrust faulting: I. mechanics of fluid-filled porous solids and its application to overthrust faulting
:
Geological Society of America Bulletin
 , v.
70
, p.
115
166
, https://doi.org/10.1130/0016-7606(1959)70[11:ROFPIM]2.0.CO;2.
Huss
,
Q.S.
,
1994
,
The nature of shocked quartz of the St. Peter Sandstone at the Kentland structural anomaly, Kentland, Indiana, U.S.A. [senior thesis]
:
Terre Haute, Indiana
,
Indiana State University
,
32
p.
Jackson
,
M.
, and
Van Der Voo
,
R.
,
1986
,
A paleomagnetic estimate of the age and thermal history of the Kentland, Indiana cryptoexplosion structure
:
The Journal of Geology
 , v.
94
, p.
713
723
, https://doi.org/10.1086/629076.
Kieffer
,
S.W.
, and
Simonds
,
C.H.
,
1980
,
The role of volatiles and lithology in the impact cratering process
:
Reviews of Geophysics
 , v.
18
, p.
143
181
, https://doi.org/10.1029/RG018i001p00143.
Kopf
,
R.W.
,
1982
,
Hydrotectonics: Principles and relevance
:
U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report
  82-307,
29
p.
Laney
,
R.T.
, and
Van Schmus
,
W.R.
,
1978
,
A structural study of Kentland, Indiana, impact site
:
Proceedings of the Ninth Lunar and Planetary Science Conference
,
Houston, Texas
, March 13–17,
1978
:
The Moon and the inner solar system
:
New York
,
Pergamon Press
, p.
2609
2632
.
Melosh
,
H.J.
,
1977
,
Crater modification by gravity: A mechanical analysis of slumping
, in
Roddy
,
D.J.
,
Pepin
,
R.O.
, and
Merrill
,
R.B.
, eds.,
Impact and Explosion Cratering
:
New York
,
Pergamon Press
, p.
1245
1260
.
Melosh
,
H.J.
,
1979
,
Acoustic fluidization: A new geologic process?
:
Journal of Geophysical Research
 , v.
84
, p.
7513
7520
, https://doi.org/10.1029/JB084iB13p07513.
Melosh
,
H.J.
,
1982
,
A schematic model of crater modification by gravity
:
Journal of Geophysical Research
 , v.
87
, p.
371
380
, https://doi.org/10.1029/JB087iB01p00371.
Melosh
,
H.J.
,
1989
,
Impact Cratering: A Geologic Process
 :
New York
,
Oxford University Press
,
245
p.
Nasser
,
M.N.
, III
, and
Howe
,
R.C.
,
1993
,
Lack of Silurian conodont alteration, Kentland anomaly, Indiana [abs.]
:
Indiana Academy of Science presentation
 , 8 September
1993
,
Purdue University
.
Roddy
,
D.J.
,
1968
,
The Flynn Creek Crater, Tennessee
, in
French
,
B.M.
, and
Short
,
N.M.
, eds.,
Shock Metamorphism of Natural Materials: Proceedings of a conference, Greenbelt, Maryland, 1966
:
Baltimore
, Mono Book Corporation, p.
291
332
.
Roddy
,
D.J.
,
1976
,
High-explosive cratering analogs for bowl-shaped, central uplift, and multi- ringed impact craters:
Proceedings of the seventh Lunar Planetary Science Conference
:
New York
,
Pergamon Press
, p.
3027
3056
.
Rupp
,
J.A.
,
1989
,
Bedrock hydrostratigraphy of the Kankakee Basin, Indiana Geological Survey
,
Division of Water, Water Resource Assessment
 
90-3
,
17
p.
Rupp
,
J.A.
,
1991
,
Structure and Isopach Maps of the Paleozoic Rocks of Indiana
:
Indiana Geological Survey Report
 
