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Corresponding author: e-mail, suwenchao@vip.gyig.ac.cn

Present address: 99 Linchengxi Road, Guanshanhu District, Guiyang 550081, China.

Abstract

The Dian-Qian-Gui “Golden Triangle” area of southwest China has the second-largest concentration of Carlin-type gold deposits in the world, containing more than 800 tonnes of Au (25.7 Moz). All of the deposits are located along long-lived, deep-penetrating crustal structures inherited from Devonian rifting of the Precambrian Yangtze craton. They are hosted in Cambrian to Middle Triassic platform carbonate, transitional, and siliciclastic rocks of the Youjiang basin, and locally in Late Permian diabase intrusions or volcaniclastic rocks. These deposits have many characteristics in common with Carlin-type gold deposits in Nevada, USA, including lithology of host rocks, alteration types, elemental associations, and occurrence of gold.

Our recent work has identified two episodes of gold mineralization in the Dian-Qian-Gui area that have distinct geologic settings, radiogenic and stable isotopes, and fluid inclusions. Gold deposits hosted in diabase intrusions along the southern margin of the Youjiang basin formed in the Middle-Late Triassic (232–212 Ma) and have low-salinity (~2 wt % NaCl equiv), high-temperature (~245°C) fluid inclusions with high-density CO2 that are similar to those in orogenic gold deposits. Sediment-hosted gold deposits along the northern margin of the Youjiang basin formed in the Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous (148–134 Ma) and have moderate salinity (~5 wt % NaCl equiv) and temperature (~210°C) fluid inclusions, with variable CO2, low Fe, and high As, Sb, and Au contents, based on microanalysis of fluid inclusions. Deposits on each margin contain gold-bearing arsenian pyrite and arsenopyrite that precipitated from H2S-rich fluids by sulfidation of Fe minerals in the host rocks. Oxygen and hydrogen isotopes indicate metamorphic fluid sources for deposits on both margins, but sulfur isotopes indicate different sources of reduced sulfur. The narrow range of high δ34S values for arsenian pyrite and arsenopyrite from districts along the southern margin of the Youjiang basin suggests derivation from a sedimentary source. Some of the deposits along the northern margin of the Youjiang basin have δ34S values near zero that permit a magmatic or sedimentary sulfur source, while others have high values indicative of a sedimentary source.

We propose a model in which metamorphic ore fluids were generated by regional metamorphism of sedimentary rocks during the Indosinian orogeny along the southern margin and the Yanshanian orogeny along the northern margin of the Youjiang basin. Metamorphic ore fluids were focused into reactivated basement-penetrating rift faults and flowed upward into structural highs in response to stress relaxation during each orogeny. Gold-bearing sulfides precipitated where the ore fluids reacted with carbonaceous and Fe-rich host rocks and mixed with variably exchanged meteoric ground water.

The pressure-temperature conditions and compositions of ore fluids are intermediate between those of the mesozonal orogenic and the shallow Carlin-type gold systems. The Chinese Carlin-type gold deposits may, therefore, represent a link between orogenic and Carlin-type gold deposits that formed during transitions between compressional and extensional environments.

Introduction

The Dian-Qian-Gui “Golden Triangle” area is located at the junction of Yunnan, Guizhou, and Guangxi provinces in southwest China (Fig. 1). It contains one of the largest concentrations of Carlin-type gold deposits, which are currently being sought and mined in the United States and China, in the world (Cline et al., 2005; Su et al., 2012). Gold deposits in the northern Dian-Qian-Gui area are hosted in Permian to Middle Triassic age platform carbonate, transitional, and siliciclastic rocks of the Youjiang basin situated along the southwest margin of the Precambrian Yangtze craton. Several deposits in the southern Dian-Qian-Gui area occur in Cambrian to Triassic siliciclastic rocks of the Youjiang basin and locally in Late Permian diabase intrusions or volcaniclastic rocks. The larger deposits in the northern Dian-Qian-Gui area are mainly hosted in Triassic domes or anticlines that are cored by Permian to Early Triassic carbonates and are overlain by Late Triassic turbidites. Although the ore deposits are strata-bound, they are localized by compressive shear zones (Zhang et al., 2003; Peters et al., 2007). Hu et al. (2002) and Peters et al. (2007) have summarized the features of sediment-hosted gold deposits in the Dian-Qian-Gui. The deposits have characteristics similar to Carlin-type gold deposits in Nevada, USA, and are notably enriched in As, Sb, Hg, and Tl. Typical characteristics include impure carbonate or calcareous and carbonaceous host rocks that contain disseminated arsenian pyrite and arsenopyrite. Gold occurs either as submicrometer-sized particles or invisibly as solid solution in As-rich rims of pyrite and arsenopyrite (Mao, 1991; Zhang et al., 2003; Su et al., 2008, 2012). Late stibnite, realgar, and orpiment fill fractures on the periphery of gold mineralization. Hydrothermal alteration caused decarbonatization, silicification, argillization, and sulfidation (Zhang et al., 2003; Su et al., 2008, 2009a, b, 2012; Su, 2009) similar to Carlin-type gold deposits in Nevada, USA (Hofstra et al., 1991; Arehart, 1996; Hofstra and Cline, 2000; Emsbo et al., 2003; Kesler et al., 2003; Cline et al., 2005).

Fig. 1.

Geologic map of the Dian-Qian-Gui region in southwestern China, showing the locations of Carlin-type gold, antimony, barite, lead-zinc, and tin-polymetallic deposits in the Youjiang basin. Basement-penetrating faults (dashed lines) are inferred from the mapped faults on the surface, alignments of Late Permian diabase intrusions, Tertiary-Quaternary fault-controlled basins, and aeromagnetic anomalies shown in Figure 3.

Fig. 1.

Geologic map of the Dian-Qian-Gui region in southwestern China, showing the locations of Carlin-type gold, antimony, barite, lead-zinc, and tin-polymetallic deposits in the Youjiang basin. Basement-penetrating faults (dashed lines) are inferred from the mapped faults on the surface, alignments of Late Permian diabase intrusions, Tertiary-Quaternary fault-controlled basins, and aeromagnetic anomalies shown in Figure 3.

The process of Carlin-type ore formation is fairly well understood. Sulfidation is recognized to be the most important mechanism of gold deposition, whereby gold and pyrite precipitated together from H2S-rich, Fe-poor fluids that reacted with Fe minerals in the host-rock package (Hofstra et al., 1991; Hofstra and Cline, 2000; Kesler et al., 2003; Cline et al., 2005; Su et al., 2008, 2009a, b, 2012; Su, 2009).

In this report, we present new geology and field observations together with radiogenic and stable isotopes and fluid inclusion data gathered during the last two decades in the Dian-Qian-Gui area that bear on the (1) tectonic history of the region, (2) geologic setting of the deposits, (3) geologic and geochemical characteristics of the deposits, (4) age constraints on the deposits, (5) chemistry and source of ore fluid components, (6) ore mineral precipitation mechanism, (7) similarities and differences between the Dian-Qian-Gui and Nevada deposits. A genetic model for Carlin-type gold deposits in the Dian-Qian-Gui area is proposed to explain the spatial associations of the districts and deposits with crustal-scale basement-penetrating faults.

Regional Geology

The Carlin-type gold deposits in the Dian-Qian-Gui area are restricted to the Youjiang basin (Fig. 1), which is bound to the northwest by the Mile-Shizong fault, to the northeast by the Ziyun-Yadu fault, and to the southeast by the Pingxiang-Nanning fault (Fig. 2A), which separates the basin from the Cathaysia block. The southwestern margin of the basin is separated from the North Vietnam terrane by the Babu suture zone in the Song Hien belt (Fig. 2A).

Fig. 2.

A. Generalized tectonic map of southwest China and North Vietnam (modified from Yang et al., 2012b), showing the distribution of the Emeishan basalts, Late Permian diabase intrusions in the Youjiang basin, Permian-Triassic granite plutons in the Song Hien belt of North Vietnam, and major faults in the Youjiang basin. The major NW- and NE-striking faults that controlled sedimentation in the Youjiang basin are marked. B. Simplified southwest-northeast cross sections from the Indochina block through the Youjiang basin to the Yangtze craton (modified from Du et al., 2013) summarizing the history of sedimentation, deformation, and magmatism. Inset shows the major tectonic units in southeast Asia (modified from Cai and Zhang, 2009). Abbreviations: ASRR = AilaoShan-Red River shear zone, BF = Youjiang fault, BO = Babu ophiolite, GFF = Guangnan-Funing fault, MSF = Mile-Shizong fault, NVB = North Vietnam block, PNF = Pingxiang-Nanning fault, ZYF = Ziyun-Yadu fault.

Fig. 2.

A. Generalized tectonic map of southwest China and North Vietnam (modified from Yang et al., 2012b), showing the distribution of the Emeishan basalts, Late Permian diabase intrusions in the Youjiang basin, Permian-Triassic granite plutons in the Song Hien belt of North Vietnam, and major faults in the Youjiang basin. The major NW- and NE-striking faults that controlled sedimentation in the Youjiang basin are marked. B. Simplified southwest-northeast cross sections from the Indochina block through the Youjiang basin to the Yangtze craton (modified from Du et al., 2013) summarizing the history of sedimentation, deformation, and magmatism. Inset shows the major tectonic units in southeast Asia (modified from Cai and Zhang, 2009). Abbreviations: ASRR = AilaoShan-Red River shear zone, BF = Youjiang fault, BO = Babu ophiolite, GFF = Guangnan-Funing fault, MSF = Mile-Shizong fault, NVB = North Vietnam block, PNF = Pingxiang-Nanning fault, ZYF = Ziyun-Yadu fault.

The Youjiang basin was produced by Devonian rifting of the southwest margin of the Precambrian Yangtze craton (Fig. 2). The rifting event produced a series of NW- and NE-striking high-angle basement-penetrating normal faults that controlled the orientation of subsequent sedimentation, deformation, and magmatism (Du et al., 2013; Lai et al., 2014). Subsequent to rifting and opening of the Ailaoshan-Song Ma branch of the Paleo-Tethys ocean (Yang et al., 2012a), a sequence of deep-water sedimentary rocks consisting of sandstone, siltstone, and shale, along with rift-related Permian diabase, was deposited in the southeastern part of the basin (Du et al., 2013). In the northwestern part of the basin, a sequence of shallow-water Permian platform carbonates interbedded with calcareous siltstone and sandstone and Permian Emeishan flood basalt was deposited (Wang et al., 1995). These rocks host many Carlin-type gold deposits in the Dian-Qian-Gui.

Following deposition on the passive margin, the Youjiang basin was deformed by two subduction-related tectonic events. In the southeastern part of the basin, subduction of the Pacific plate beneath the Eurasian plate during the Middle Permian caused NE-striking folding and faulting of the basin sequences and intensive felsic magmatism along the eastern margin of China (Li and Li, 2007); the trench was more than 600 km from the Carlin-type gold deposits in the Dian-Qian-Gui. In the southwestern part of the basin, subduction of the Ailaoshan-Song Ma branch of the Paleo-Tethys ocean beneath the Indochina block during the Early Permian led to development of arc magmatism along the Truong Son fold belt in Vietnam (Zaw et al., 2014). In the Youjiang basin, slab-pull extension driven by the southwestward-directed subduction (Lai et al., 2014) may have reopened the NW- and NE-striking basement structures, which are indicated by alignments of Late Permian diabase intrusions (Figs. 1, 2A) and aeromagnetic anomalies (Fig. 3), during the Late Permian. The diabase intrusions were coeval with the Emeishan mantle plume volcanism farther west (Fig. 2A). Continued southwest subduction along this margin eventually brought about the Indochina-South China collision (Indosinian orogeny) during the Late Permian to Middle Triassic (Zaw et al., 2014). The Indosinian orogeny thrust the Indochina block (Northeast Vietnam nappe) over the southwestern margin of the Youjiang basin (Lai et al., 2014) and caused emplacement of Triassic syncollisional granites and metamorphism along the border between Vietnam and Yunnan in China (Fig. 2A). Uplift and erosion of the Indosinian orogen shed voluminous Middle Triassic siliciclastic turbidites into the Youjiang basin (Cai and Zhang, 2009), which is supported by the provenance of detrital zircons in the turbidites (Yang et al., 2012a). The Middle Triassic turbidites also host Carlin-type gold deposits in the Dian-Qian-Gui.

Fig. 3.

A total aeromagnetic intensity map of the Dian-Qian-Gui area showing mafic and felsic plutons or dikes, the major faults, and the locations of Carlin-type gold, antimony, barite, lead-zinc, and tin-polymetallic deposits in the Youjiang basin. Most positive higher magnetic anomalies reflect the distribution of Emeishan flood basalt, diabase intrusions, and lamprophyre dikes. The deep granitic batholiths inferred from regional Bouguer gravity anomalies (black dashed circles; Mai, 1990) correspond to porphyry dikes (yellow star) and quartz porphyry dike outcrops.

Fig. 3.

A total aeromagnetic intensity map of the Dian-Qian-Gui area showing mafic and felsic plutons or dikes, the major faults, and the locations of Carlin-type gold, antimony, barite, lead-zinc, and tin-polymetallic deposits in the Youjiang basin. Most positive higher magnetic anomalies reflect the distribution of Emeishan flood basalt, diabase intrusions, and lamprophyre dikes. The deep granitic batholiths inferred from regional Bouguer gravity anomalies (black dashed circles; Mai, 1990) correspond to porphyry dikes (yellow star) and quartz porphyry dike outcrops.

During the Late Triassic-Early Jurassic, the Indochina-Sibumasu collision (Yanshanian orogeny) resulted in intracontinental deformation of the Youjiang basin (Cai and Zhang, 2009; Zaw et al., 2014). The Yanshanian orogeny produced a series of NW-striking folds and faults (Fig. 1) and reactivated rift-related normal basement structures as reverse faults that culminated upward in anticlines and domes (Fig. 2B). Following Cretaceous subduction of the Meso-Tethys oceanic plate beneath Sibumasu, extension may have caused emplacement of the Early Cretaceous (124 ± 4 Ma; zircon SHRIMP U-Pb) granitic porphyry dikes (Hao et al., 2014), quartz porphyry dikes (96 Ma; Chen et al., 2014), and lamprophyre dikes (88–85 Ma, 40Ar/39Ar date on phlogopite, Su, 2002; Zircon U-Pb, Liu et al., 2010) in the Youjiang basin (Fig. 1). Extension and dike emplacement are interpreted to be a late stage of the Yanshanian orogeny (Su et al., 2009b). These tectonic events contributed to formation of the Middle-Late Triassic gold deposits on the southern margin and the Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous gold deposits on the northern margin of the Youjiang basin (see “Age of Mineralization”).

Geology and Geochemistry of Carlin-Type Gold Deposits of the Dian-Qian-Gui Area

Carlin-type gold deposits in the Dian-Qian-Gui area were first recognized at Banqi in southwestern Guizhou in the early 1980s as a result of reconnaissance sampling of small Sb, As, and Hg deposits and occurrences. Extensive geologic investigation and exploration over the last three decades in the area have led to the discovery of more than 100 similar deposits and occurrences. Current proven total gold reserves amount to 800 metric tonnes (t) (25.7 Moz), with an average gold grade of 4 to 5 g/t (0.13–0.16 oz/t). The deposits occur in clusters around a series of NW-and NE-striking extensional faults (Fig. 1) produced by Devonian rifting. The largest deposits are strata-bound and are hosted in Permian bioclastic limestone interbedded with calcareous siltstone and sandstone on the northern margin of the Youjiang basin (e.g., Shuiyindong; Xie et al., 2018). Others are fault-controlled and occur along compressive shear zones in Middle to Lower Triassic sandstone, siltstone, and mudstone in the basin (e.g., Lannigou). Smaller deposits occur in Cambrian to Triassic siliciclastic rocks and locally in Late Permian diabase intrusions (e.g., Anna) or volcaniclastic rocks on the southern margin of the basin. Host rocks are typically decarbonatized, argillized, and variably silicified as well as sulfidized and enriched in gold (Su et al., 2009b; Hou et al., 2016; Xie et al., 2018).

Northern carbonate-hosted gold deposit

Carbonate-hosted gold deposits in the northern part of the Dian-Qian-Gui in Guizhou Province include Shuiyindong, Zimudang, Taipingdong, Getang, and Nibao (Fig. 1). They are hosted in Permian bioclastic limestone interbedded with calcareous siltstone and sandstone and occur in a broad cluster along an inferred deep-seated basement fault parallel to the Ziyun-Yadu fault (Fig. 1). Magnetotelluric surveys across the Ziyun-Yadu fault reveal that it is underlain by a SW-dipping high-angle structure that extends into the basement (Wang et al., 2013). This fault system is critical in that it served to localize multiple episodes of hydrothermal activity (Fig. 1), such as Devonian sedimentary exhalative (sedex) barite deposits (Gao and Yang, 2015) and Early Jurassic Mississippi Valley-type (MVT) Zn-Pb deposits (Zhou et al., 2013).

Shuiyindong (Fig. 4) is the largest carbonate-hosted gold deposit in the Dian-Qian-Gui area. Recent exploration and underground mining has proven gold reserves of 263 t (8.5 Moz) with an average gold grade of 5 g/t (0.16 oz/t). It lies on the eastern part of Huijiabao anticline (Fig. 4A), which also has two deposits on its western part, including Zimudang (~2.6 Moz Au) and Taipingdong. Most orebodies are strata-bound and are hosted in Permian bioclastic limestone in the core of the anticline. The geology of the deposit was described in detail by Su et al. (2008, 2009b), Hou et al. (2016), and Xie et al. (2018).

Fig. 4.

Simplified geologic plan (A) and cross section (B) of the Shuiyindong carbonate-hosted gold deposit in Guizhou Province (modified from Tan et al., 2015a). The distribution of gold orebodies and related As anomalies at Shuiyindong suggests that fluids moved laterally along the unconformity, upward along axial plane fractures, and outward into permeable reactive strata.

Fig. 4.

Simplified geologic plan (A) and cross section (B) of the Shuiyindong carbonate-hosted gold deposit in Guizhou Province (modified from Tan et al., 2015a). The distribution of gold orebodies and related As anomalies at Shuiyindong suggests that fluids moved laterally along the unconformity, upward along axial plane fractures, and outward into permeable reactive strata.

