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Electrical anisotropy in the Earth is usually a scale effect, created by averaging over structures with a preferred orientation. Homogenization theory applied to typical geological structures can help to determine the range of values to be expected in electrically anisotropic formations. The staggered-grid finite-difference method for Maxwell’s equations can easily accommodate anisotropic regions, without a significant increase in computational load. A simple magnetotelluric model shows that, in elongated anisotropic structures, the tipper is no longer perpendicular to the strike direction; thus, the electric and magnetic polarizations are mixed.

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