48
,
106
p., 41 maps.
Sharpton
,
V.L.
, and
Grieve
,
R.A.F.
,
1990
,
Meteorite impact, cryptoexplosion, and shock metamorphism—A perspective on the evidence at the K/T boundary
, in
Sharpton
,
V.L.
, and
Ward
,
P.D.
, eds.,
Global Catastrophes in Earth History; An Interdisciplinary Conference on Impacts, Volcanism, and Mass Mortality
:
Geological Society of America Special
  Paper
247
, p.
301
318
, https://doi.org/10.1130/SPE247-p301.
Short
,
N.M.
,
1966
,
Shock processes in geology
:
Journal of Geological Education
 , v.
14
, p.
149
166
, https://doi.org/10.5408/0022-1368-XIV.4.149.
Shrock
,
R.R.
,
1937
,
Stratigraphy and structure of the area of disturbed rocks near Kentland, Indiana
:
American Midland Naturalist
 , v.
18
, p.
471
531
, https://doi.org/10.2307/2420651.
State of Indiana Department of Natural Resources, Division of Water
,
1990
,
Water resource availability in the Kankakee River Basin, Indiana
:
Indiana Department of Natural Resources Water Resource Assessment
 
90-3
,
247
p., https://www.in.gov/dnr/water/4108.htm (accessed August
2018
).
Stöffler
,
D.
,
1971
,
Progressive metamorphism, and classification of shocked and brecciated crystalline rocks at impact craters
:
Journal of Geophysical Research
 , v.
76
, p.
5541
5551
, https://doi.org/10.1029/JB076i023p05541.
Tudor
,
D.S.
,
1971
,
A geophysical study of the Kentland disturbed area [Ph.D. thesis]
:
Bloomington
,
Indiana University
,
111
p.
Voight
,
B.
,
1973
,
Clastic fluidization phenomena and the role of fluid pressure in mechanics of natural rock deformation [abs.]
:
Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs
  (
Northeastern Section 8th Annual Meeting
,
Allentown, Pennsylvania
), v.
5
, no.
2
, p.
233
. (Reprinted, p.
361
, in
Voight
,
B.
, ed.,
1976
,
Mechanics of Thrust Faults and Décollement, Benchmark Papers in Geology 32
:
Stroudsburg, Pennsylvania
,
Dowden, Hutchinson, and Ross
,
471
p.)
Voight
,
B.
,
Hoff
,
R.
,
Turner
,
A.
,
Neal
,
W.
,
Sandberg
,
C.A.
, and
Suttner
,
L.
,
2018
,
Raymond C. Gutschick—Hero of the Kentland impact structure investigations
, in
Florea
,
L.J.
, ed.,
Ancient Oceans, Orogenic Uplifts, and Glacial Ice: Geologic Crossroads in America’s Heartland
:
Geological Society of America Field Guide
 
51
, https://doi.org/10.1130/2018.0051(17)
Votaw
,
R.B.
,
1980
,
Middle Ordovician conodonts from the Kentland structure, Indiana
:
Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs
 , v.
12
, p.
259
.

Figures & Tables

Figure 1.

Geologic map of Kentland impact, based on quarry exposures, subsurface drilling, and rock core. Most subsurface information from Tudor (1971) and cores from Indiana Geological Survey drilling. Holes to bedrock shown by black circles. Figure after Gutschick (1983).

Figure 1.

Geologic map of Kentland impact, based on quarry exposures, subsurface drilling, and rock core. Most subsurface information from Tudor (1971) and cores from Indiana Geological Survey drilling. Holes to bedrock shown by black circles. Figure after Gutschick (1983).

Figure 2.

West-east geological section of Kentland impact illustrating faulted asymmetrical domal nature of the structure. See Figure 1 for line of section. Normal undisturbed stratigraphic sections are shown at east and west edges, for deep townsite water wells in Kentland and Goodland. Note the 2- and 4-mile gaps between these sections and the quarries. Shakopee Dolomite is the oldest rock exposed in the quarry so that well-site sections are projected to the top of the Shakopee to provide a reference for structural displacement. After Gutschick (1983).

Figure 2.

West-east geological section of Kentland impact illustrating faulted asymmetrical domal nature of the structure. See Figure 1 for line of section. Normal undisturbed stratigraphic sections are shown at east and west edges, for deep townsite water wells in Kentland and Goodland. Note the 2- and 4-mile gaps between these sections and the quarries. Shakopee Dolomite is the oldest rock exposed in the quarry so that well-site sections are projected to the top of the Shakopee to provide a reference for structural displacement. After Gutschick (1983).