Sedimentary rocks in the Shuiyindong district consist of bioclastic limestone, siltstone, and argillite of Permian and Triassic age (Liu, 2003). These rocks are exposed along the axis of the nearly E-trending Huijiabao anticline with a known length of about 20 km. The anticline plunges eastward into the basin and is cut by two mineralized reverse faults that strike east-west and dip to the north and south, respectively. Drilling and seismic surveys show that the reverse faults sole into the unconformity at the top of the Permian Maokou limestone (Wang et al., 2011) and intersect high-angle deep-seated basement faults, which are thought to have been the conduits for ore fluids. A series of nearly NS-trending normal faults cut the reverse faults that served to localize the Lanmuchang mercury-thallium deposit (Fig. 4A).

Gold mineralization is preferentially disseminated in bio-clastic limestone and calcareous siltstone of the second and third units of the Upper Permian Longtan Formation (Fig. 4B) at depths of 100 to 1,400 m below the surface. The discontinuous tabular orebodies conform to bioclastic limestone bodies within the host rocks, whereas the large orebodies are localized at structural highs along the hinge zone of the anticline. The distribution of gold ore and related As anomalies (Fig. 4B) as well as Sb, Hg, and Tl anomalies (Tan et al., 2015a) suggests that the ore fluids moved laterally along the unconformity, upward along axial plane fractures, and outward into permeable reactive strata. Lower-grade orebodies are hosted in silicified and brecciated argillite and limestone, at the unconformity between the Middle Permian Maokou massive limestone and the first unit of the Longtan Formation (Fig. 4B), and in reverse faults containing realgar and orpiment.

Wall-rock alteration studies at Shuiyindong have identified decarbonatization, silicification, sulfidation, and dolomitization (Su et al., 2009b, 2012; Cline et al., 2013; Xie et al., 2018). The intensity of alteration around the ore zones varies. The most important and consistent alteration type is dissolution of ferroan calcite and locally ferroan dolomite in the host rocks with partial replacement by Fe-poor dolomite (Fig. 5A) or fine-grained quartz to form jasperoid (Fig. 5C).

Fig. 5.

Examples of ores from Shuiyindong. A. Electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) backscattered electron (BSE) image showing ferroan dolomite partially replaced by Fe-poor dolomite, gold-bearing arsenian pyrite, and arsenopyrite. B. BSE image of unzoned arsenian pyrite with illite and jasperoidal quartz that replaced biodetritus or fossils. C. BSE image of unzoned arsenian pyrite enclosed within jasperoidal quartz intergrown with ferroan calcite D. BSE image of zoned arsenian pyrite in siltstone-hosted ores showing As-rich rim on As-poor pyrite core. E. BSE image of a microveinlet of arsenian pyrite. F. BSE image of a microveinlet of arsenian pyrite inset (E) showing a native gold grain usually present at the edge of As-poor pyrite. Abbreviations: Asp = arsenopyrite, As-py = arsenian pyrite, Dol = dolomite, Fe-cal = ferroan calcite, Fe-dol = ferroan dolomite, ill = illite, Py = pyrite, Qz = quartz.

Fig. 5.

Examples of ores from Shuiyindong. A. Electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) backscattered electron (BSE) image showing ferroan dolomite partially replaced by Fe-poor dolomite, gold-bearing arsenian pyrite, and arsenopyrite. B. BSE image of unzoned arsenian pyrite with illite and jasperoidal quartz that replaced biodetritus or fossils. C. BSE image of unzoned arsenian pyrite enclosed within jasperoidal quartz intergrown with ferroan calcite D. BSE image of zoned arsenian pyrite in siltstone-hosted ores showing As-rich rim on As-poor pyrite core. E. BSE image of a microveinlet of arsenian pyrite. F. BSE image of a microveinlet of arsenian pyrite inset (E) showing a native gold grain usually present at the edge of As-poor pyrite. Abbreviations: Asp = arsenopyrite, As-py = arsenian pyrite, Dol = dolomite, Fe-cal = ferroan calcite, Fe-dol = ferroan dolomite, ill = illite, Py = pyrite, Qz = quartz.

Iron sulfides at Shuiyindong consist mainly of arsenian pyrite and small amounts of arsenopyrite (~1 wt %; Liu, 2003). Arsenian pyrite is the main host mineral for gold (Liu, 2003), with 400 to 4,000 ppm Au and 3.37 to 14.1 wt % As measured by electron probe microanalysis (EPMA; Su et al., 2008, 2012). Arsenopyrite crystals that occur on arsenian pyrite (Fig. 5A) typically are small (10–20 μm), acicular or lath shaped, and contain up to 1,500 ppm Au (EPMA; Su et al., 2012). New laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) analyses confirm that fine-grained arsenopyrite of the main stage contains variable Au (157–1,420 ppm; Dong, 2017), whereas coarse arsenopyrite has much lower Au (0.1–0.5 ppm; Hou et al., 2016). Modal analyses showed that the dominant form of gold occurs as invisible gold in iron sulfides (~95%), with subordinate free native gold (~5%; Liu, 2003).

Su et al. (2012) described pyrite morphologies, textures, trace element concentrations, and relationships to other minerals in ores at Shuiyindong using optical microscopy and EPMA and divided arsenian pyrite into four types: (1) bioclastic texture with unzoned arsenian pyrite (Fig. 5B), (2) disseminated texture with unzoned arsenian pyrite (Fig. 5C), (3) As-rich overgrowth texture on As-poor pyrite core (Fig. 5D), and (4) arsenian pyrite microveinlets (Fig. 5E). The bioclastic texture is characterized by replacement of biodetritus or fossils by aggregates of small (<10 μm), commonly unzoned arsenian pyrite with illite and jasperoid, which retain their morphological characteristics (Fig. 5B). These unzoned arsenian pyrites contain nearly constant Au (1,030–1,990 ppm) and As (5.34–6.40 wt %). The disseminated texture is most common in the host-rock matrix. Most pyrites with this texture consist of small (<10 μm), unzoned arsenian pyrites enclosed within jasperoidal quartz (Fig. 5C). These unzoned arsenian pyrites have variable Au (400–3,800 ppm) and As (3.37–13.5 wt %). Zoned arsenian pyrite occurs in siltstone that consists of an As-rich rim on an As-poor core (Fig. 5D). EPMA of the rim shows that it contains variable Au (800–4,000 ppm) and As (5.02–14.1 wt %) contents that are consistent with ranges of Au contents (625–4,071 ppm) and As (1.62–15.12 wt %) determined by LA-ICP-MS (Dong, 2017). The pyrite core commonly has a porous appearance and contains much less As (0.24–1.62 wt %) and Au (0.3–13 ppm). Arsenian pyrite microveinlets (Fig. 5E) containing 0.1- to 6-μm grains of native gold have only been found in high-grade ores (>50 ppm Au; Su et al., 2008). The native gold grains are usually present at the edge of As-poor pyrite (Fig. 5F) or at the interface between As-rich rims and As-poor cores of pyrite (Su et al., 2012).

The mineral paragenesis (Fig. 6) includes preore minerals such as ferroan calcite and dolomite, detrital quartz, and trace muscovite, kaolinite, apatite, rutile, disseminated cubic and framboidal pyrite, and coarse arsenopyrite that were likely incorporated into the host rocks during sedimentation and/or diagenesis. Ore-related minerals are divided into three stages according to crosscutting relations and mineral assemblages (Hofstra et al., 2005; Su et al., 2009b).

Fig. 6.

Generalized alteration and ore mineral paragenesis in the Shuiyindong and Lannigou (Jinfeng) gold deposits in the Dian-Qian-Gui area.

Fig. 6.

Generalized alteration and ore mineral paragenesis in the Shuiyindong and Lannigou (Jinfeng) gold deposits in the Dian-Qian-Gui area.

The early-stage minerals consist of barren milky quartz veins. Some of the milky quartz veins observed in the deposit occupy horizontal partings in the strata-bound ore zones (e.g., Su et al., 2009b, fig. 3A). These quartz veins may have formed from ore fluids that permeated into and deposited gold in the wall rocks. LA-ICP-MS microanalyses of primary aqueous ± carbonic fluid inclusions in the milky quartz contain As, Sb, and up to 6 ppm Au (Su et al., 2009b), which strongly suggests that they are trapped ore-forming fluids.

The main-stage minerals produced predominantly by fluid-rock reactions include jasperoidal quartz, dolomite, calcite, illite, arsenian pyrite, arsenopyrite, and minor native gold (Fig. 6). Ore-forming fluids reacted with ferroan calcite and dolomite, released Fe, and were sulfidized to form arsenian pyrite and arsenopyrite with Fe-poor dolomite. This reaction is evidenced by many small relict inclusions of ferroan calcite and arsenian pyrite in jasperoid (Fig. 5C) and arsenian pyrite and arsenopyrite enclosed within Fe-poor dolomite (Fig. 5A).

The late-stage minerals include realgar, orpiment, stibnite, vein calcite and dolomite, and vein quartz (Fig. 6), which commonly fill fractures and locally cement brecciated limestone (Hou et al., 2016). They formed as the hydrothermal system collapsed and cooled (Cline et al., 2005). The late-stage calcite and dolomite veins commonly contain orpiment or realgar and generally have δ13C values that are similar to the carbonate host rocks (Tan et al., 2015b), suggesting that they formed from CO2 released by decarbonatization. These carbonate veins contain higher concentrations of Sm (0.2–3.9 ppm) and Nd (0.5–14.5 ppm) and have middle rare earth element (MREE)-enriched patterns that are distinct from the regional preore calcite veins that have light rare earth element (LREE)-enriched patterns (Su, 2009). Such late-stage carbonate veins were used for Sm-Nd dating of decarbonatization (Su et al., 2009a).

Northern siliciclastic/fault-hosted gold deposit

The fault-hosted gold deposits on the northern margin of the basin also were localized by basement faults (Fig. 1) and occur along compressive shear zones in Middle to Lower Triassic sandstone, siltstone, and mudstone. Important deposits include Lannigou (also known as Jinfeng) and Yata in the Guizhou Province and Jinya in the Guangxi Province.

Lannigou (Fig. 7) is the largest fault-hosted Carlin-type gold deposit to date in the Dian-Qian-Gui area. It was found in 1987 as a result of reconnaissance sampling of the old cinnabar and realgar adits. The ore is almost entirely fault controlled, and little ore is disseminated in the adjacent host rocks (Ilchik et al., 2005). Recent open-pit and underground mines have proven gold reserves of 109 t (3.5 Moz), with an average gold grade of 3.83 g/t (0.12 oz/t) (Eldorado Gold Corp., 2016). The geology of the deposit was described in detail by Zhang et al. (2003), Ilchik et al. (2005), Peters et al. (2007), Chen et al. (2011), and Xie et al. (2018). The main features of the deposit are summarized below.

Fig. 7.

Simplified geologic plan (A) and cross section (B) of Lannigou (Jingfeng) siliciclastic/fault-hosted gold deposit in the Guizhou Province (modified from Ilchik et al., 2005).

Fig. 7.

Simplified geologic plan (A) and cross section (B) of Lannigou (Jingfeng) siliciclastic/fault-hosted gold deposit in the Guizhou Province (modified from Ilchik et al., 2005).

Lannigou lies on the eastern flank of NNE-trending Laizhishan anticline (Fig. 7A). The core of the anticline is composed of Carboniferous-Permian platform carbonates and is covered by Middle Triassic turbidites that are cut by high-angle NW-striking thrust faults on the eastern flank. The orebodies occur as veins and lenses hosted in compressive shear zones (Fig. 7B). The larger orebodies occur in dilation zones at the intersection of NW- and NE-striking faults (Fig. 7A).

Host rocks in the Lannigou district are composed of Middle Triassic calcareous sandstone and mudstone of Bianyang and Xuman Formations that contain accessory carbonaceous material, diagenetic pyrite, and carbonate cement (Cline et al., 2013). Northeast-southwest compression produced a complex series of gentle to tight folds and thrust faults that are thought to have focused fluid flow (Ilchik et al., 2005). Gold mineralization is preferentially disseminated in altered carbonate- and clay-rich fine sand facies in turbidites at intersections with high-angle thrust faults (Ilchik et al., 2005).

Despite the strong structural control, the wall-rock alteration and mineral paragenesis (Fig. 6) identified at Lannigou is similar to that at Shuiyindong. Alteration includes decarbonatization, silicification, argillization (illite), dolomitization, and sulfidation (Zhang et al., 2003, Ilchik et al., 2005, Peters et al., 2007; Cline et al., 2013). Ferroan dolomite cements in turbidites (Fig. 8D) and veins (Fig. 8A, B) that formed during a preore hydrothermal event are commonly replaced by quartz and followed by deposition of illite and arsenian pyrite on quartz (Fig. 8C).

Fig. 8.

Examples of ores from the Lannigou. Polarized light (A) and reflected light (B) photomicrograph of ore showing arsenian pyrite (As-py) and illite (ill) replaced ferroan dolomite (Fe-dol) in a quartz (Qz)-dolomite veinlet. C. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) image of marked area in (B) showing arsenian pyrite and illite replaced ferroan dolomite. D. SEM image of ore in siltstone showing As-rich rim on As-poor pyrite core.

Fig. 8.

Examples of ores from the Lannigou. Polarized light (A) and reflected light (B) photomicrograph of ore showing arsenian pyrite (As-py) and illite (ill) replaced ferroan dolomite (Fe-dol) in a quartz (Qz)-dolomite veinlet. C. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) image of marked area in (B) showing arsenian pyrite and illite replaced ferroan dolomite. D. SEM image of ore in siltstone showing As-rich rim on As-poor pyrite core.

Iron sulfides consist mainly of arsenian pyrite with lesser amounts of arsenopyrite (Chen et al., 2015). Arsenian pyrite is the main host mineral for invisible gold (Fig. 8C, D). EPMA results (Zhang, 1997) showed that the rims contain variable amounts of Au (300–1,200 ppm) and As (3.89–16.03 wt %). LA-ICP-MS analyses of the rims of pyrite yielded variable Au (130–990 ppm) and As (3.2–8.6 wt %) with elevated concentrations of Sb and Tl, whereas the pyrite cores have much lower Au (0.2–2 ppm) and As (0.91–1.78 wt %) (Zhao, 2014). Late-stage minerals include quartz, calcite, dolomite, stibnite, cinnabar, realgar, and orpiment (Fig. 6) that fill fractures on the periphery of ore.

Southern diabase-hosted gold deposit

Mineralized igneous rocks are restricted to the southern margin of the basin (Fig. 1). Gold ore is hosted in altered diabase intrusions (e.g., Anna and Badu deposits) and adjacent sedimentary rocks (e.g., Zhesang and Laozhaiwan deposits). The diabase dikes and sills are composed of plagioclase, clinopyroxene, minor apatite, ilmenite, and magnetite and were emplaced into Devonian and Carboniferous sedimentary rocks. They are Permian in age (260 ± 3 Ma; zircon U-Pb; Zhou et al., 2006) and are thought be a distal manifestation of the Emeishan mantle plume to the west (Fig. 2A). Gold mineralization occurs at the intersection of faults and the diabase intrusions.

Anna (Fig. 9) is the largest diabase-hosted gold deposit (estimated 0.32 Moz with avg gold grade of 0.03 oz/t; Cun et al., 2011) in the Dian-Qian-Gui area. Diabase was emplaced along the axial fault of the EW-trending Anna anticline (Fig. 9A). The sedimentary rocks that crop out in the district consist of Devonian shale, sandstone, and chert intercalated with limestone. Adjacent to the diabase intrusions, these rocks were metamorphosed to hornfels. The flanks of the anticline are cut by two EW-striking reverse faults (Cun et al., 2011). Lens-shaped orebodies occur at the contact between diabase and chert and within altered diabase (Fig. 9B) along with abundant barren milky quartz veins (Fig. 10A). Most ores are oxidized by weathering, but unoxidized ore contains disseminated arsenian pyrite and arsenopyrite.

Fig. 9.

Simplified geologic plan (A) and cross section showing drill holes (B) in Anna diabase-hosted gold deposit in Yunnan Province (modified from Hualian Gold Mine, unpub. report, 2012).

Fig. 9.

Simplified geologic plan (A) and cross section showing drill holes (B) in Anna diabase-hosted gold deposit in Yunnan Province (modified from Hualian Gold Mine, unpub. report, 2012).

Fig. 10.

Examples of ores from the Anna gold deposit. A. Field photograph showing milky quartz veins and altered diabase ore. B. Polarized light photomicrograph of ore showing arsenopyrite concentrated within a quartz veinlet and disseminated in groundmass. C. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) image of marked area in (B) showing arsenopyrite, arsenian pyrite, and illite that occur around rutile grains in altered diabase. D. SEM image showing arsenopyrite and illite within a quartz-dolomite veinlet. Abbreviations: Asp = arsenopyrite, As-py = arsenian pyrite, Dol = dolomite, ill = illite, Qz = quartz, Rt = rutile.

Fig. 10.

Examples of ores from the Anna gold deposit. A. Field photograph showing milky quartz veins and altered diabase ore. B. Polarized light photomicrograph of ore showing arsenopyrite concentrated within a quartz veinlet and disseminated in groundmass. C. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) image of marked area in (B) showing arsenopyrite, arsenian pyrite, and illite that occur around rutile grains in altered diabase. D. SEM image showing arsenopyrite and illite within a quartz-dolomite veinlet. Abbreviations: Asp = arsenopyrite, As-py = arsenian pyrite, Dol = dolomite, ill = illite, Qz = quartz, Rt = rutile.

Wall-rock alteration identified in this study includes silicification, argillization (illite), dolomitization, and sulfidation. Primary clinopyroxene in the diabase was commonly altered by ore fluids to illite and rutile; ilmenite was altered to rutile. Arsenian pyrite and arsenopyrite with illite occur around rutile grains and as disseminations in the groundmass (Fig. 10B). Arsenopyrite also occurs in quartz-dolomite veinlets (Fig. 10B, D). The absence of overgrowth or replacement textures between arsenian pyrite and arsenopyrite is suggestive of coprecipitation.

Iron sulfides observed in the unoxidized ore at the Anna deposit consist mainly of arsenopyrite and small amounts of arsenian pyrite. Gold is invisible and resides in arsenian pyrite and arsenopyrite. New LA-ICP-MS analyses of arsenopyrite show much lower concentrations of Au (1–123 ppm; Dong, 2017) but higher concentrations of Sb (74–1,480 ppm), Co (5–1,313 ppm), and Ni (13–1,608 ppm), while arsenian pyrite contains variable As (0.04–4.62 wt %) and much lower Au (1–37 ppm) as measured by LA-ICP-MS. Visible grains of native gold are commonly present in supergene limonite or hematite pseudomorphs of arsenian pyrite and arsenopyrite.

Late ore minerals include quartz, calcite, dolomite, minor stibnite, galena, and sphalerite (Fig. 11). Other minerals such as realgar and orpiment are absent in the Anna district. These minerals, however, commonly occur in adjacent sedimentary rocks at the neighboring Badu and Zhesang deposits.

Fig. 11.

Generalized alteration and ore mineral paragenesis in the Anna gold deposits on the southern margin of the Youjiang basin.

Fig. 11.

Generalized alteration and ore mineral paragenesis in the Anna gold deposits on the southern margin of the Youjiang basin.

Age of Mineralization

The age of Carlin-type gold deposits in the Dian-Qian-Gui area has been the subject of considerable debate. Direct dating of these deposits has been problematic. It is complicated by the fine-grained nature of ores and alteration minerals and by the lack of minerals clearly associated with gold deposition that are suitable for isotopic dating (Arehart et al., 2003). Field observations from the northern margin of the Youjiang basin indicate that the ore zones are commonly controlled by brittle fault systems that cut the Late Triassic turbidites on the flanks of anticlines or domes (e.g., Lannigou). In addition, there is a remnant exposure of Jurassic sedimentary rocks in a small area near the Shuiyindong and the Lannigou districts that was conformable to and folded together with the Late Triassic rocks (Wang, 1997). In the Guangxi Province, mineralized faults are cut by 96 Ma quartz porphyry dikes (e.g., Liaotun; Chen et al., 2014). These crosscutting relationships constrain the age of gold deposits along the northern margin of the Youjiang basin to an interval between the Jurassic folds and Late Cretaceous intrusions.

Several attempts have been made to directly date the sediment-hosted gold deposits in the Dian-Qian-Gui area; however, we find that these ages have inherent problems. On the northern margin of the basin, three deposits yielded a 42 m.y. range of Middle Triassic to Early Jurassic Re-Os ages: Shuiyindong coarse arsenopyrite at 235 ± 33 Ma, Jinya arsenopyrite at 206 ± 22 Ma, and Lannigou arsenopyrite at 204 ± 19 Ma and pyrite at 193 ± 13 Ma (Chen et al., 2007, 2009, 2015; Liu et al., 2014). However, the reported Re-Os isochron ages may be significantly older than gold mineralization, if they contain mixtures of diagenetic (or preore) and ore-stage pyrite or arsenopyrite. In these deposits, diagenetic pyrite generally is mantled by gold-bearing arsenian pyrite (Su et al., 2012), which makes them difficult to separate. New LA-ICP-MS analyses on coarse arsenopyrite from the Shuiyindong show they have much lower concentrations of gold (0.1–0.5 ppm; Hou et al., 2016) and may be preore, whereas the gold-bearing arsenopyrites that occur in tiny acicular crystals on arsenian pyrite (Fig. 5A, D) were not dated, because they are very difficult to separate.

An 40Ar/39Ar age of 195 ± 2 Ma on sericite separated from mineralized sedimentary rocks at Lannigou has been interpreted as the age of gold mineralization (Chen et al., 2009). However, the reported 40Ar/39Ar total gas age on sericite is not reliable, because it has a highly irregular age spectrum with no plateau (Chen et al., 2009), which may reflect incompletely reset detrital muscovite and mixtures with hydrothermal illite of the main stage (Fig. 8D; Hofstra et al., 1999).

The Sm-Nd method was applied to late-stage calcite-dolomite-realgar-orpiment veins from a cluster of gold deposits and an antimony vein deposit along the northern margin of the basin (Fig. 1). They yielded a 14 m.y. range of Late Jurassic to Early Cretaceous ages: Shuiyindong vein calcite at 136 ± 3 to 134 ± 3 Ma (Su et al., 2009a); Zimudang vein calcite at 148 ± 5 Ma (Wang, 2013), and Qinglong antimony deposit vein fluorite-stibnite at 148 ± 9 to 141 ± 20 Ma (Peng et al., 2003; Wang, 2013). These ages are interpreted to be the record age of decarbonatization and gold mineralization, as the vein calcite is a product of decarbonatization, and gold mineralization accompanied decarbonatization (Su et al., 2009a). These Sm-Nd ages fall within the interval bracketed by the Jurassic fold and Late Cretaceous intrusion. The Cretaceous dates are within the Yanshanian orogeny (205–65 Ma) that affected the northern margin of the Youjiang basin.

On the southern margin of the Youjiang basin (Fig. 1), two gold deposits containing illite and gold-bearing arsenian pyrite and arsenopyrite in altered diabase ores (Fig. 10C, D) yielded a 20 m.y. range of Middle to Late Triassic ages: Anna deposit illite yielded an 40Ar/39Ar age of 232 ± 5 Ma (Dong, 2017), and Zhesang deposit gold-bearing arsenian pyrite and arsenopyrite yielded an Rb-Sr age of 212 ± 9 Ma (Dong, 2017) and an illite 40Ar/39Ar age of 215 ± 2 Ma (Pi et al., 2016). Similar gold deposits in the Song Hien belt along the border between Vietnam and Yunnan in China yielded Late Triassic ages: sediment-hosted Khung Khoang and diabase-hosted Hat Han deposits yielded sericite 40Ar/39Ar ages of 212 ± 2 and 209 ± 2 Ma, respectively (Nevolko et al., 2017). These ages overlap the end of the Indosinian orogeny (257–205 Ma) located on the southern margin of the basin.

In summary, gold deposits in the Dian-Qian-Gui area probably formed at two different times during two different orogenies. The gold and antimony deposits along the northern margin of the Youjiang basin formed during the late stages of the Yanshanian orogeny, whereas the gold deposits on the southern margin of the basin formed during the Indosinian orogeny. However, more accurate dates on ore-stage minerals from more deposits are needed to refine the time-space distribution of gold mineralization in the Youjiang basin.

Lithogeochemistry

Lithogeochemical studies of the ores and barren host rocks provide important information on the elemental gains and losses resulting from alteration and mineralization (Hofstra and Cline, 2000). Mass transfer studies have been conducted on several deposits in Nevada (Hofstra, 1994; Stenger et al., 1998; Cail and Cline, 2001; Emsbo et al., 2003; Kesler et al., 2003; Yigit and Hofstra, 2003; Hofstra et al., 2011) and show fairly consistent patterns of elemental flux into and out of deposits during ore formation (Hofstra and Cline, 2000; Cline et al., 2005).

We use the same method combined with petrographic observations to evaluate mass transfer in the Shuiyindong carbonate- and siltstone-hosted ores and in the Anna and Badu diabase-hosted deposits. Mineralized and barren host-rock samples were collected from drill cores and adits. All analyses were done by ALS Chemex Laboratory, Guangzhou, China, using fire assay-atomic absorption (FA-AA) for gold, lithium metaborate fusion-X-ray fluorescence (XRF) for major elements, Leco furnace for total sulfur and carbon, and ICP-MS for trace elements. The results are given in Table 1, and isocon diagrams for mass flux are presented in Figure 12.

Table 1.

Major and Trace Element Compositions of Ores and Barren Host Rocks from Shuiyindong, Anna, and Badu Gold Deposits