Figure 3.

Stratigraphic section in Kentland Quarry illustrating groundwater aquifer and aquitard stratigraphy in relation to bolide impact features and processes. W—aquifers, M—monomict breccia, S—shattercones, U—unconformities, KQF—Kentland Quarry fault. Hydrology and strata thicknesses taken from Rupp (1989, 1991).

Figure 3.

Stratigraphic section in Kentland Quarry illustrating groundwater aquifer and aquitard stratigraphy in relation to bolide impact features and processes. W—aquifers, M—monomict breccia, S—shattercones, U—unconformities, KQF—Kentland Quarry fault. Hydrology and strata thicknesses taken from Rupp (1989, 1991).

Contents

References

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2018330
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R.C.
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R.H.
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,
J.A.
, eds.,
Field Trips in Midwestern Geology
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,
Geological Society of America, Indiana Geological Survey, and Indiana University Department of Geology
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138
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R.C.
,
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The Kentland dome, Indiana: A structural anomaly
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D.L.
, ed.,
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:
Boulder, Colorado
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3
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337
342
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Hubbert
,
M.K.
, and
Rubey
,
W.W.
,
1959
,
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:
Geological Society of America Bulletin
 , v.
70
, p.
115
166
, https://doi.org/10.1130/0016-7606(1959)70[11:ROFPIM]2.0.CO;2.
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Q.S.
,
1994
,
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:
Terre Haute, Indiana
,
Indiana State University
,
32
p.
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,
M.
, and
Van Der Voo
,
R.
,
1986
,
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The Journal of Geology
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713
723
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S.W.
, and
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,
C.H.
,
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,
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18
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143
181
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R.W.
,
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,
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U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report
  82-307,
29
p.
Laney
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R.T.
, and
Van Schmus
,
W.R.
,
1978
,
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,
Houston, Texas
, March 13–17,
1978
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:
New York
,
Pergamon Press
, p.
2609
2632
.
Melosh
,
H.J.
,
1977
,
Crater modification by gravity: A mechanical analysis of slumping
, in
Roddy
,
D.J.
,
Pepin
,
R.O.
, and
Merrill
,
R.B.
, eds.,
Impact and Explosion Cratering
:
New York
,
Pergamon Press
, p.
1245
1260
.
Melosh
,
H.J.
,
1979
,
Acoustic fluidization: A new geologic process?
:
Journal of Geophysical Research
 , v.
84
, p.
7513
7520
, https://doi.org/10.1029/JB084iB13p07513.
Melosh
,
H.J.
,
1982
,
A schematic model of crater modification by gravity
:
Journal of Geophysical Research
 , v.
87
, p.
371
380
, https://doi.org/10.1029/JB087iB01p00371.
Melosh
,
H.J.
,
1989
,
Impact Cratering: A Geologic Process
 :
New York
,
Oxford University Press
,
245
p.
Nasser
,
M.N.
, III
, and
Howe
,
R.C.
,
1993
,
Lack of Silurian conodont alteration, Kentland anomaly, Indiana [abs.]
:
Indiana Academy of Science presentation
 , 8 September
1993
,
Purdue University
.
Roddy
,
D.J.
,
1968
,
The Flynn Creek Crater, Tennessee
, in
French
,
B.M.
, and
Short
,
N.M.
, eds.,
Shock Metamorphism of Natural Materials: Proceedings of a conference, Greenbelt, Maryland, 1966
:
Baltimore
, Mono Book Corporation, p.
291
332
.
Roddy
,
D.J.
,
1976
,
High-explosive cratering analogs for bowl-shaped, central uplift, and multi- ringed impact craters:
Proceedings of the seventh Lunar Planetary Science Conference
:
New York
,
Pergamon Press
, p.
3027
3056
.
Rupp
,
J.A.
,
1989
,
Bedrock hydrostratigraphy of the Kankakee Basin, Indiana Geological Survey
,
Division of Water, Water Resource Assessment
 