Sample no.Ore/host rockAu (ppm)As (ppm)Sb (ppm)Hg (ppm)Tl (ppm)Ba (ppm)Cu (ppm)Pb (ppm)Zn (ppm)Co (ppm)S (wt %)C (wt %)SiO2 (wt %)Al2O3 (wt %)Fe2O3 (wt %)CaO (wt %)MgO (wt %)Na2O (wt %)K2O (wt %)P2O5 (wt %)TiO2 (wt %)MnO (wt %)LOI (wt %)Total
Shuiyindong carbonate-hosted ore
PDI-1-18Ore6.344,230741241451312.210.018.880.446.4225.7014.500.010.070.050.060.3333.0099.52
PDI-1-20 6.814,51025101100918512211.36.718.967.8517.7517.169.830.041.600.311.570.3524.0099.54
IIIa-02 1.4634,1005115<1216<5<5813619.35.18.565.7236.6211.985.150.091.180.550.980.7026.8698.53
IIIb-01 7.792432<13015<51930.811.88.881.016.2426.8615.40<0.010.170.060.160.4637.5096.85
720-45 48.64,600941251452811.810.314.910.695.1125.8415.810.010.120.060.130.3335.4398.45
IIIa-01 224,89013617942<556212.58.230.073.709.1920.569.610.060.660.310.660.5024.0399.42
PDI-1-9 441,1401331172351310.96.745.080.252.9116.209.670.010.050.060.030.2321.5096.00
PDI-1-15 43.91,490153112195611.19.721.630.213.6223.1114.250.010.040.090.020.2332.7095.93
PDI-1-16 21.41,1909211355711.08.038.420.143.2018.7011.500.010.030.200.020.1725.9098.31
002-33 12.41,4201641662831192.45.155.682.005.5512.917.320.010.400.250.380.2913.9298.75
002-34 9.191,080113<18119428102.86.144.872.078.5815.627.78<0.010.440.110.340.4017.2297.50
PD1-1-8 20.31,04010615125<55043.44.263.171.736.467.443.770.010.380.040.280.1611.6595.17
PD1-1-11 26.81,1409512230<54232.03.380.490.963.143.772.190.010.220.090.100.087.8899.04
PD1-1-12 16.7560852<1912<5710.510.816.820.143.2525.8514.73<0.010.020.050.020.2637.0098.20
PD1-1-13 572,76012311040<5611.810.715.850.124.7825.6114.52<0.010.020.090.010.2734.1695.48
PD1-1-14 33.81,67072<11129<51211.19.625.750.143.7222.2413.68<0.010.020.030.010.2531.1097.00
PD1-1-17 20.93,55018511365822.711.113.680.126.3126.7716.72<0.010.020.050.010.2834.6298.65
AverageLimestone0.0197120.237519170.5 12.600.471.9742.303.230.100.090.090.050.1138.4099.90
Shuiyindong siltstone-hosted ore
002-20Ore0.186,31050623681076165366.93.244.1814.2311.565.002.160.232.890.352.690.1113.6597.14
002-23 0.6931939142332406116267.26.638.1412.9312.416.372.540.082.930.192.470.1720.5098.82
002-25 0.276,5704710241410981464010.94.434.8013.3016.945.442.240.112.960.253.140.1419.1098.51
002-28 0.312,67046102418815152366.06.729.9312.3112.979.844.230.072.780.252.180.2721.0095.94
002-29 0.497,560381234591167137527.81.637.0214.7212.593.741.770.113.250.633.350.0520.9098.23
002-62 0.192,1704452189601377368.68.131.498.8012.559.645.850.031.930.211.380.4422.9995.40
002-99 0.503,010122961,460958123339.53.945.5611.5112.074.422.400.032.490.292.320.0916.8598.24
002-69 0.16963128118667556185.88.424.099.8111.6116.149.490.032.240.221.850.2622.7398.54
002-72 0.355,270391322471065148358.34.641.6013.5811.895.062.640.033.180.322.900.1416.5097.89
002-81 0.206145162246588115264.54.444.4014.148.236.583.190.033.410.292.330.1515.3598.17
002-85 0.438531571581,1108511156268.21.353.9513.139.770.480.420.033.170.271.970.0115.2598.60
720-43 0.876911272362916166377.93.539.9615.5110.754.552.350.063.400.323.110.1018.8099.01
002-24 4.684,020138142376618574.43.643.3212.579.518.123.280.102.730.602.240.2112.9995.78
720-92 3.848,2001541081044679211166347.71.249.8516.739.540.740.550.053.590.432.860.0114.8599.28
720-93 6.4810,0003042212183677510125537.61.048.7712.2710.390.500.430.052.610.292.190.0121.0098.57
720-96 7.452,4306045858304527106265.71.057.3111.087.420.400.390.042.340.251.950.0117.2098.43
720-95 8.887,620294108101327731790648.51.050.7111.0311.390.340.370.052.300.211.970.0120.4098.84
720-97 3.8849563101015148859123.60.576.985.174.800.260.220.031.050.160.930.049.2498.91
720-98 5.844986511121,080476111113.60.678.805.674.640.280.240.041.170.161.000.037.6499.81
720-99 7.1974810391376692558132.40.885.632.073.370.230.100.020.310.100.330.066.8699.08
PD1-1-7 1.50597139112516<551124.25.253.784.568.999.324.100.030.950.060.840.2015.6598.56
720-31 2.436,3909216822537121.65.447.964.135.4513.486.900.020.750.510.660.2916.2796.50
002-21 3.451,55063115537577191.88.024.847.3811.9118.297.270.201.310.301.330.4424.5097.88
002-65 1.948,13023622061146771910.34.433.259.5916.079.655.320.022.230.341.930.2520.1198.84
002-64 1.121,2101762274327104303.47.840.7413.725.397.144.560.033.120.252.670.1817.1595.03
002-66 1.194,330186215555978106.67.523.937.0713.6717.309.980.021.680.271.400.4822.6198.50
002-67 7.627,890461231921087120377.07.131.5110.8811.0510.706.880.022.430.232.110.3422.5198.74
002-70 4.124,2604917321491765289.55.332.7711.0714.058.194.640.022.550.271.960.1520.1695.89
002-68 1.318,76032203275152121373713.13.338.3615.0117.032.281.340.053.420.333.030.0617.9098.89
002-71 10.2810,000135271014914323602221.62.624.449.0427.451.881.110.042.030.171.970.0530.9099.13
002-31 9.8910,00080184172295851618.83.430.364.7326.197.693.480.070.970.600.820.6622.5098.11
Shuiyindong siltstone-hosted ore
PDI-1-10 12.601,340151421,115357308463.23.040.3124.274.260.740.720.075.340.535.140.0116.7098.47
720-94 19.1010,00086236433236784597218.30.949.7212.078.770.290.390.052.530.162.140.0122.4098.59
002-30 14.2510,000671742165551191915.52.340.746.2721.775.472.420.051.330.950.780.3417.9098.07
002-32 11.7510,00053132270585891517.32.238.106.2223.724.802.310.071.290.431.460.3318.7597.54
002-22 23.801,820105122939591192.05.740.329.038.8812.685.170.101.860.211.770.2317.4697.81
AverageSiltstone0.0150.21143512611168513.7 35.1617.3414.592.702.200.713.510.303.410.0916.55100.20
Anna diabase-hosted deposit
AN-201Ore0.1213,65061 bdl550845112452.6 39.9411.6312.467.934.560.173.660.472.510.2113.6697.30
AN-202 2.7423,90062 bdl460917125497.2 31.8014.1615.199.625.050.174.480.443.050.2813.5697.94
AN-204 0.507,92036 bdl58054354462.0 40.6712.3311.2210.093.000.143.770.482.790.2413.1798.03
AN-205 2.1234,30077 bdl320983244486.9 34.7911.7214.459.664.730.123.630.802.760.2413.2096.22
AN-206 0.4911,95072 bdl5101024122323.2 41.4612.2614.447.213.340.143.920.432.600.1611.0897.13
AN-207 2.2417,90098 bdl550148893473.8 26.7114.1714.7213.355.060.204.380.483.100.2414.3396.86
AN-208 1.3022,30073 bdl33096770474.0 34.1313.2411.7911.314.910.162.780.623.240.2215.7798.28
AN-209 2.7326,60076 bdl45096498495.7 34.9312.4413.789.884.840.163.950.352.750.2112.6096.02
AN-210 2.0926,10070 bdl5501054102435.0 34.7912.4414.9710.234.880.203.970.412.750.2013.1698.14
AN-404aDiabase0.01104<5 bdl5771101112157bdl 44.7513.5414.348.245.493.110.500.553.060.215.6799.66
AN-404b 0.0134<5 bdl408116713758bdl 44.6914.8515.464.535.843.540.330.623.520.215.3099.06
AN-406a <0.0122<5 bdl1,0901107113570.7 45.3514.0115.088.245.743.031.010.563.110.222.57100.86
AN-406b <0.0110<5 bdl1,0351137122540.1 46.3714.1215.556.936.003.260.780.593.260.252.65100.14
AN-419a 0.01108<5 bdl6211091513053bdl 44.0013.5615.086.175.802.360.560.553.120.207.9199.49
AN-422 0.0138<5 bdl2671279484590.1 35.8813.6213.809.266.130.031.220.553.250.2915.0099.21
AN-211 0.015813 bdl940105811759bdl 45.4314.2614.429.175.572.661.230.483.250.223.1399.99
ANW-201 <0.01745 bdl1,1001094124650.1 47.1413.3914.397.455.343.521.650.563.250.232.5199.61
Badu diabase-hosted deposit
BD-101Ore0.7511,95010 0.52,08085478383.4 37.7411.839.7311.005.210.662.890.482.460.1615.7498.23
BD-102 1.2124,00028 0.61,51548974446.0 33.1412.8912.9510.275.320.813.150.452.740.1815.1997.34
BD-103 1.0529,40022 0.61,59560973436.0 34.8312.7812.839.485.180.793.170.432.720.1815.5098.14
BD-104 1.8221,50019 0.61,680751180446.0 38.7412.2712.908.894.601.112.850.442.660.1514.7999.69
BD-105 1.1516,45018 0.61,97084481414.5 37.6112.3811.179.944.970.852.960.462.620.1614.8098.26
BD-106 0.8417,75016 0.51,985885101455.1 37.5811.9213.109.844.780.702.830.502.610.1714.4898.83
BD-107 0.8816,40018 0.61,86082688414.4 36.0011.8211.8810.445.100.532.890.462.510.1715.4197.54
BD-108 0.567,8409 0.52,04086390413.4 39.2512.399.429.534.630.623.040.452.570.1714.9897.38
BD-112 0.9515,75028 0.71,785901358457.3 37.7511.9912.648.775.020.093.240.462.660.1615.2298.26
BD-113 2.1732,20037 0.51,360721381546.6 37.0712.4613.378.384.410.063.240.422.820.1715.1897.81
BD-114 0.277,9608 0.71,32095485431.9 39.2912.2211.707.914.730.113.210.472.630.1816.3599.02
BD-115 1.5224,90024 0.61,345591359507.2 32.9712.8213.8510.295.700.103.420.432.730.2015.6298.37
BD-116 1.9126,70031 0.51,1608215124516.8 38.8811.8913.018.714.750.073.120.422.620.1714.6298.46
BD-118 1.0318,55027 0.71,415891484467.7 36.4412.2513.208.544.850.133.260.452.630.1715.3797.53
BD-119 1.623,00044 0.71,3551031482487.0 39.3711.9512.517.774.320.073.240.472.610.1615.3798.04
BD-120 1.4927,70025 0.62,800751392447.1 33.1911.9613.5810.205.720.143.180.412.600.1915.7997.35
BDN-402Diabase0.0135<5 bdl30514412118520.1 45.4214.2614.814.536.163.070.190.733.460.136.2799.26
BDN-403 <0.01110<5 bdl1,6801558128590.3 44.0415.4213.615.483.702.731.120.813.730.208.0199.78
BDN-404 <0.0132<5 bdl1,3401269109490.1 39.8512.5413.258.205.621.881.280.633.070.2113.31100.18
BDN-405 <0.0114<5 bdl2921327118530.0 44.5414.2014.595.835.874.100.120.703.330.226.0899.73
BDN-407 <0.015<5 bdl99113712112500.1 44.8513.9814.706.205.673.590.490.733.410.226.32100.44
Sample no.Ore/host rockAu (ppm)As (ppm)Sb (ppm)Hg (ppm)Tl (ppm)Ba (ppm)Cu (ppm)Pb (ppm)Zn (ppm)Co (ppm)S (wt %)C (wt %)SiO2 (wt %)Al2O3 (wt %)Fe2O3 (wt %)CaO (wt %)MgO (wt %)Na2O (wt %)K2O (wt %)P2O5 (wt %)TiO2 (wt %)MnO (wt %)LOI (wt %)Total
Shuiyindong carbonate-hosted ore
PDI-1-18Ore6.344,230741241451312.210.018.880.446.4225.7014.500.010.070.050.060.3333.0099.52
PDI-1-20 6.814,51025101100918512211.36.718.967.8517.7517.169.830.041.600.311.570.3524.0099.54
IIIa-02 1.4634,1005115<1216<5<5813619.35.18.565.7236.6211.985.150.091.180.550.980.7026.8698.53
IIIb-01 7.792432<13015<51930.811.88.881.016.2426.8615.40<0.010.170.060.160.4637.5096.85
720-45 48.64,600941251452811.810.314.910.695.1125.8415.810.010.120.060.130.3335.4398.45
IIIa-01 224,89013617942<556212.58.230.073.709.1920.569.610.060.660.310.660.5024.0399.42
PDI-1-9 441,1401331172351310.96.745.080.252.9116.209.670.010.050.060.030.2321.5096.00
PDI-1-15 43.91,490153112195611.19.721.630.213.6223.1114.250.010.040.090.020.2332.7095.93
PDI-1-16 21.41,1909211355711.08.038.420.143.2018.7011.500.010.030.200.020.1725.9098.31
002-33 12.41,4201641662831192.45.155.682.005.5512.917.320.010.400.250.380.2913.9298.75
002-34 9.191,080113<18119428102.86.144.872.078.5815.627.78<0.010.440.110.340.4017.2297.50
PD1-1-8 20.31,04010615125<55043.44.263.171.736.467.443.770.010.380.040.280.1611.6595.17
PD1-1-11 26.81,1409512230<54232.03.380.490.963.143.772.190.010.220.090.100.087.8899.04
PD1-1-12 16.7560852<1912<5710.510.816.820.143.2525.8514.73<0.010.020.050.020.2637.0098.20
PD1-1-13 572,76012311040<5611.810.715.850.124.7825.6114.52<0.010.020.090.010.2734.1695.48
PD1-1-14 33.81,67072<11129<51211.19.625.750.143.7222.2413.68<0.010.020.030.010.2531.1097.00
PD1-1-17 20.93,55018511365822.711.113.680.126.3126.7716.72<0.010.020.050.010.2834.6298.65
AverageLimestone0.0197120.237519170.5 12.600.471.9742.303.230.100.090.090.050.1138.4099.90
Shuiyindong siltstone-hosted ore
002-20Ore0.186,31050623681076165366.93.244.1814.2311.565.002.160.232.890.352.690.1113.6597.14
002-23 0.6931939142332406116267.26.638.1412.9312.416.372.540.082.930.192.470.1720.5098.82
002-25 0.276,5704710241410981464010.94.434.8013.3016.945.442.240.112.960.253.140.1419.1098.51
002-28 0.312,67046102418815152366.06.729.9312.3112.979.844.230.072.780.252.180.2721.0095.94
002-29 0.497,560381234591167137527.81.637.0214.7212.593.741.770.113.250.633.350.0520.9098.23
002-62 0.192,1704452189601377368.68.131.498.8012.559.645.850.031.930.211.380.4422.9995.40
002-99 0.503,010122961,460958123339.53.945.5611.5112.074.422.400.032.490.292.320.0916.8598.24
002-69 0.16963128118667556185.88.424.099.8111.6116.149.490.032.240.221.850.2622.7398.54
002-72 0.355,270391322471065148358.34.641.6013.5811.895.062.640.033.180.322.900.1416.5097.89
002-81 0.206145162246588115264.54.444.4014.148.236.583.190.033.410.292.330.1515.3598.17
002-85 0.438531571581,1108511156268.21.353.9513.139.770.480.420.033.170.271.970.0115.2598.60
720-43 0.876911272362916166377.93.539.9615.5110.754.552.350.063.400.323.110.1018.8099.01
002-24 4.684,020138142376618574.43.643.3212.579.518.123.280.102.730.602.240.2112.9995.78
720-92 3.848,2001541081044679211166347.71.249.8516.739.540.740.550.053.590.432.860.0114.8599.28
720-93 6.4810,0003042212183677510125537.61.048.7712.2710.390.500.430.052.610.292.190.0121.0098.57
720-96 7.452,4306045858304527106265.71.057.3111.087.420.400.390.042.340.251.950.0117.2098.43
720-95 8.887,620294108101327731790648.51.050.7111.0311.390.340.370.052.300.211.970.0120.4098.84
720-97 3.8849563101015148859123.60.576.985.174.800.260.220.031.050.160.930.049.2498.91
720-98 5.844986511121,080476111113.60.678.805.674.640.280.240.041.170.161.000.037.6499.81
720-99 7.1974810391376692558132.40.885.632.073.370.230.100.020.310.100.330.066.8699.08
PD1-1-7 1.50597139112516<551124.25.253.784.568.999.324.100.030.950.060.840.2015.6598.56
720-31 2.436,3909216822537121.65.447.964.135.4513.486.900.020.750.510.660.2916.2796.50
002-21 3.451,55063115537577191.88.024.847.3811.9118.297.270.201.310.301.330.4424.5097.88
002-65 1.948,13023622061146771910.34.433.259.5916.079.655.320.022.230.341.930.2520.1198.84
002-64 1.121,2101762274327104303.47.840.7413.725.397.144.560.033.120.252.670.1817.1595.03
002-66 1.194,330186215555978106.67.523.937.0713.6717.309.980.021.680.271.400.4822.6198.50
002-67 7.627,890461231921087120377.07.131.5110.8811.0510.706.880.022.430.232.110.3422.5198.74
002-70 4.124,2604917321491765289.55.332.7711.0714.058.194.640.022.550.271.960.1520.1695.89
002-68 1.318,76032203275152121373713.13.338.3615.0117.032.281.340.053.420.333.030.0617.9098.89
002-71 10.2810,000135271014914323602221.62.624.449.0427.451.881.110.042.030.171.970.0530.9099.13
002-31 9.8910,00080184172295851618.83.430.364.7326.197.693.480.070.970.600.820.6622.5098.11
Shuiyindong siltstone-hosted ore
PDI-1-10 12.601,340151421,115357308463.23.040.3124.274.260.740.720.075.340.535.140.0116.7098.47
720-94 19.1010,00086236433236784597218.30.949.7212.078.770.290.390.052.530.162.140.0122.4098.59
002-30 14.2510,000671742165551191915.52.340.746.2721.775.472.420.051.330.950.780.3417.9098.07
002-32 11.7510,00053132270585891517.32.238.106.2223.724.802.310.071.290.431.460.3318.7597.54
002-22 23.801,820105122939591192.05.740.329.038.8812.685.170.101.860.211.770.2317.4697.81
AverageSiltstone0.0150.21143512611168513.7 35.1617.3414.592.702.200.713.510.303.410.0916.55100.20
Anna diabase-hosted deposit
AN-201Ore0.1213,65061 bdl550845112452.6 39.9411.6312.467.934.560.173.660.472.510.2113.6697.30
AN-202 2.7423,90062 bdl460917125497.2 31.8014.1615.199.625.050.174.480.443.050.2813.5697.94
AN-204 0.507,92036 bdl58054354462.0 40.6712.3311.2210.093.000.143.770.482.790.2413.1798.03
AN-205 2.1234,30077 bdl320983244486.9 34.7911.7214.459.664.730.123.630.802.760.2413.2096.22
AN-206 0.4911,95072 bdl5101024122323.2 41.4612.2614.447.213.340.143.920.432.600.1611.0897.13
AN-207 2.2417,90098 bdl550148893473.8 26.7114.1714.7213.355.060.204.380.483.100.2414.3396.86
AN-208 1.3022,30073 bdl33096770474.0 34.1313.2411.7911.314.910.162.780.623.240.2215.7798.28
AN-209 2.7326,60076 bdl45096498495.7 34.9312.4413.789.884.840.163.950.352.750.2112.6096.02
AN-210 2.0926,10070 bdl5501054102435.0 34.7912.4414.9710.234.880.203.970.412.750.2013.1698.14
AN-404aDiabase0.01104<5 bdl5771101112157bdl 44.7513.5414.348.245.493.110.500.553.060.215.6799.66
AN-404b 0.0134<5 bdl408116713758bdl 44.6914.8515.464.535.843.540.330.623.520.215.3099.06
AN-406a <0.0122<5 bdl1,0901107113570.7 45.3514.0115.088.245.743.031.010.563.110.222.57100.86
AN-406b <0.0110<5 bdl1,0351137122540.1 46.3714.1215.556.936.003.260.780.593.260.252.65100.14
AN-419a 0.01108<5 bdl6211091513053bdl 44.0013.5615.086.175.802.360.560.553.120.207.9199.49
AN-422 0.0138<5 bdl2671279484590.1 35.8813.6213.809.266.130.031.220.553.250.2915.0099.21
AN-211 0.015813 bdl940105811759bdl 45.4314.2614.429.175.572.661.230.483.250.223.1399.99
ANW-201 <0.01745 bdl1,1001094124650.1 47.1413.3914.397.455.343.521.650.563.250.232.5199.61
Badu diabase-hosted deposit
BD-101Ore0.7511,95010 0.52,08085478383.4 37.7411.839.7311.005.210.662.890.482.460.1615.7498.23
BD-102 1.2124,00028 0.61,51548974446.0 33.1412.8912.9510.275.320.813.150.452.740.1815.1997.34
BD-103 1.0529,40022 0.61,59560973436.0 34.8312.7812.839.485.180.793.170.432.720.1815.5098.14
BD-104 1.8221,50019 0.61,680751180446.0 38.7412.2712.908.894.601.112.850.442.660.1514.7999.69
BD-105 1.1516,45018 0.61,97084481414.5 37.6112.3811.179.944.970.852.960.462.620.1614.8098.26
BD-106 0.8417,75016 0.51,985885101455.1 37.5811.9213.109.844.780.702.830.502.610.1714.4898.83
BD-107 0.8816,40018 0.61,86082688414.4 36.0011.8211.8810.445.100.532.890.462.510.1715.4197.54
BD-108 0.567,8409 0.52,04086390413.4 39.2512.399.429.534.630.623.040.452.570.1714.9897.38
BD-112 0.9515,75028 0.71,785901358457.3 37.7511.9912.648.775.020.093.240.462.660.1615.2298.26
BD-113 2.1732,20037 0.51,360721381546.6 37.0712.4613.378.384.410.063.240.422.820.1715.1897.81
BD-114 0.277,9608 0.71,32095485431.9 39.2912.2211.707.914.730.113.210.472.630.1816.3599.02
BD-115 1.5224,90024 0.61,345591359507.2 32.9712.8213.8510.295.700.103.420.432.730.2015.6298.37
BD-116 1.9126,70031 0.51,1608215124516.8 38.8811.8913.018.714.750.073.120.422.620.1714.6298.46
BD-118 1.0318,55027 0.71,415891484467.7 36.4412.2513.208.544.850.133.260.452.630.1715.3797.53
BD-119 1.623,00044 0.71,3551031482487.0 39.3711.9512.517.774.320.073.240.472.610.1615.3798.04
BD-120 1.4927,70025 0.62,800751392447.1 33.1911.9613.5810.205.720.143.180.412.600.1915.7997.35
BDN-402Diabase0.0135<5 bdl30514412118520.1 45.4214.2614.814.536.163.070.190.733.460.136.2799.26
BDN-403 <0.01110<5 bdl1,6801558128590.3 44.0415.4213.615.483.702.731.120.813.730.208.0199.78
BDN-404 <0.0132<5 bdl1,3401269109490.1 39.8512.5413.258.205.621.881.280.633.070.2113.31100.18
BDN-405 <0.0114<5 bdl2921327118530.0 44.5414.2014.595.835.874.100.120.703.330.226.0899.73
BDN-407 <0.015<5 bdl99113712112500.1 44.8513.9814.706.205.673.590.490.733.410.226.32100.44

Abbreviations: bdl = below detection of limit, LOI = loss on ignition

Fig. 12.

Examples of isocon diagrams and alteration plots for limestone-hosted (A-C) and siltstone-hosted (D-F) ores at the Shuiyindong deposit and diabase-hosted ores (G-I) at the Anna and Badu deposits, showing typical mass flux associated with alteration and mineralization.

Fig. 12.

Examples of isocon diagrams and alteration plots for limestone-hosted (A-C) and siltstone-hosted (D-F) ores at the Shuiyindong deposit and diabase-hosted ores (G-I) at the Anna and Badu deposits, showing typical mass flux associated with alteration and mineralization.

In the Shuiyindong carbonate- and siltstone-hosted ores (Table 1), Al2O3 and TiO2 are commonly immobile, and SiO2 was immobile or introduced in both host rocks (Fig. 12A, D), whereas Na2O, K2O, CaO, MgO, P2O5, and CO2 (main component of the loss on ignition [LOI]) are commonly depleted in the carbonate-hosted ores (Fig. 12A), but CaO and MgO were introduced in the siltstone-hosted ores (Fig. 12D).

Elements added to host rocks in the Shuiyindong deposit include S, As, Au, Sb, Hg, and Tl (Fig. 12A, D), similar to those of Carlin-type deposits in Nevada (Hofstra and Cline, 2000; Cline et al., 2005). Much more S was introduced than As, Au, or associated trace elements (e.g., Sb, Hg, and Tl), suggesting that Au and associated trace elements were transported in H2S-rich fluids (Hofstra and Cline, 2000; Su et al., 2009b). Elements that form chloride complexes, such as Cu, Pb, and Zn, are relatively immobile or weakly introduced, which is consistent with lack of base metal sulfides in the ores. Although Fe2O3 is relatively immobile in low-grade ores, it is introduced along with S in the high-grade ores (Fig. 12B, E). Such data indicate that pyrite in high-grade ore formed as an H2S-rich ore fluid mixed with another fluid containing Fe (Hofstra and Cline, 2000). The Fe-bearing fluid may have been produced by dissolution of ferroan carbonate minerals in the host rocks, which are more widespread than in the ore zones.

The alteration types observed at Shuiyindong, particularly silicification, decarbonatization, and dolomitization, are evident in Figure 12C and F. In the limestone-hosted ores, dissolution of calcite and dolomite and precipitation of jasperoidal quartz produced carbonate-hosted ores that fall on the line between quartz and dolomite (Fig. 12C). The siltstone-hosted ores are shifted from the initial rock composition by silicification and carbonatization (Fig. 12F). These data are consistent with petrographic observations of gold-bearing arsenian pyrite and arsenopyrite enclosed within Fe-poor dolomite (Fig. 5A) or concentrated on jasperoidal quartz grains within decarbonatized limestone containing ferroan calcite and dolomite (Fig. 5C).

In the Anna and Badu diabase-hosted ores (Table 1), elemental gains are different in that Fe2O3, Al2O3, TiO2, P2O5, and SiO2 are generally immobile (Fig. 12G), whereas K2O, S, and LOI are introduced (Fig. 12G). Other elements added to the host rocks in the Anna and Badu deposits include As, Au, and Sb, whereas base metals such as Cu, Pb, and Zn are relatively immobile or depleted (Fig. 12G). The immobility of Fe and introduction of S (Fig. 12H) is typical of Carlin-type gold ores, whereas K metasomatism, evident from the shift from initial diabase compositions to the illite line (Fig. 12I), is not (Hofstra and Cline, 2000). These data are consistent with the petrographic observation that titanium-bearing clinopyroxene and ilmenite are replaced by gold-bearing arsenian pyrite, arsenopyrite, rutile, and illite (Fig. 10C).

Fluid Inclusions

Fluid inclusions in ore-stage minerals in Carlin-type gold deposits in Nevada are small, sparse, and difficult to relate to the mineralization (Cline et al., 2005). In contrast, most Carlin-type gold deposits in the Dian-Qian-Gui area commonly contain quartz veins and veinlets. Fluid inclusions in vein quartz are generally larger (~20 μm) and have clear origins that make it possible to characterize the chemical evolution of ore fluids in the Dian-Qian-Gui deposits.

Fluid inclusion types, petrography, and microthermometry

The most detailed fluid inclusion studies in the Dian-Qian-Gui area have been done at the Shuiyindong, Lannigou, Yata (Su, 2002, 2009; Su et al., 2009b; Zhang et al., 2003; Peng et al., 2014), and Anna deposits (Dong et al., 2016). The following section describes data from these studies. Most of the other studies are ambiguous due to the lack of genetic relationships between fluid inclusions, host minerals, and gold mineralization. Fluid inclusion assemblages in quartz and calcite were classified by their origin, based on their appearance at room temperature, laser Raman spectra, and relation to growth zones imaged by scanning electron microscope cathodoluminescence (SEM-CL; Su et al., 2009b). Fluid inclusion types and their microthermometric data are summarized in Table 2.