90-3
,
17
p.
Rupp
,
J.A.
,
1991
,
Structure and Isopach Maps of the Paleozoic Rocks of Indiana
:
Indiana Geological Survey Report
 
48
,
106
p., 41 maps.
Sharpton
,
V.L.
, and
Grieve
,
R.A.F.
,
1990
,
Meteorite impact, cryptoexplosion, and shock metamorphism—A perspective on the evidence at the K/T boundary
, in
Sharpton
,
V.L.
, and
Ward
,
P.D.
, eds.,
Global Catastrophes in Earth History; An Interdisciplinary Conference on Impacts, Volcanism, and Mass Mortality
:
Geological Society of America Special
  Paper
247
, p.
301
318
, https://doi.org/10.1130/SPE247-p301.
Short
,
N.M.
,
1966
,
Shock processes in geology
:
Journal of Geological Education
 , v.
14
, p.
149
166
, https://doi.org/10.5408/0022-1368-XIV.4.149.
Shrock
,
R.R.
,
1937
,
Stratigraphy and structure of the area of disturbed rocks near Kentland, Indiana
:
American Midland Naturalist
 , v.
18
, p.
471
531
, https://doi.org/10.2307/2420651.
State of Indiana Department of Natural Resources, Division of Water
,
1990
,
Water resource availability in the Kankakee River Basin, Indiana
:
Indiana Department of Natural Resources Water Resource Assessment
 
90-3
,
247
p., https://www.in.gov/dnr/water/4108.htm (accessed August
2018
).
Stöffler
,
D.
,
1971
,
Progressive metamorphism, and classification of shocked and brecciated crystalline rocks at impact craters
:
Journal of Geophysical Research
 , v.
76
, p.
5541
5551
, https://doi.org/10.1029/JB076i023p05541.
Tudor
,
D.S.
,
1971
,
A geophysical study of the Kentland disturbed area [Ph.D. thesis]
:
Bloomington
,
Indiana University
,
111
p.
Voight
,
B.
,
1973
,
Clastic fluidization phenomena and the role of fluid pressure in mechanics of natural rock deformation [abs.]
:
Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs
  (
Northeastern Section 8th Annual Meeting
,
Allentown, Pennsylvania
), v.
5
, no.
2
, p.
233
. (Reprinted, p.
361
, in
Voight
,
B.
, ed.,
1976
,
Mechanics of Thrust Faults and Décollement, Benchmark Papers in Geology 32
:
Stroudsburg, Pennsylvania
,
Dowden, Hutchinson, and Ross
,
471
p.)
Voight
,
B.
,
Hoff
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R.H.
, and
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J.A.
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70
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166
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R.
,
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18
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,
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, March 13–17,
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,
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, p.
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R.B.
, eds.,
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84
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, III
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1993
,
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3027
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Rupp
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J.A.
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Bedrock hydrostratigraphy of the Kankakee Basin, Indiana Geological Survey
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Division of Water, Water Resource Assessment
 
90-3
,
17
p.
Rupp
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J.A.
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471
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State of Indiana Department of Natural Resources, Division of Water
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Allentown, Pennsylvania
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5
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2
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233
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361
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Dowden, Hutchinson, and Ross
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471
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Voight
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B.
,
Hoff
,
R.
,
Turner
,
A.
,
Neal
,
W.
,
Sandberg
,
C.A.
, and
Suttner
,
L.
,
2018
,
Raymond C. Gutschick—Hero of the Kentland impact structure investigations
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Florea
,
L.J.
, ed.,
Ancient Oceans, Orogenic Uplifts, and Glacial Ice: Geologic Crossroads in America’s Heartland
:
Geological Society of America Field Guide
 
51
, https://doi.org/10.1130/2018.0051(17)
Votaw
,
R.B.
,
1980
,
Middle Ordovician conodonts from the Kentland structure, Indiana
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Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs
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12
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259
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149
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,
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Northeastern Section 8th Annual Meeting
,
Allentown, Pennsylvania
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5
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2
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233
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361
, in
Voight
,
B.
, ed.,
1976
,
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:
Stroudsburg, Pennsylvania
,
Dowden, Hutchinson, and Ross
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471
p.)
Voight
,
B.
,
Hoff
,
R.
,
Turner
,
A.
,
Neal
,
W.
,
Sandberg
,
C.A.
, and
Suttner
,
L.
,
2018
,
Raymond C. Gutschick—Hero of the Kentland impact structure investigations
, in
Florea
,
L.J.
, ed.,
Ancient Oceans, Orogenic Uplifts, and Glacial Ice: Geologic Crossroads in America’s Heartland
:
Geological Society of America Field Guide
 
51
, https://doi.org/10.1130/2018.0051(17)
Votaw
,
R.B.
,
1980
,
Middle Ordovician conodonts from the Kentland structure, Indiana
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Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs
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12
, p.
259
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R.B.
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327
339
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,
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R.C.
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Geological Society of America, North-Central Section Meeting Guidebook
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2018330
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Gutschick
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R.C.
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Geological Society of America, North-Central Section Meeting Guidebook
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38
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2018330
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R.C.
,
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,
Geology of the Kentland dome structurally complex anomaly, northwestern Indiana
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R.H.
, and
Sunderman
,
J.A.
, eds.,
Field Trips in Midwestern Geology
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Bloomington, Indiana
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Geological Society of America, Indiana Geological Survey, and Indiana University Department of Geology
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1
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138
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R.C.
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The Kentland dome, Indiana: A structural anomaly
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, III
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471
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Northeastern Section 8th Annual Meeting
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Allentown, Pennsylvania
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5
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2
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361
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Voight
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, ed.,
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Mechanics of Thrust Faults and Décollement, Benchmark Papers in Geology 32
:
Stroudsburg, Pennsylvania
,
Dowden, Hutchinson, and Ross
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471
p.)
Voight
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B.
,
Hoff
,
R.
,
Turner
,
A.
,
Neal
,
W.
,
Sandberg
,
C.A.
, and
Suttner
,
L.
,
2018
,
Raymond C. Gutschick—Hero of the Kentland impact structure investigations
, in
Florea
,
L.J.
, ed.,
Ancient Oceans, Orogenic Uplifts, and Glacial Ice: Geologic Crossroads in America’s Heartland
:
Geological Society of America Field Guide
 
51
, https://doi.org/10.1130/2018.0051(17)
Votaw
,
R.B.
,
1980
,
Middle Ordovician conodonts from the Kentland structure, Indiana
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Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs
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12
, p.
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H.J.
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84
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7520
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H.J.
,
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,
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H.J.
,
1989
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Impact Cratering: A Geologic Process
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New York
,
Oxford University Press
,
245
p.
Nasser
,
M.N.
, III
, and
Howe
,
R.C.
,
1993
,
Lack of Silurian conodont alteration, Kentland anomaly, Indiana [abs.]
:
Indiana Academy of Science presentation
 , 8 September
1993
,
Purdue University
.
Roddy
,
D.J.
,
1968
,
The Flynn Creek Crater, Tennessee
, in
French
,
B.M.
, and
Short
,
N.M.
, eds.,
Shock Metamorphism of Natural Materials: Proceedings of a conference, Greenbelt, Maryland, 1966
:
Baltimore
, Mono Book Corporation, p.
291
332
.
Roddy
,
D.J.
,
1976
,
High-explosive cratering analogs for bowl-shaped, central uplift, and multi- ringed impact craters:
Proceedings of the seventh Lunar Planetary Science Conference
:
New York
,
Pergamon Press
, p.
3027
3056
.
Rupp
,
J.A.
,
1989
,
Bedrock hydrostratigraphy of the Kankakee Basin, Indiana Geological Survey
,
Division of Water, Water Resource Assessment
 
90-3
,
17
p.
Rupp
,
J.A.
,
1991
,
Structure and Isopach Maps of the Paleozoic Rocks of Indiana
:
Indiana Geological Survey Report
 