Table 2.

Summary of Fluid Inclusion Types, Associated Mineral Assemblages, and Microthermometric Data

 Fluid inclusion assemblageMicrothermometric data 
DepositStageGenerationTypeNo.Tm CO2ThCO2TmTm clThSalinityReference
ShuiyindongEarly-stage quartzPrimaryType 1a14  –3.5 to –4.3 218–2315.7–6.9Su et al. (2009b)
 Main-stage quartzSecondaryType 1a18  –2.3 to –3.3 194–2293.9–5.4 
  SecondaryType 1b28–58.8 to –56.618.0–29.5 V 9.1–9.9214–2250.2–1.8This study
YataEarly-stage quartzPrimaryType 1a23  –3.0 to –4.1 190–2585.0–6.6Su et al. (2009b)
 Main-stage quartzSecondaryType 1a22  –2.1 to –3.3 165–2303.6–5.4 
  Primary and secondaryType 1b67–58.1 to –56.610.2–26.1 L 8.3–9.8190–2450.4–3.3 
 Late-stage quartz and stibnitePrimary in stibniteType 1a12  –1.7 to –3.0 178–2122.9–5.0This study
  Secondary in quartzType 1a23  –1.2 to –4.5 151–2612.1–7.2Su et al. (2009b)
   Type 26–59.6 to –58.16.3–20.9 L 9.5–10.7205d–232d0–1.0 
   Type 325–60.5 to –59.6–24.3 to –22.5 L     
LannigouEarly-stage quartzPrimaryType 1a28  –2.5 to –3.9 207–2784.2–6.5Su (2002)
 Main-stage quartzSecondaryType 1a44  –2.3 to –3.2 180–2283.9–5.3 
   Type 1b8–58.9 to –57.419.8–24.3 L 7.1–9.4241–3591.2–5.5Zhang et al. (2003)
 Late-stage quartz and calciteSecondary in quartzType 1a26  –0.1 to –3.2 117–1660.2–5.3Su (2002)
  Secondary in calcite 25  0.0 to –3.9 116–2070.0–6.3Zhang et al. (2003)
AnnaMain-stage quartzPrimaryType 1b118–59.7 to –56.810.8–28.2 L 9.1–10.0208–3120.0–1.8Dong et al. (2016)
 Fluid inclusion assemblageMicrothermometric data 
DepositStageGenerationTypeNo.Tm CO2ThCO2TmTm clThSalinityReference
ShuiyindongEarly-stage quartzPrimaryType 1a14  –3.5 to –4.3 218–2315.7–6.9Su et al. (2009b)
 Main-stage quartzSecondaryType 1a18  –2.3 to –3.3 194–2293.9–5.4 
  SecondaryType 1b28–58.8 to –56.618.0–29.5 V 9.1–9.9214–2250.2–1.8This study
YataEarly-stage quartzPrimaryType 1a23  –3.0 to –4.1 190–2585.0–6.6Su et al. (2009b)
 Main-stage quartzSecondaryType 1a22  –2.1 to –3.3 165–2303.6–5.4 
  Primary and secondaryType 1b67–58.1 to –56.610.2–26.1 L 8.3–9.8190–2450.4–3.3 
 Late-stage quartz and stibnitePrimary in stibniteType 1a12  –1.7 to –3.0 178–2122.9–5.0This study
  Secondary in quartzType 1a23  –1.2 to –4.5 151–2612.1–7.2Su et al. (2009b)
   Type 26–59.6 to –58.16.3–20.9 L 9.5–10.7205d–232d0–1.0 
   Type 325–60.5 to –59.6–24.3 to –22.5 L     
LannigouEarly-stage quartzPrimaryType 1a28  –2.5 to –3.9 207–2784.2–6.5Su (2002)
 Main-stage quartzSecondaryType 1a44  –2.3 to –3.2 180–2283.9–5.3 
   Type 1b8–58.9 to –57.419.8–24.3 L 7.1–9.4241–3591.2–5.5Zhang et al. (2003)
 Late-stage quartz and calciteSecondary in quartzType 1a26  –0.1 to –3.2 117–1660.2–5.3Su (2002)
  Secondary in calcite 25  0.0 to –3.9 116–2070.0–6.3Zhang et al. (2003)
AnnaMain-stage quartzPrimaryType 1b118–59.7 to –56.810.8–28.2 L 9.1–10.0208–3120.0–1.8Dong et al. (2016)

All values are in °C for temperature and wt % NaCl equiv for salinity

Abbreviations: d = decrepitation temperature, L = homogenized to liquid, Th = homogenization temperature, ThCO2 = homogenization temperature of CO2, Tm = melting temperature of ice, Tmcl = final melting temperature of clathrate, Tm CO2 = final melting temperature of CO2

In the northern strata-bound carbonate-hosted and fault-controlled siliciclastic-hosted gold deposits, three types of fluid inclusions were identified. Two-phase, liquid-rich aqueous fluid inclusions (type 1a) contain approximately 15 vol % vapor at room temperature. They occur in the early-stage barren milky quartz veins at Shuiyindong, Lannigou, and Yata (Zhang et al., 2003; Su et al., 2009b; Peng et al., 2014). Primary fluid inclusion assemblages occur within quartz growth zones and have negative crystal shapes. Secondary fluid inclusion assemblages occur along fracture planes or as trails crosscutting quartz crystals. All fluid inclusions homogenized to liquid, and the majority of fluid inclusions exhibit a narrow range in homogenization temperature and salinity (Fig. 13A, B). Primary fluid inclusions homogenized at 190° to 278°C, with a mode around 210°C, and have salinities of 4.2 to 6.9 wt % NaCl equiv (Table 2). Secondary fluid inclusions homogenized at 194° to 229°C with salinities of 3.9 to 5.4 wt % NaCl equiv. Type 1a fluid inclusions also were observed in the main-stage quartz vein-lets with arsenian pyrite and arsenopyrite, as well as in the late-stage drusy quartz and calcite with stibnite, orpiment, and realgar. They mainly occur as secondary inclusion trails. The secondary fluid inclusions in the main-stage quartz veinlets homogenized at 165° to 230°C and have salinities of 3.6 to 5.4 wt % NaCl equiv (Table 2). The secondary fluid inclusions in the late-stage drusy quartz have a larger range of homogenization temperatures from 117° to 261°C, and salinities of 0.2 to 7.2 wt % NaCl equivalent, which are similar to those in calcite (Table 2). In the Yata deposit, primary two-phase, aqueous fluid inclusions in stibnite observed by infrared microscopy homogenized between 178° and 212°C and have salinities of 2.9 to 5.0 wt % NaCl equiv. No phase changes indicative of CO2 were observed. However, CO2, N2, and CH4 were detected in quartz-hosted fluid inclusions by laser Raman spectroscopy.

Fig. 13.

Histograms of homogenization temperatures (A) and salinities (B) of fluid inclusions in the early- and main-stage quartz and late-stage calcite from the Shuiyindong, Yata, and Lannigou deposits. Homogenization temperatures (C) and salinities (D) of fluid inclusions in the early-stage quartz from the Anna diabase-hosted gold deposit.

Fig. 13.

Histograms of homogenization temperatures (A) and salinities (B) of fluid inclusions in the early- and main-stage quartz and late-stage calcite from the Shuiyindong, Yata, and Lannigou deposits. Homogenization temperatures (C) and salinities (D) of fluid inclusions in the early-stage quartz from the Anna diabase-hosted gold deposit.

Two- or three-phase aqueous-carbonic inclusions (type 1b) contain an aqueous liquid phase and a relatively consistent carbonic (vapor + CO2 liquid) fraction of 15 vol %. They usually are present in the main-stage quartz veinlets with arsenian pyrite and arsenopyrite and mainly occur as secondary inclusions. The melting temperature of CO2 (Tm CO2) ranges from –58.9° to –56.6°C. The carbonic phase homogenized to liquid (ThCO2) at temperatures ranging from 10.2° to 26.1°C. Clathrate melting temperatures (Tm cl) range from 7.1° to 9.8°C, corresponding to salinities of 0.4 to 5.5 wt % NaCl equiv (Diamond, 1992). These inclusions commonly decrepitated before total homogenization at temperatures above 200°C. The inclusions that did not decrepitate homogenized into the liquid phase at temperatures from 170° to 295°C, with a mode around 210°C (Fig. 13A). Raman spectroscopy of the carbonic phase in individual fluid inclusions show that CO2 is the dominant volatile (>96 mol %), N2 is always present (0.5–3.5 mol %), and CH4 is present in amounts of up to 1.2 mol % in a few inclusions (Su et al., 2009b).

Two-phase, carbonic-aqueous inclusions with a greater proportion of the carbonic phase (type 2) and monophase carbonic inclusions (type 3) are rare. In the Lannigou and Yata deposits, they coexist with the type 1b inclusions and mainly occur in late-stage drusy quartz with realgar, stibnite, and calcite, which is indicative of immiscibility. Their TmCO2 ranges from –60.5° to –58.1°C, and ThCO2 to the liquid phase ranges from –24.3° to 20.9°C (Table 2). Total homogenization temperatures were not obtained because these inclusions decrepitated above 200°C. Raman spectroscopy revealed that their volatile phases contain major CO2 (87–89 mol %), minor N2 (10–14 mol %), and trace CH4 (0.8 mol %; Su et al., 2009b).

In the southern Anna diabase-hosted gold deposit, two- or three-phase, aqueous-carbonic fluid inclusions (type 1b) are commonly observed in the early-stage milky quartz veins (Dong et al., 2016). Their TmCO2 ranges from –59.7° to –56.8°C, and ThCO2 to the liquid phase ranges from 10.8° to 28.2°C (Table 2). They have relatively high homogenization temperatures (208°–312°C; Fig. 13C) but very low salinity (up to 1.8 wt % NaCl equiv; Fig. 13D) calculated by the clath-rate melting temperatures (Tmcl) of fluid inclusions.

Chemical components of ore-forming fluids

Su et al. (2009b) were the first to detect and quantify Au along with other trace elements in fluid inclusions from the Shuiyindong and the Yata deposits, using LA-ICP-MS microanalysis at ETH, Zürich, Switzerland. The results showed that aqueous inclusions (type 1a) in the early-stage milky quartz from Shuiyindong contain Au (3.8 ± 0.5–5.7 ± 2.3 ppm), As (80–200 ppm), and Sb (10–20 ppm), whereas aqueous-carbonic inclusions (type 1b) in the main-stage quartz veinlets from the Yata have lower concentrations of Au (0.1–0.8 ppm), As (70–250 ppm), and Sb (10–90 ppm). Moreover, LA-ICP-MS analyses of type 1a aqueous inclusions in the late-stage stibnite from Yata also contain Au (0.5–4.3 ppm). Importantly, iron is below the detection limit (~400 ppm) of LA-ICP-MS in all fluid inclusion types, which indicates that the ore fluids were Fe poor, suggesting that the Fe in arsenian pyrite and arsenopyrite was probably derived from ferroan minerals in the host rocks.

Recently, we also quantified Au, As, and Sb along with other trace elements in fluid inclusions from the Anna diabase-hosted gold deposit (Dong, 2017), using LA-ICP-MS microanalysis at the Center of Excellence in Ore Deposits (CODES), University of Tasmania, Australia. The results show that aqueous-carbonic fluid inclusions (type 1b) in the early-stage milky quartz contain As (70–148 ppm) and Sb (43–345 ppm), but Au is below the detection limit (~0.5 ppm) of LA-ICP-MS in all fluid inclusions.

These analyses indicate that the Au to As ratios of ore fluids for the Shuiyindong and Yata deposits vary from 1:10 to 1:1,000, which are similar to ratios of arsenian pyrite and arsenopyrite and bulk ores in the Shuiyindong, Lannigou, Yata, and Jinya deposits (Fig. 14A) inferred to have been deposited from these fluids. This contrasts with the Au to As ratios of 1:1,000 to 1:100,000 for ore fluids, arsenian pyrite, and arsenopyrite and bulk ores in the Anna, Badu, and Zhesang deposits (Fig. 14B). This difference suggests that the deposits that occur on the northern and southern margin of the basin were formed from different ore fluids.

Fig. 14.

Plot of log Au vs. log As (in ppm) of ore fluid compositions (A) analyzed by laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) of fluid inclusions from the Shuiyindong and Yata deposits (Su et al., 2009b) and compared with the bulk ores (gray polygon) of the Shuiyindong (Table 1) and Yata deposits (Zhang, 1997) and arsenian pyrite and arsenopyrite from the Shuiyindong, Lannigou, Yata, and Jinya deposits. Note that the Au/As ratios of ore fluids vary from 1:10 to 1:1,000, which are similar to those of arsenian pyrite, arsenopyrite, and bulk ores in these deposits, in contrast to the Au/As ratios of 1:1,000 to 1:100,000 (B) for ore fluids of the Anna, bulk ores from the Anna, and Badu diabase-hosted deposits (gray polygon; Table 1), and arsenian pyrite and arsenopyrite from the Anna, Badu, and Zhesang deposits. T bar represents the limit of detection of Au in fluid inclusions. The actual values are located along the vertical lines. Red line is the solubility limit of gold in pyrite (Reich et al., 2005). EPMA = electron probe microanalysis.

Fig. 14.

Plot of log Au vs. log As (in ppm) of ore fluid compositions (A) analyzed by laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) of fluid inclusions from the Shuiyindong and Yata deposits (Su et al., 2009b) and compared with the bulk ores (gray polygon) of the Shuiyindong (Table 1) and Yata deposits (Zhang, 1997) and arsenian pyrite and arsenopyrite from the Shuiyindong, Lannigou, Yata, and Jinya deposits. Note that the Au/As ratios of ore fluids vary from 1:10 to 1:1,000, which are similar to those of arsenian pyrite, arsenopyrite, and bulk ores in these deposits, in contrast to the Au/As ratios of 1:1,000 to 1:100,000 (B) for ore fluids of the Anna, bulk ores from the Anna, and Badu diabase-hosted deposits (gray polygon; Table 1), and arsenian pyrite and arsenopyrite from the Anna, Badu, and Zhesang deposits. T bar represents the limit of detection of Au in fluid inclusions. The actual values are located along the vertical lines. Red line is the solubility limit of gold in pyrite (Reich et al., 2005). EPMA = electron probe microanalysis.

Depth of ore formation

On the northern margin of the basin, minimum depth estimates are provided by drill intercepts of gold mineralization below the present surface at about 100 to 1,400 m in Shuiyindong and about 1,000 m in Lannigou (Chen et al., 2015). Given that the deposits formed after folding and faulting, and the average thickness of cover rocks is 2.4 km on the platform and 3.6 km in the basin (Zhang et al., 2003), then at least 3 km of cover rocks were removed by erosion after gold mineralization.

Based on the homogenization temperatures of aqueous-carbonic inclusions (190°–245°C) and the minimum curve of 6 mol % CO2, the pressures for the Yata deposit are estimated to be 450 to 1,150 bar (Su et al., 2009b), which corresponds to a depth of 1.7 to 4.3 km under lithostatic load, using the average density of sedimentary rocks in southwestern Guizhou (2.67 g/cm3; Wang et al., 1995). Zhang et al. (2003) also estimated pressures for the Lannigou deposit ranging from 600 to 1,700 bar based on the aqueous-carbonic fluid inclusions, corresponding to a depth of 2.2 to 6.3 km under lithostatic conditions. Using the reconstructed depths described above for the main-stage mineralization, Cline et al. (2013) apply a pressure correction to the early-stage aqueous fluid inclusions for the Shuiyindong and Yata deposits, which yields trapping temperatures of about 220° to 345°C (Bodnar and Vityk, 1994). This temperature range is considerably higher than temperatures reported for the Nevada deposits (Cline and Hofstra, 2000; Hofstra and Cline, 2000; Cline et al., 2005).

The CO2 contents of fluid inclusions at Yata (6–8 mol %; Su et al., 2009b) are higher than those of Carlin-type gold deposits in Nevada (2–4 mol % CO2; Hofstra and Cline, 2000) but lower than those of many orogenic lode gold deposits in the world (10–25 mol % CO2; Ridley and Diamond, 2000). This difference suggests that the Carlin-type gold deposits in the Dian-Qian-Gui area may have formed at depths between those of orogenic (mesothermal) lode gold deposits in general and Carlin-type gold deposits in Nevada (Su et al., 2009b; Cline et al., 2013).

Sources of Ore Fluid Components

Oxygen, hydrogen, and sulfur isotope studies were conducted on fluid inclusions, quartz, calcite, and sulfides from several gold deposits in the Dian-Qian-Gui area (Guo, 1988; Li et al., 1989; Guo et al., 1992; Zhang et al., 2003, 2013; Hofstra et al., 2005; Liu et al., 2006, 2014; Chen et al., 2010; Wang et al., 2010, 2013; Wang, 2013; Dai et al., 2014; Tan et al., 2015b; Hou et al., 2016). Previous studies document a wide range of δ18O and δD compositions of water and δ34S of sulfides (Hu et al., 2002). The variation may result from the uncertain relationships between fluid inclusions, host minerals, and gold mineralization. In this section, we summarize new and previously published oxygen, hydrogen, and sulfur isotope data on minerals with clear paragenetic relationships to gold mineralization, which place important constraints on the source of ore fluid components.

Oxygen and hydrogen isotopes of water

Most published oxygen and hydrogen isotope data for ore fluids from the sediment-hosted deposits in Dian-Qian-Gui are based on δ18O analyses of quartz or calcite and δD analyses of fluid inclusion water extracted from these minerals (Guo et al., 1992; Zhang et al., 2003; Chen et al., 2010; Wang, 2013; Tan et al., 2015b). Some are from clay minerals (<2 μm illite) in mineralized rocks (Hofstra et al., 2005). In this study, we present new quartz δ18O values from the diabase-hosted gold deposits and recalculate fluid δ18OH2O values from the published quartz and calcite δ18O data, using the fractionation factors of Friedman and O’Neil (1977) and quartz precipitation temperatures of 210°C for the sediment-hosted gold deposits, 245°C for the diabase-hosted deposits, and 150°C for calcite. The isotopic compositions of water in equilibrium with clay minerals from the Shuiyindong, Zimudang, Getang, and Lannigou deposits were calculated by Hofstra et al. (2005), using fractionation factors in Sheppard and Gilg (1996) at 200°C.