48
,
106
p., 41 maps.
Sharpton
,
V.L.
, and
Grieve
,
R.A.F.
,
1990
,
Meteorite impact, cryptoexplosion, and shock metamorphism—A perspective on the evidence at the K/T boundary
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Sharpton
,
V.L.
, and
Ward
,
P.D.
, eds.,
Global Catastrophes in Earth History; An Interdisciplinary Conference on Impacts, Volcanism, and Mass Mortality
:
Geological Society of America Special
  Paper
247
, p.
301
318
, https://doi.org/10.1130/SPE247-p301.
Short
,
N.M.
,
1966
,
Shock processes in geology
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Journal of Geological Education
 , v.
14
, p.
149
166
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Shrock
,
R.R.
,
1937
,
Stratigraphy and structure of the area of disturbed rocks near Kentland, Indiana
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American Midland Naturalist
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18
, p.
471
531
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State of Indiana Department of Natural Resources, Division of Water
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1990
,
Water resource availability in the Kankakee River Basin, Indiana
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Indiana Department of Natural Resources Water Resource Assessment
 
90-3
,
247
p., https://www.in.gov/dnr/water/4108.htm (accessed August
2018
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Stöffler
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D.
,
1971
,
Progressive metamorphism, and classification of shocked and brecciated crystalline rocks at impact craters
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76
, p.
5541
5551
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Tudor
,
D.S.
,
1971
,
A geophysical study of the Kentland disturbed area [Ph.D. thesis]
:
Bloomington
,
Indiana University
,
111
p.
Voight
,
B.
,
1973
,
Clastic fluidization phenomena and the role of fluid pressure in mechanics of natural rock deformation [abs.]
:
Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs
  (
Northeastern Section 8th Annual Meeting
,
Allentown, Pennsylvania
), v.
5
, no.
2
, p.
233
. (Reprinted, p.
361
, in
Voight
,
B.
, ed.,
1976
,
Mechanics of Thrust Faults and Décollement, Benchmark Papers in Geology 32
:
Stroudsburg, Pennsylvania
,
Dowden, Hutchinson, and Ross
,
471
p.)
Voight
,
B.
,
Hoff
,
R.
,
Turner
,
A.
,
Neal
,
W.
,
Sandberg
,
C.A.
, and
Suttner
,
L.
,
2018
,
Raymond C. Gutschick—Hero of the Kentland impact structure investigations
, in
Florea
,
L.J.
, ed.,
Ancient Oceans, Orogenic Uplifts, and Glacial Ice: Geologic Crossroads in America’s Heartland
:
Geological Society of America Field Guide
 
51
, https://doi.org/10.1130/2018.0051(17)
Votaw
,
R.B.
,
1980
,
Middle Ordovician conodonts from the Kentland structure, Indiana
:
Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs
 , v.
12
, p.
259
.

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R.B.
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Chicago
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University of Chicago Press
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508
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Baldwin
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R.B.
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1972
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The tsunami model of the origin of ring structures concentric with large lunar craters
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Physics of the Earth and Planetary Interiors
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6
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327
339
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P.H.
, and
Merrill
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R.B.
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New York
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Pergamon Press
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275
288
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R.L.
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Kreyenhagen
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K.N.
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M.H.
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186
p.
Boyer
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R.E.
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1953
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Bloomington
,
Indiana University
,
54
p.
Cohen
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A.J.
,
Bunch
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T.E.
, and
Reid
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A.M.
,
1961
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Coesite discoveries establish cryptovolcanics are fossil meteorite craters
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134
, p.
1624
1625
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Dietz
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R.S.
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Science
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105
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42
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R.A.
,
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Shatter cones (shock features) in astroblemes: 24th International Geological Congress
,
Montreal, Section
 
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112
118
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de Silva
,
S.L.
,
1994
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The Kentland Dome, Indiana: An astrobleme
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Geological Society of America North-Central Section Meeting Guidebook
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29
p.
Fink
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J.H.
,
Greeley
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R.
, and
Gault
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D.E.
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Impact cratering experiments in Bingham materials and the morphology of craters on Mars and Ganymede:
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Pergamon Press
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1666
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D.E.
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Quaide
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W.L.
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V.R.
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B.M.
, and
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