On the northern margin of the basin, a cluster of deposits, including the Shuiyindong, Zimudang, Taipingdong, Nibao, Getang, Lannigou, Yata, and Jinya deposits (Fig. 1), contain the early-stage milky quartz veins with a narrow range of calculated δ18OH2O values between 14.4 and 10.4‰ and the main-stage quartz with a wide range of lower calculated δ18OH2O values between 9.7 and 0.9‰. The measured δ18OH2O values are typical of orogenic gold deposits (4–15‰; Ridley and Diamond, 2000). The δDH2O values of water extracted from fluid inclusions in the early-stage milky quartz veins and the main-stage quartz veinlets are similar, ranging from –57 to –90‰ and –74 to –91‰, respectively. The measured δDH2O values are within the range of local meteoric water (–56 to –103‰; Li et al., 1989).

On the southern margin of the basin, the diabase-hosted deposits, including the Anna and Badu deposits as well as ores in adjacent sedimentary rocks at the Zhesang deposit, also contain the milky quartz veins with a narrow range of calculated δ18OH2O values between 8.7 and 13.9‰. The δDH2O values of water extracted from inclusion fluids in the milky quartz veins vary from –41 to –89‰.

On the δ18OH2O vs. δDH2O diagram (Fig. 15), the data from both sediment- and diabase-hosted gold deposits plot within or below the metamorphic water box and close to the magmatic water box. The data suggest that the ore fluids for these deposits consisted predominantly of metamorphic fluids that mixed with variably exchanged meteoric ground water, but a deep magmatic component cannot be excluded (Su et al., 2009b). For example, on the northern margin, the existence of 124 Ma granitic porphyry dikes, 96 Ma quartz porphyry dikes, and 90 Ma lamprophyre dikes (Fig. 1) permit magmatic fluids, but their ages are inconsistent with the 148 to 134 Ma dates on the gold and antimony deposits.

Fig. 15.

Oxygen and hydrogen isotope data from the sediment-hosted gold deposits on the northern margin of the basin and the diabase-hosted gold deposits on the southern margin. Note that all data from both sediment- and diabase-hosted gold deposits plot within or below the metamorphic water box and close to the magmatic water box. Dashed arrows are meteoric water-rock exchange curves from Hofstra et al. (2005). Data from Guo et al. (1992), Hofstra et al. (2005), Chen et al. (2010), Wang (2013), Tan et al. (2015b), and this study. Abbreviations: Cal = calcite, Qz = quartz, SMOW = standard mean ocean water.

Fig. 15.

Oxygen and hydrogen isotope data from the sediment-hosted gold deposits on the northern margin of the basin and the diabase-hosted gold deposits on the southern margin. Note that all data from both sediment- and diabase-hosted gold deposits plot within or below the metamorphic water box and close to the magmatic water box. Dashed arrows are meteoric water-rock exchange curves from Hofstra et al. (2005). Data from Guo et al. (1992), Hofstra et al. (2005), Chen et al. (2010), Wang (2013), Tan et al. (2015b), and this study. Abbreviations: Cal = calcite, Qz = quartz, SMOW = standard mean ocean water.

Sulfur isotopes of sulfides

Most of the published sulfur isotope data from the Dian-Qian-Gui deposits were determined on pyrite, arsenopyrite, stibnite, realgar, and cinnabar using conventional bulk techniques (Guo, 1988; Li et al., 1989; Guo et al., 1992; Zhang et al., 2003, 2013; Liu et al., 2006, 2014; Wang et al., 2010, 2013; Dai et al., 2014; Tan et al., 2015b; Dong, 2017). Recently, Hou et al. (2016) reported in situ sulfur isotope analyses of pyrite and arsenopyrite from Shuiyindong and Taipingdong deposits, using sensitive high-resolution ion microprobe (SHRIMP). These data are summarized in Table 3 and displayed in Figure 16.

Table 3.

Summary of Sulfur Isotope Compositions for Sulfides from the Dian-Qian-Gui Area

DepositHost rockStageMineralNo.Range of δ34S (‰)AverageReference
ShuiyindongPermian carbonateMain orePy21–0.6 to 8.44.5Wang et al. (2010), Wang et al. (2013), and Tan et al. (2015b)
  Late oreReal231.5–6.23.4
   Stb7–4.9 to 1.8–1.5
  DiagenesisPy19–25.7 to 17.9–2.3 
  Main orePy31–2.7 to 4.7–0.1Hou et al. (2016)
   Asp4–0.9 to 0.5–0.4 
  DiagenesisPy23–6.9 to 4.9–0.7 
Zimudang Main orePy110.2–4.32.4Guo (1988) and Wang et al. (2013)
  Late oreReal111.1–2.71.8
  DiagenesisPy20.3–2.01.1 
Taipingdong Main orePy11–0.5 to 1.50.6Hou et al. (2016)
   Asp4–0.4 to 0.90.2 
  DiagenesisPy8–5.3 to 3.91.6 
  Late oreReal50.8–3.01.5Wang et al. (2013)
Nibao Main orePy8–1.8 to 0.9–0.2Liu et al. (2006)
Getang Main orePy3–1.3 to 5.01.9Li et al. (1989) and Zhang et al. (2003)
  Late oreStb4–4.5 to –1.9–3.3
  DiagenesisPy12–33.8 to –13.2–25.3 
LannigouTriassci turbiditeMain orePy307.3–13.611.2Zhang et al. (2003)
  Late oreStb38.4–9.89.2 
   Real711.4–11.911.7 
   Cinb410.2–11.310.7 
  DiagenesisPy610.4–13.211.9 
Yata Main orePy19–2.3 to 8.04.7Li et al. (1989) and Zhang et al. (2003)
  Late oreStb32.7–3.93.3
   Real24.3–7.45.9 
  DiagenesisPy2–0.7 to 3.81.6 
Jinya Main orePy10–5.3 to 1.9–3.2Guo et al. (1992) and Liu et al. (2014)
   Asp9–9.0 to –3.9–4.5
  Late oreReal2–2.0 to –6.3–4.2 
  DiagenesisPy8–6.9 to 14.03.1 
ZhesangPermian siltstoneMain orePy128.4–15.810.8Zhang et al. (2013) and Dai et al. (2014)
   Asp69.2–11.310.6
  DiagenesisPy210.3–10.810.5 
 DiabaseMain orePy189.5–12.511.2Dong (2017)
AnnaDiabaseMain orePy1615.0–16.916.1 
   Asp2015.1–16.615.8 
Badu Main orePy2115.3–18.817.6 
   Asp816.6–18.517.8 
  Late oreStb1516.2–16.816.5 
DepositHost rockStageMineralNo.Range of δ34S (‰)AverageReference
ShuiyindongPermian carbonateMain orePy21–0.6 to 8.44.5Wang et al. (2010), Wang et al. (2013), and Tan et al. (2015b)
  Late oreReal231.5–6.23.4
   Stb7–4.9 to 1.8–1.5
  DiagenesisPy19–25.7 to 17.9–2.3 
  Main orePy31–2.7 to 4.7–0.1Hou et al. (2016)
   Asp4–0.9 to 0.5–0.4 
  DiagenesisPy23–6.9 to 4.9–0.7 
Zimudang Main orePy110.2–4.32.4Guo (1988) and Wang et al. (2013)
  Late oreReal111.1–2.71.8
  DiagenesisPy20.3–2.01.1 
Taipingdong Main orePy11–0.5 to 1.50.6Hou et al. (2016)
   Asp4–0.4 to 0.90.2 
  DiagenesisPy8–5.3 to 3.91.6 
  Late oreReal50.8–3.01.5Wang et al. (2013)
Nibao Main orePy8–1.8 to 0.9–0.2Liu et al. (2006)
Getang Main orePy3–1.3 to 5.01.9Li et al. (1989) and Zhang et al. (2003)
  Late oreStb4–4.5 to –1.9–3.3
  DiagenesisPy12–33.8 to –13.2–25.3 
LannigouTriassci turbiditeMain orePy307.3–13.611.2Zhang et al. (2003)
  Late oreStb38.4–9.89.2 
   Real711.4–11.911.7 
   Cinb410.2–11.310.7 
  DiagenesisPy610.4–13.211.9 
Yata Main orePy19–2.3 to 8.04.7Li et al. (1989) and Zhang et al. (2003)
  Late oreStb32.7–3.93.3
   Real24.3–7.45.9 
  DiagenesisPy2–0.7 to 3.81.6 
Jinya Main orePy10–5.3 to 1.9–3.2Guo et al. (1992) and Liu et al. (2014)
   Asp9–9.0 to –3.9–4.5
  Late oreReal2–2.0 to –6.3–4.2 
  DiagenesisPy8–6.9 to 14.03.1 
ZhesangPermian siltstoneMain orePy128.4–15.810.8Zhang et al. (2013) and Dai et al. (2014)
   Asp69.2–11.310.6
  DiagenesisPy210.3–10.810.5 
 DiabaseMain orePy189.5–12.511.2Dong (2017)
AnnaDiabaseMain orePy1615.0–16.916.1 
   Asp2015.1–16.615.8 
Badu Main orePy2115.3–18.817.6 
   Asp816.6–18.517.8 
  Late oreStb1516.2–16.816.5 

Indicates in situ analysis by SHRIMP; others by bulk analysis

Abbreviations: Asp = arsenopyrite, Cinb = cinnabar, Py = pyrite, Real = realgar, Stb = stibnite

Fig. 16.

Histograms of sulfur isotope data for sulfides from both sediment- and diabase-hosted gold deposits in the Dian-Qian-Gui area. A. Northern carbonate-hosted deposits including Shuiyindong, Taipingdong, Zimudang, Nibao, and Getang. B. Northern siliciclastic/fault-hosted deposits including Lannigou, Yata, and Jinya. C. Southern diabase- and sediment-hosted deposits including Zhesang, Anna, and Badu deposits. Abbreviations: CDT = Canyon Diablo Troilite, Sed-pyrite = sedimentary origin of pyrite.

Fig. 16.

Histograms of sulfur isotope data for sulfides from both sediment- and diabase-hosted gold deposits in the Dian-Qian-Gui area. A. Northern carbonate-hosted deposits including Shuiyindong, Taipingdong, Zimudang, Nibao, and Getang. B. Northern siliciclastic/fault-hosted deposits including Lannigou, Yata, and Jinya. C. Southern diabase- and sediment-hosted deposits including Zhesang, Anna, and Badu deposits. Abbreviations: CDT = Canyon Diablo Troilite, Sed-pyrite = sedimentary origin of pyrite.

Evaluation of the bulk sulfide data is complicated, because some of the studies are not well described and handpicked separates of pyrite and arsenopyrite may contain mixtures of ore-stage and earlier or later formed pyrite and arsenopyrite, especially in deposits hosted in the siliciclastic rocks (e.g., Lannigou). However, the data from the carbonate-hosted ores (e.g., Shuiyindong; Fig. 5B, C) and the diabase-hosted ores (e.g., Anna and Badu; Fig. 10C, D) may be valid because most of the gold-bearing arsenian pyrite is unzoned in backscattered electron images of EPMA and SEM (Su et al., 2009b, 2012). Fine-grained arsenopyrite, stibnite, realgar, and cinnabar are not subject to this problem. Their δ34S values are representative of the sulfur compositions of ore fluids.

On the northern margin of the basin, ore sulfides from a cluster of carbonate-hosted gold deposits, including Shuiyindong, Zimudang, Taipingdong, Nibao, and Getang (Fig. 1), have a similar range of δ34S values (Table 3; Fig. 16A). For example, the δ34S values of unzoned arsenian pyrite from Shuiyindong varies from –0.6 to 8.4‰ with a mean of 4.5‰, which is close to the range of SHRIMP spot data on gold-bearing As rims (–2.7 to 4.7; Hou et al., 2016). Bulk analyses of pyrite from the Zimudang (0.2–4.3‰), Nibao (–1.8 to 0.9‰), and Getang (–1.3 to 5.0‰) have a similar range of δ34S values. Late-stage realgar from these deposits has δ34S values of 0.8 to 6.2‰ that are similar to those of ore pyrite, whereas stibnite has slightly lower values of –4.9 to 1.8‰. Although ore sulfides correspond to one population of diagenetic pyrite in Permian carbonaceous shale (Fig. 16A), the ore sulfides have a narrow range in comparison to all of the diagenetic pyrites (Longtan Formation: –33.8 to 17.9‰, avg –8.8‰).

Ore sulfides from deposits hosted in Triassic turbidites on the northern margin are more variable (Fig. 16B). At Yata, the δ34S values of ore pyrite (–2.3 to 8.0‰, mean 4.7‰), stibnite (2.7–3.9‰), and realgar (4.3–7.4‰) are similar to the carbonate-hosted deposits. Jinya, however, has lower δ34S values for ore pyrite (–5.3 to 1.9‰), arsenopyrite (–9 to –3.9‰), and realgar (–6.3 to –2.0‰). Lannigou has higher δ34S values for ore pyrite (7.3–12.6‰), realgar (11.4–11.9‰), stibnite (8.4–9.8‰), and cinnabar (10.2–11.3‰). In each deposit, ore sulfides overlap with part or most of the range of values determined for diagenetic pyrite (Fig. 16B). Although the overlap of δ34S values between ore and diagenetic pyrites may be due to the presence of very thin As pyrite rims on larger cores of diagenetic pyrite (Zhang et al., 2003), the results from realgar, stibnite, and cinnabar give similar values to the ore pyrite and arsenopyrite.

On the southern margin of the basin, ore sulfides in the diabase-hosted deposits have high δ34S values (Fig. 16C). At Anna and Badu diabase-hosted deposits, unzoned pyrite (15.0–18.8‰), arsenopyrite (15.1–18.5‰), and stibnite (16.2–16.8‰) have a similar range of the δ34S values (Table 3). Unzoned pyrite (9.5–12.5‰) from the Zhesang diabase-hosted ores is similar to the sediment-hosted ore pyrite (8.4–15.8‰), arsenopyrite (9.2–11.3‰), and diagenetic pyrite (10.3–10.8‰) in adjacent sedimentary rocks.

These sulfur isotope studies indicate different sources of reduced sulfur for the deposits. Although the sulfur isotope data from some of the deposits on the north margin overlap the range of magmatic sulfur (–2.5 to 5.1‰; Seal, 2006), data from other deposits such as Lannigou do not. The sulfur isotopes from the southern margin overlap the range for sedimentary rocks that is indicative of a sedimentary or metasedimentary source. The overall variability of the sulfur isotopes on both margins suggests that H2S in the ore fluids was probably derived from sedimentary rocks with different compositions that were metamorphosed during the late stage of the Indosinian and the Yanshanian orogenies in the Youjiang basin.

Ore Depositional Mechanisms

The northern carbonate- and siliciclastic-hosted gold deposits in the Dian-Qian-Gui area share many characteristics with the Nevada Carlin-type gold deposits, including host rocks, alteration types, mass transfer, element associations, and residence of gold. Although the ore fluids for these deposits have somewhat different temperatures, pressures, compositions, and sources of components from the Nevada deposits (Cline et al., 2013), they may have ore precipitation mechanisms similar to those of the Nevada deposits in that gold-bearing arsenian pyrite precipitated from H2S-rich fluids by sulfidation of Fe minerals in the host rocks (Hofstra et al., 1991; Hofstra and Cline 2000; Emsbo et al., 2003; Cline et al., 2005) and/or mixing with Fe-bearing fluids produced by dissolution of ferroan minerals in adjacent alteration zones (Kesler et al., 2003; Hofstra et al., 2011).

The detailed fluid inclusion studies for the northern carbonate- and siliciclastic-hosted deposits have demonstrated that the ore fluids are of moderate salinity (~5 wt % NaCl equiv) and temperature (~210°C), with variable CO2, low Fe, and high contents of the characteristic ore elements of As, Sb, and Au (Su et al., 2009b). Although phase separation occurred in the late stibnite-realgar stage of some fault-controlled deposits, there is no evidence for phase separation during deposition of gold-bearing sulfides (Su et al., 2009b). The influx of S, As, Au, Sb, and Fe-poor ore fluids together with the selective replacement of ferroan calcite and dolomite in the host rocks are clear evidence that gold-bearing iron sulfides precipitated from H2S-rich fluids by sulfidation of Fe minerals in the host rocks (Su et al., 2009b). In the high-grade ores, the introduction of both S and Fe provides clear evidence of mixing between H2S-rich fluids and an Fe-bearing fluid. Cooling and neutralization ± effervescence of spent ore fluids account for the precipitation of Fe-poor vein calcite and dolomite and of quartz, with realgar, orpiment, and stibnite in the outer fracture zones of the deposits.

In the diabase-hosted gold deposits on the southern margin of the basin, fluid inclusions are of lower salinity (~2 wt % NaCl equiv) and higher temperature (~245°C) and contain high-density CO2, similar to fluid inclusions in orogenic gold deposits throughout the world. The selective replacement of Fe-Mg minerals in diabase together with the immobility of Fe and introduction of S show that the same ore minerals also precipitated from H2S-rich fluids by sulfidation of Fe minerals in the host rocks, while fluid mixing was not important.

Comparison of the Northern Dian-Qian-Gui Deposits with the Nevada Gold Deposits

This study has shown that the northern Dian-Qian-Gui Carlin-type gold deposits exhibit some characteristics of the Nevada Carlin-type gold deposits as well as significant differences. Comparisons of several Carlin-type gold deposits in Guizhou and Carlin-type gold deposits in Nevada were done by Cline et al. (2013), as well by Xie et al. (2018). In this section, we summarize similarities and differences between the northern Dian-Qian-Gui and the Nevada gold deposits from Cline et al. (2013), which are listed in Table 4.

Table 4.

Comparison of the Dian-Qian-Gui Deposits with Nevada Carlin-Type Gold Deposits

CharacteristicNevadaDian-Qian-Gui “Golden Triangle”
Carlin-typeCarbonate-hostedSiliciclastic/fault-hostedDiabase-hosted
ExamplesCarlin, Jerritt CanyonShuiyindong, Zimudang, TaipingdongLannigou, Yata, JinyaAnna, Badu
Size of largest deposit~1,200 tonnes Au in Betze-Post-Screamer~263 tonnes Au in Shuiyindong~109 tonnes Au in Lannigou~10 tonnes Au in Anna
AgeMid-TertiaryLate Jurassic-Early CretaceousLate Jurassic-Early CretaceousMiddle-Late Triassic
Tectonic settingIn diffuse magmatic arc, onset of extensionPassive continental margin, onset of extension of orogenyPassive continental margin, onset of extension of orogenyPassive continental margin, onset of extension of orogeny
District settingLong-lived, deep crustal fracture zonesLong-lived, deep crustal structure zonesLong-lived, deep crustal structure zonesLong-lived, deep crustal structure zones
Igneous associationBroad spatial correlation with calc-alkaline subduction-related magmatismLack of coeval felsic igneous rocks, Late Cretaceous lamprophyre dikes cropping out near the districtLack of coeval felsic igneous rocks, Late Cretaceous lamprophyre dikes cropping out near the districtLack of coeval felsic igneous rocks in the district, coeval granite cropping out at about 50 km from the district
Host rocksCalcareous sedimentary rocks of diverse facies ± igneous rocksBioclastic limestone intercalated with argillite, calcareous siltstone, and sandstoneCarbonate- and clay-rich fine sand facies of turbiditesLate Permian diabase intrusions
Mineralization styleDiscordant and strata-boundDiscordant and strata-boundVeins and lenses in shear zoneVeins and lenses in shear zone
Alteration typesDecarbonatization, argillization (illite and kaolinite), silicification, sulfidationDecarbonatization, argillization (illite), silicification, sulfidation, and dolomitizationDecarbonatization, argillization (illite), silicification, sulfidation, and dolomitizationSilicification, argillization (illite), sulfidation, and dolomitization
Ore mineralsDisseminated arsenian pyrite, marcasite, arsenopyriteDisseminated arsenian pyrite and arsenopyriteDisseminated arsenian pyrite and arsenopyriteDisseminated arsenopyrite and arsenian pyrite
Au/As ratios of iron sulfides1:10–1:1,0001:10–1:1,0001:10–1:1,0001:1,000–1:100,000
Open space-filling mineralsCalcite, orpiment, realgar, stibnite, quartz, pyrite-marcasite, and bariteVein calcite, dolomite, quartz, orpiment, realgar, and stibniteVein calcite, dolomite, quartz, orpiment, realgar, stibnite, and cinnabarVein calcite, dolomite, quartz, stibnite, and minor galena and sphalerite
Residence of goldSubmicron inclusions and solid solution in arsenian pyrite, marcasite, and arsenopyriteSubmicron inclusions and solid solution in arsenian pyrite and arsenopyriteSubmicron inclusions and solid solution in arsenian pyrite and arsenopyriteSubmicron inclusions and solid solution in arsenopyrite and arsenian pyrite
Geochemical signatureAu, As, Sb, Tl, Hg, ±W, ±Te, ±Se, ±BaAu, As, Sb, Tl, HgAu, As, Sb, Tl, HgAu, As, Sb
Iron mobilityFe introduced at ScreamerFe introduced at high-grade oreNot introducedNot introduced
Base metal contentLow, comparable to goldLow, comparable to goldLow, comparable to goldLow, comparable to gold
Formation temperature~150°–250°C~200°–230°C~200°–300°C~200°–300°C
Depth of formationIntermediate, mainly >2 kmIntermediate, mainly >3 kmIntermediate, mainly >4 kmIntermediate, mainly >4 km
Ore fluid chemistryLow salinity of 3–6 wt % NaCl equiv, 2–4 mol % CO2, 0.01 mol % H2SLow salinity of 4–7 wt % NaCl equiv, <2 mol % CO2Low salinity of 2–5 wt % NaCl equiv, 6–8 mol % CO2Low salinity up to 2 wt % NaCl equiv, ~8 mol % CO2
Source of H2OMeteoric and/or metamorphic/magmaticMetamorphic and meteoricMetamorphicMetamorphic
Source of H2SSedimentary-metasedimentary rocks, mixing with Fe-bearing fluid at ScreamerSedimentary rocks, mixing with Fe-bearing fluid in high-grade oreSedimentary rocksSedimentary-metasedimentary rocks
Ore deposition mechanismsSulfidation ± cooling ± dilutionSulfidation, cooling, and dilutionSulfidation, cooling, and dilutionSulfidation and cooling
ReferencesHofstra and Cline, 2000;Cline et al., 2005; Reich et al., 2005Su et al., 2009b; Cline et al., 2013; this studyZhang et al., 2003; Su et al., 2009b; Cline et al., 2013; this studyDong et al., 2016; this study
CharacteristicNevadaDian-Qian-Gui “Golden Triangle”
Carlin-typeCarbonate-hostedSiliciclastic/fault-hostedDiabase-hosted
ExamplesCarlin, Jerritt CanyonShuiyindong, Zimudang, TaipingdongLannigou, Yata, JinyaAnna, Badu
Size of largest deposit~1,200 tonnes Au in Betze-Post-Screamer~263 tonnes Au in Shuiyindong~109 tonnes Au in Lannigou~10 tonnes Au in Anna
AgeMid-TertiaryLate Jurassic-Early CretaceousLate Jurassic-Early CretaceousMiddle-Late Triassic
Tectonic settingIn diffuse magmatic arc, onset of extensionPassive continental margin, onset of extension of orogenyPassive continental margin, onset of extension of orogenyPassive continental margin, onset of extension of orogeny
District settingLong-lived, deep crustal fracture zonesLong-lived, deep crustal structure zonesLong-lived, deep crustal structure zonesLong-lived, deep crustal structure zones
Igneous associationBroad spatial correlation with calc-alkaline subduction-related magmatismLack of coeval felsic igneous rocks, Late Cretaceous lamprophyre dikes cropping out near the districtLack of coeval felsic igneous rocks, Late Cretaceous lamprophyre dikes cropping out near the districtLack of coeval felsic igneous rocks in the district, coeval granite cropping out at about 50 km from the district
Host rocksCalcareous sedimentary rocks of diverse facies ± igneous rocksBioclastic limestone intercalated with argillite, calcareous siltstone, and sandstoneCarbonate- and clay-rich fine sand facies of turbiditesLate Permian diabase intrusions
Mineralization styleDiscordant and strata-boundDiscordant and strata-boundVeins and lenses in shear zoneVeins and lenses in shear zone
Alteration typesDecarbonatization, argillization (illite and kaolinite), silicification, sulfidationDecarbonatization, argillization (illite), silicification, sulfidation, and dolomitizationDecarbonatization, argillization (illite), silicification, sulfidation, and dolomitizationSilicification, argillization (illite), sulfidation, and dolomitization
Ore mineralsDisseminated arsenian pyrite, marcasite, arsenopyriteDisseminated arsenian pyrite and arsenopyriteDisseminated arsenian pyrite and arsenopyriteDisseminated arsenopyrite and arsenian pyrite
Au/As ratios of iron sulfides1:10–1:1,0001:10–1:1,0001:10–1:1,0001:1,000–1:100,000
Open space-filling mineralsCalcite, orpiment, realgar, stibnite, quartz, pyrite-marcasite, and bariteVein calcite, dolomite, quartz, orpiment, realgar, and stibniteVein calcite, dolomite, quartz, orpiment, realgar, stibnite, and cinnabarVein calcite, dolomite, quartz, stibnite, and minor galena and sphalerite
Residence of goldSubmicron inclusions and solid solution in arsenian pyrite, marcasite, and arsenopyriteSubmicron inclusions and solid solution in arsenian pyrite and arsenopyriteSubmicron inclusions and solid solution in arsenian pyrite and arsenopyriteSubmicron inclusions and solid solution in arsenopyrite and arsenian pyrite
Geochemical signatureAu, As, Sb, Tl, Hg, ±W, ±Te, ±Se, ±BaAu, As, Sb, Tl, HgAu, As, Sb, Tl, HgAu, As, Sb
Iron mobilityFe introduced at ScreamerFe introduced at high-grade oreNot introducedNot introduced
Base metal contentLow, comparable to goldLow, comparable to goldLow, comparable to goldLow, comparable to gold
Formation temperature~150°–250°C~200°–230°C~200°–300°C~200°–300°C
Depth of formationIntermediate, mainly >2 kmIntermediate, mainly >3 kmIntermediate, mainly >4 kmIntermediate, mainly >4 km
Ore fluid chemistryLow salinity of 3–6 wt % NaCl equiv, 2–4 mol % CO2, 0.01 mol % H2SLow salinity of 4–7 wt % NaCl equiv, <2 mol % CO2Low salinity of 2–5 wt % NaCl equiv, 6–8 mol % CO2Low salinity up to 2 wt % NaCl equiv, ~8 mol % CO2
Source of H2OMeteoric and/or metamorphic/magmaticMetamorphic and meteoricMetamorphicMetamorphic
Source of H2SSedimentary-metasedimentary rocks, mixing with Fe-bearing fluid at ScreamerSedimentary rocks, mixing with Fe-bearing fluid in high-grade oreSedimentary rocksSedimentary-metasedimentary rocks
Ore deposition mechanismsSulfidation ± cooling ± dilutionSulfidation, cooling, and dilutionSulfidation, cooling, and dilutionSulfidation and cooling
ReferencesHofstra and Cline, 2000;Cline et al., 2005; Reich et al., 2005Su et al., 2009b; Cline et al., 2013; this studyZhang et al., 2003; Su et al., 2009b; Cline et al., 2013; this studyDong et al., 2016; this study

The geologic setting of the northern Dian-Qian-Gui Carlin-type gold deposits is similar to the geologic setting of the Nevada Carlin-type gold deposits in that it includes rifting of craton, deposition of a passive sequence, and subsequent contractional deformations (Cline et al., 2013). In the Dian-Qian-Gui area, Devonian rifting of the southwest margin of the Precambrian Yangtze craton and opening Paleo-Tethys led to deposition of Devonian to Triassic carbonates and silici-clastic rocks in the Youjiang basin (Wang et al., 1995; Du et al., 2013). These rocks were deformed by later Indosinian and Yanshanian orogenies, which produced the shallow-water carbonate rocks on the platform or the horst blocks were gently folded, whereas the deep-water siliciclastic rocks in the basin were tightly folded and thrusted (Su et al., 2009b). In Nevada, Neoproterozoic rifting of western North America and opening of the Pacific Ocean led to clastic rift sediments overlain by a Cambrian-Devonian passive-margin sequence of carbonaceous carbonate rocks on the shelf and slope, with deep-water siliciclastic and mafic volcanic rocks to the west (Cline et al., 2013). This passive-margin sequence was deformed by later orogenies (Cline et al., 2013). The Antler and Sonoma orogenies placed eugeoclinal sedimentary rocks eastward onto miogeoclinal sedimentary rocks (Hofstra and Cline, 2000).

A key difference between the northern Dian-Qian-Gui and Nevada districts is that there is no felsic magmatism temporally and spatially related to the northern Dian-Qian-Gui deposits, with one exception at the Liaotun gold deposit, where a quartz porphyry dike cut the orebody (Chen et al., 2014). Subduction-related magmatism is widespread in southeast China (Li and Li, 2007), but it is far from the Dian-Qian-Gui deposits. In Nevada, subduction-related magmatism, both preore granitic plutons and synore Eocene dikes and volcanic rocks, are widespread (Ressel and Henry, 2006; Muntean et al., 2011; Cline et al., 2013), and the Carlin-type gold deposits temporally and spatially coincide with the Eocene magmatism and extension (Hofstra et al., 1999; Hofstra and Cline, 2000; Ressel and Henry, 2006; Muntean et al., 2011; Cline et al., 2013).

The deposits in the northern Dian-Qian-Gui area and Nevada commonly occur as clusters adjacent to high-angle basement faults, and orebodies are preferentially hosted in limestone and calcareous siltstone, with As, Sb, Hg, and Tl anomalies. Gold in both regions mainly resides in arsenian pyrite as invisible gold, with Au/As ratio ranges similar to those of iron sulfides (Table 4; Reich et al., 2005; Su et al., 2012).

Hydrothermal alteration in the northern Dian-Qian-Gui and Nevada exhibits some similarities as well as significant differences (Cline et al., 2013). Consistent alteration types (or ore-stage minerals) include decarbonatization, silicification (jasperoid), argillization (kaolinite and illite), and sulfidation (arsenian pyrite). Dolomite is abundant in the main stage of ores in the northern Dian-Qian-Gui deposits but is rare in the Nevada deposits (Cline et al., 2013). The stability of dolomite and illite and the paucity of kaolinite and marcasite in the northern Dian-Qian-Gui deposits suggest that the ore fluids were less acidic than the Nevada ore fluids (Cline et al., 2013). Although sulfidation of ferroan minerals in the host rocks is the predominant ore deposition mechanism in Nevada and in the northern and southern Dian-Qian-Gui deposits, mixing with an Fe-bearing fluid is important in some deposits in Nevada (Kesler et al., 2003; Hofstra et al., 2011) and in the high-grade ores at Shuiyindong. The common occurrence of arsenopyrite in the Dian-Qian-Gui deposits and its paucity in the Nevada deposits suggest that the sulfidation state was slightly lower in the northern Dian-Qian-Gui deposits and significantly lower in the southern Dian-Qian-Gui deposits, where arsenopyrite is the most abundant sulfide. This difference is also evidenced by the low Au/As ratios of the southern deposits, which are similar to those in orogenic gold deposits. Late-stage minerals are similar in both districts, including calcite, realgar, orpiment, and stibnite.

Another significant difference is the abundance of vein quartz in the northern Dian-Qian-Gui deposits, which is rare in the Nevada deposits (Cline et al., 2013). This vein quartz contains CO2-bearing aqueous fluid inclusions trapped under higher temperatures (220°–345°C; Cline et al., 2013) and at greater depths (4–6 km; Su et al., 2009b) than fluid inclusions reported for the Nevada deposits (Cline and Hofstra, 2000; Hofstra and Cline, 2000; Cline et al., 2005).

The northern Dian-Qian-Gui gold deposits share characteristics of both Carlin-type and orogenic gold deposits. Stable isotopes indicate metamorphic sources of ore fluids and sedimentary sources of reduced sulfur. Their pressure-temperature conditions and compositions of the ore fluids are intermediate between deep orogenic and shallow Carlin-type gold systems. Thus, the northern Dian-Qian-Gui deposits may represent a link between orogenic and Carlin-type gold deposits that formed during transitions from compressional to extensional environments.

Critical Questions and Future Work

In this study we present distinct geology, radiogenic and stable isotopes, and fluid inclusions for two episodes of gold mineralization in the Youjiang basin. Although the proposed geologic model explains the spatial association of districts and deposits with crustal faults in the Dian-Qian-Gui area, Middle-Late Triassic gold mineralization on the southern margin and Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous gold mineralization on the northern margin of the basin need to be further confirmed to advance understanding of distribution of Carlin-type gold deposits and their relationship to the geotectonic evolution of the basin:

  1. More accurate dates on ore-stage minerals from more deposits are needed to refine the time-space distribution of gold mineralization in the Youjiang basin. This work must be complemented by careful studies of the mineral paragenesis to ensure that the minerals dated are related to gold mineralization. More in situ sulfur isotope analyses of gold-bearing iron sulfides using SHRIMP or other methods are needed; these will require careful determination of the mineral paragenesis in the deposits and should be accompanied by geochemical studies of fluid inclusion minerals and host rocks.

  2. More geochronology is needed to refine the timing and distribution of magmatism, metamorphism, deformation, and hydrothermal activity, especially along the northern and southern margins of the Youjiang basin. Various igneous rocks from mafic to felsic intrusions or dikes need to be dated to improve our knowledge of geologic history of the Youjiang basin, especially diorite dikes and associated Fe skarn deposits present along the southern margin of the basin (e.g., Funing in Yunnan Province) and other granite porphyry dikes as well as tremolite veins (e.g., Luodian in Guizhou Province) that occur along the northern margin of the basin.

  3. The basement-penetrating faults on each margin of the Youjiang basin need to be investigated in detail, including their geometries, displacements, and relation to folding, especially the Ziyun-Yadu fault on the northern margin of the basin, because it localized multiple magmatic intrusions and hydrothermal systems, including most of the largest Carlin-type gold deposits and the giant granite-related tin-polymetallic sulfide deposits at Dachang in the Guangxi Province, as well as many small Mississippi Valleytype Pb-Zn deposits in northwestern Guizhou. What are the tectonic and genetic relationships between each igneous and/or hydrothermal event along the northern margin of the Youjiang basin?

  4. The MREE-enriched patterns of the calcite-realgar-stibnite veins that have been applied successfully as a pathfinder for exploration of unexposed orebodies in Guizhou may also serve as a guide to ore in Nevada. The distinctive MREE-enriched patterns of hydrothermal vein calcite, dolomite, and fluorite are common in the Dian-Qian-Gui area and are commonly associated with As, Sb, and Hg deposits, even in those of granite-related tin-polymetallic sulfide deposits at Dachang. It may have a special origin or meaning that could improve understanding of Carlin-type gold ore-forming processes.

Acknowledgments

Acknowledgments

We are indebted to many prospectors, geologists, and mining companies who have been exploring for, developing, and mining Carlin-type gold deposits in the Dian-Qian-Gui over the last three decades. We thank our students, colleagues, and mining geologists for improving our understanding of these deposits during field and laboratory work. We would like to thank and acknowledge the Guizhou Bureau of Geology and Mineral Resource, Guizhou Zijin Gold Mines, Eldorado Gold Mines, and many predecessors for discussions and access to samples. Professors Christoph A. Heinrich and Thomas Pettke are particularly thanked for LA-ICP-MS microanalysis of fluid inclusions at ETH, Zürich, Switzerland. We are grateful to ALS Chemex Laboratory at Guangzhou, China, for analyses of major and trace elements and stable isotopes, to Dr. Jianxin Zhao and Dr. Yuexing Feng for Rb-Sr dating at the Radiogenic Isotope Facility, School of Earth Sciences, University of Queensland, Australia, to Professor Leonid Danyushevsky for LA-ICP-MS analysis of sulfides and fluid inclusions at CODES, University of Tasmania, Australia, and to Professor Huanning Qiu for Ar-Ar dating at the Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences. John Muntean, Jean Cline, Robert Ilchik, and Erin Marsh are particularly thanked for reviews that clarified and improved presentation and scientific arguments. This work was supported by Key State Basic Research Program of China (Grant 2014CB440904), the National Science Foundation of China (Grants 41230316, 41272113, 41672080, 40972072, 40672067), and Outstanding Talent Foundation of the Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences. Any use of trade, firm, or product names is for descriptive purposes only and does not imply endorsement by the U.S. Government.

We are indebted to many prospectors, geologists, and mining companies who have been exploring for, developing, and mining Carlin-type gold deposits in the Dian-Qian-Gui over the last three decades. We thank our students, colleagues, and mining geologists for improving our understanding of these deposits during field and laboratory work. We would like to thank and acknowledge the Guizhou Bureau of Geology and Mineral Resource, Guizhou Zijin Gold Mines, Eldorado Gold Mines, and many predecessors for discussions and access to samples. Professors Christoph A. Heinrich and Thomas Pettke are particularly thanked for LA-ICP-MS microanalysis of fluid inclusions at ETH, Zürich, Switzerland. We are grateful to ALS Chemex Laboratory at Guangzhou, China, for analyses of major and trace elements and stable isotopes, to Dr. Jianxin Zhao and Dr. Yuexing Feng for Rb-Sr dating at the Radiogenic Isotope Facility, School of Earth Sciences, University of Queensland, Australia, to Professor Leonid Danyushevsky for LA-ICP-MS analysis of sulfides and fluid inclusions at CODES, University of Tasmania, Australia, and to Professor Huanning Qiu for Ar-Ar dating at the Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences. John Muntean, Jean Cline, Robert Ilchik, and Erin Marsh are particularly thanked for reviews that clarified and improved presentation and scientific arguments. This work was supported by Key State Basic Research Program of China (Grant 2014CB440904), the National Science Foundation of China (Grants 41230316, 41272113, 41672080, 40972072, 40672067), and Outstanding Talent Foundation of the Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences. Any use of trade, firm, or product names is for descriptive purposes only and does not imply endorsement by the U.S. Government.

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Figures & Tables

Fig. 1.

Geologic map of the Dian-Qian-Gui region in southwestern China, showing the locations of Carlin-type gold, antimony, barite, lead-zinc, and tin-polymetallic deposits in the Youjiang basin. Basement-penetrating faults (dashed lines) are inferred from the mapped faults on the surface, alignments of Late Permian diabase intrusions, Tertiary-Quaternary fault-controlled basins, and aeromagnetic anomalies shown in Figure 3.

Fig. 1.

Geologic map of the Dian-Qian-Gui region in southwestern China, showing the locations of Carlin-type gold, antimony, barite, lead-zinc, and tin-polymetallic deposits in the Youjiang basin. Basement-penetrating faults (dashed lines) are inferred from the mapped faults on the surface, alignments of Late Permian diabase intrusions, Tertiary-Quaternary fault-controlled basins, and aeromagnetic anomalies shown in Figure 3.

Fig. 2.

A. Generalized tectonic map of southwest China and North Vietnam (modified from Yang et al., 2012b), showing the distribution of the Emeishan basalts, Late Permian diabase intrusions in the Youjiang basin, Permian-Triassic granite plutons in the Song Hien belt of North Vietnam, and major faults in the Youjiang basin. The major NW- and NE-striking faults that controlled sedimentation in the Youjiang basin are marked. B. Simplified southwest-northeast cross sections from the Indochina block through the Youjiang basin to the Yangtze craton (modified from Du et al., 2013) summarizing the history of sedimentation, deformation, and magmatism. Inset shows the major tectonic units in southeast Asia (modified from Cai and Zhang, 2009). Abbreviations: ASRR = AilaoShan-Red River shear zone, BF = Youjiang fault, BO = Babu ophiolite, GFF = Guangnan-Funing fault, MSF = Mile-Shizong fault, NVB = North Vietnam block, PNF = Pingxiang-Nanning fault, ZYF = Ziyun-Yadu fault.

Fig. 2.

A. Generalized tectonic map of southwest China and North Vietnam (modified from Yang et al., 2012b), showing the distribution of the Emeishan basalts, Late Permian diabase intrusions in the Youjiang basin, Permian-Triassic granite plutons in the Song Hien belt of North Vietnam, and major faults in the Youjiang basin. The major NW- and NE-striking faults that controlled sedimentation in the Youjiang basin are marked. B. Simplified southwest-northeast cross sections from the Indochina block through the Youjiang basin to the Yangtze craton (modified from Du et al., 2013) summarizing the history of sedimentation, deformation, and magmatism. Inset shows the major tectonic units in southeast Asia (modified from Cai and Zhang, 2009). Abbreviations: ASRR = AilaoShan-Red River shear zone, BF = Youjiang fault, BO = Babu ophiolite, GFF = Guangnan-Funing fault, MSF = Mile-Shizong fault, NVB = North Vietnam block, PNF = Pingxiang-Nanning fault, ZYF = Ziyun-Yadu fault.

Fig. 3.

A total aeromagnetic intensity map of the Dian-Qian-Gui area showing mafic and felsic plutons or dikes, the major faults, and the locations of Carlin-type gold, antimony, barite, lead-zinc, and tin-polymetallic deposits in the Youjiang basin. Most positive higher magnetic anomalies reflect the distribution of Emeishan flood basalt, diabase intrusions, and lamprophyre dikes. The deep granitic batholiths inferred from regional Bouguer gravity anomalies (black dashed circles; Mai, 1990) correspond to porphyry dikes (yellow star) and quartz porphyry dike outcrops.

Fig. 3.

A total aeromagnetic intensity map of the Dian-Qian-Gui area showing mafic and felsic plutons or dikes, the major faults, and the locations of Carlin-type gold, antimony, barite, lead-zinc, and tin-polymetallic deposits in the Youjiang basin. Most positive higher magnetic anomalies reflect the distribution of Emeishan flood basalt, diabase intrusions, and lamprophyre dikes. The deep granitic batholiths inferred from regional Bouguer gravity anomalies (black dashed circles; Mai, 1990) correspond to porphyry dikes (yellow star) and quartz porphyry dike outcrops.

Fig. 4.

Simplified geologic plan (A) and cross section (B) of the Shuiyindong carbonate-hosted gold deposit in Guizhou Province (modified from Tan et al., 2015a). The distribution of gold orebodies and related As anomalies at Shuiyindong suggests that fluids moved laterally along the unconformity, upward along axial plane fractures, and outward into permeable reactive strata.

Fig. 4.

Simplified geologic plan (A) and cross section (B) of the Shuiyindong carbonate-hosted gold deposit in Guizhou Province (modified from Tan et al., 2015a). The distribution of gold orebodies and related As anomalies at Shuiyindong suggests that fluids moved laterally along the unconformity, upward along axial plane fractures, and outward into permeable reactive strata.

Fig. 5.

Examples of ores from Shuiyindong. A. Electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) backscattered electron (BSE) image showing ferroan dolomite partially replaced by Fe-poor dolomite, gold-bearing arsenian pyrite, and arsenopyrite. B. BSE image of unzoned arsenian pyrite with illite and jasperoidal quartz that replaced biodetritus or fossils. C. BSE image of unzoned arsenian pyrite enclosed within jasperoidal quartz intergrown with ferroan calcite D. BSE image of zoned arsenian pyrite in siltstone-hosted ores showing As-rich rim on As-poor pyrite core. E. BSE image of a microveinlet of arsenian pyrite. F. BSE image of a microveinlet of arsenian pyrite inset (E) showing a native gold grain usually present at the edge of As-poor pyrite. Abbreviations: Asp = arsenopyrite, As-py = arsenian pyrite, Dol = dolomite, Fe-cal = ferroan calcite, Fe-dol = ferroan dolomite, ill = illite, Py = pyrite, Qz = quartz.

Fig. 5.

Examples of ores from Shuiyindong. A. Electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) backscattered electron (BSE) image showing ferroan dolomite partially replaced by Fe-poor dolomite, gold-bearing arsenian pyrite, and arsenopyrite. B. BSE image of unzoned arsenian pyrite with illite and jasperoidal quartz that replaced biodetritus or fossils. C. BSE image of unzoned arsenian pyrite enclosed within jasperoidal quartz intergrown with ferroan calcite D. BSE image of zoned arsenian pyrite in siltstone-hosted ores showing As-rich rim on As-poor pyrite core. E. BSE image of a microveinlet of arsenian pyrite. F. BSE image of a microveinlet of arsenian pyrite inset (E) showing a native gold grain usually present at the edge of As-poor pyrite. Abbreviations: Asp = arsenopyrite, As-py = arsenian pyrite, Dol = dolomite, Fe-cal = ferroan calcite, Fe-dol = ferroan dolomite, ill = illite, Py = pyrite, Qz = quartz.

Fig. 6.

Generalized alteration and ore mineral paragenesis in the Shuiyindong and Lannigou (Jinfeng) gold deposits in the Dian-Qian-Gui area.

Fig. 6.

Generalized alteration and ore mineral paragenesis in the Shuiyindong and Lannigou (Jinfeng) gold deposits in the Dian-Qian-Gui area.

Fig. 7.

Simplified geologic plan (A) and cross section (B) of Lannigou (Jingfeng) siliciclastic/fault-hosted gold deposit in the Guizhou Province (modified from Ilchik et al., 2005).

Fig. 7.

Simplified geologic plan (A) and cross section (B) of Lannigou (Jingfeng) siliciclastic/fault-hosted gold deposit in the Guizhou Province (modified from Ilchik et al., 2005).

Fig. 8.

Examples of ores from the Lannigou. Polarized light (A) and reflected light (B) photomicrograph of ore showing arsenian pyrite (As-py) and illite (ill) replaced ferroan dolomite (Fe-dol) in a quartz (Qz)-dolomite veinlet. C. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) image of marked area in (B) showing arsenian pyrite and illite replaced ferroan dolomite. D. SEM image of ore in siltstone showing As-rich rim on As-poor pyrite core.

Fig. 8.

Examples of ores from the Lannigou. Polarized light (A) and reflected light (B) photomicrograph of ore showing arsenian pyrite (As-py) and illite (ill) replaced ferroan dolomite (Fe-dol) in a quartz (Qz)-dolomite veinlet. C. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) image of marked area in (B) showing arsenian pyrite and illite replaced ferroan dolomite. D. SEM image of ore in siltstone showing As-rich rim on As-poor pyrite core.

Fig. 9.

Simplified geologic plan (A) and cross section showing drill holes (B) in Anna diabase-hosted gold deposit in Yunnan Province (modified from Hualian Gold Mine, unpub. report, 2012).

Fig. 9.

Simplified geologic plan (A) and cross section showing drill holes (B) in Anna diabase-hosted gold deposit in Yunnan Province (modified from Hualian Gold Mine, unpub. report, 2012).

Fig. 10.

Examples of ores from the Anna gold deposit. A. Field photograph showing milky quartz veins and altered diabase ore. B. Polarized light photomicrograph of ore showing arsenopyrite concentrated within a quartz veinlet and disseminated in groundmass. C. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) image of marked area in (B) showing arsenopyrite, arsenian pyrite, and illite that occur around rutile grains in altered diabase. D. SEM image showing arsenopyrite and illite within a quartz-dolomite veinlet. Abbreviations: Asp = arsenopyrite, As-py = arsenian pyrite, Dol = dolomite, ill = illite, Qz = quartz, Rt = rutile.

Fig. 10.

Examples of ores from the Anna gold deposit. A. Field photograph showing milky quartz veins and altered diabase ore. B. Polarized light photomicrograph of ore showing arsenopyrite concentrated within a quartz veinlet and disseminated in groundmass. C. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) image of marked area in (B) showing arsenopyrite, arsenian pyrite, and illite that occur around rutile grains in altered diabase. D. SEM image showing arsenopyrite and illite within a quartz-dolomite veinlet. Abbreviations: Asp = arsenopyrite, As-py = arsenian pyrite, Dol = dolomite, ill = illite, Qz = quartz, Rt = rutile.

Fig. 11.

Generalized alteration and ore mineral paragenesis in the Anna gold deposits on the southern margin of the Youjiang basin.

Fig. 11.

Generalized alteration and ore mineral paragenesis in the Anna gold deposits on the southern margin of the Youjiang basin.

Fig. 12.

Examples of isocon diagrams and alteration plots for limestone-hosted (A-C) and siltstone-hosted (D-F) ores at the Shuiyindong deposit and diabase-hosted ores (G-I) at the Anna and Badu deposits, showing typical mass flux associated with alteration and mineralization.

Fig. 12.

Examples of isocon diagrams and alteration plots for limestone-hosted (A-C) and siltstone-hosted (D-F) ores at the Shuiyindong deposit and diabase-hosted ores (G-I) at the Anna and Badu deposits, showing typical mass flux associated with alteration and mineralization.

Fig. 13.

Histograms of homogenization temperatures (A) and salinities (B) of fluid inclusions in the early- and main-stage quartz and late-stage calcite from the Shuiyindong, Yata, and Lannigou deposits. Homogenization temperatures (C) and salinities (D) of fluid inclusions in the early-stage quartz from the Anna diabase-hosted gold deposit.

Fig. 13.

Histograms of homogenization temperatures (A) and salinities (B) of fluid inclusions in the early- and main-stage quartz and late-stage calcite from the Shuiyindong, Yata, and Lannigou deposits. Homogenization temperatures (C) and salinities (D) of fluid inclusions in the early-stage quartz from the Anna diabase-hosted gold deposit.

Fig. 14.

Plot of log Au vs. log As (in ppm) of ore fluid compositions (A) analyzed by laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) of fluid inclusions from the Shuiyindong and Yata deposits (Su et al., 2009b) and compared with the bulk ores (gray polygon) of the Shuiyindong (Table 1) and Yata deposits (Zhang, 1997) and arsenian pyrite and arsenopyrite from the Shuiyindong, Lannigou, Yata, and Jinya deposits. Note that the Au/As ratios of ore fluids vary from 1:10 to 1:1,000, which are similar to those of arsenian pyrite, arsenopyrite, and bulk ores in these deposits, in contrast to the Au/As ratios of 1:1,000 to 1:100,000 (B) for ore fluids of the Anna, bulk ores from the Anna, and Badu diabase-hosted deposits (gray polygon; Table 1), and arsenian pyrite and arsenopyrite from the Anna, Badu, and Zhesang deposits. T bar represents the limit of detection of Au in fluid inclusions. The actual values are located along the vertical lines. Red line is the solubility limit of gold in pyrite (Reich et al., 2005). EPMA = electron probe microanalysis.

Fig. 14.

Plot of log Au vs. log As (in ppm) of ore fluid compositions (A) analyzed by laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) of fluid inclusions from the Shuiyindong and Yata deposits (Su et al., 2009b) and compared with the bulk ores (gray polygon) of the Shuiyindong (Table 1) and Yata deposits (Zhang, 1997) and arsenian pyrite and arsenopyrite from the Shuiyindong, Lannigou, Yata, and Jinya deposits. Note that the Au/As ratios of ore fluids vary from 1:10 to 1:1,000, which are similar to those of arsenian pyrite, arsenopyrite, and bulk ores in these deposits, in contrast to the Au/As ratios of 1:1,000 to 1:100,000 (B) for ore fluids of the Anna, bulk ores from the Anna, and Badu diabase-hosted deposits (gray polygon; Table 1), and arsenian pyrite and arsenopyrite from the Anna, Badu, and Zhesang deposits. T bar represents the limit of detection of Au in fluid inclusions. The actual values are located along the vertical lines. Red line is the solubility limit of gold in pyrite (Reich et al., 2005). EPMA = electron probe microanalysis.

Fig. 15.

Oxygen and hydrogen isotope data from the sediment-hosted gold deposits on the northern margin of the basin and the diabase-hosted gold deposits on the southern margin. Note that all data from both sediment- and diabase-hosted gold deposits plot within or below the metamorphic water box and close to the magmatic water box. Dashed arrows are meteoric water-rock exchange curves from Hofstra et al. (2005). Data from Guo et al. (1992), Hofstra et al. (2005), Chen et al. (2010), Wang (2013), Tan et al. (2015b), and this study. Abbreviations: Cal = calcite, Qz = quartz, SMOW = standard mean ocean water.

Fig. 15.

Oxygen and hydrogen isotope data from the sediment-hosted gold deposits on the northern margin of the basin and the diabase-hosted gold deposits on the southern margin. Note that all data from both sediment- and diabase-hosted gold deposits plot within or below the metamorphic water box and close to the magmatic water box. Dashed arrows are meteoric water-rock exchange curves from Hofstra et al. (2005). Data from Guo et al. (1992), Hofstra et al. (2005), Chen et al. (2010), Wang (2013), Tan et al. (2015b), and this study. Abbreviations: Cal = calcite, Qz = quartz, SMOW = standard mean ocean water.

Fig. 16.

Histograms of sulfur isotope data for sulfides from both sediment- and diabase-hosted gold deposits in the Dian-Qian-Gui area. A. Northern carbonate-hosted deposits including Shuiyindong, Taipingdong, Zimudang, Nibao, and Getang. B. Northern siliciclastic/fault-hosted deposits including Lannigou, Yata, and Jinya. C. Southern diabase- and sediment-hosted deposits including Zhesang, Anna, and Badu deposits. Abbreviations: CDT = Canyon Diablo Troilite, Sed-pyrite = sedimentary origin of pyrite.

Fig. 16.

Histograms of sulfur isotope data for sulfides from both sediment- and diabase-hosted gold deposits in the Dian-Qian-Gui area. A. Northern carbonate-hosted deposits including Shuiyindong, Taipingdong, Zimudang, Nibao, and Getang. B. Northern siliciclastic/fault-hosted deposits including Lannigou, Yata, and Jinya. C. Southern diabase- and sediment-hosted deposits including Zhesang, Anna, and Badu deposits. Abbreviations: CDT = Canyon Diablo Troilite, Sed-pyrite = sedimentary origin of pyrite.

Table 1.

Major and Trace Element Compositions of Ores and Barren Host Rocks from Shuiyindong, Anna, and Badu Gold Deposits

Sample no.Ore/host rockAu (ppm)As (ppm)Sb (ppm)Hg (ppm)Tl (ppm)Ba (ppm)Cu (ppm)Pb (ppm)Zn (ppm)Co (ppm)S (wt %)C (wt %)SiO2 (wt %)Al2O3 (wt %)Fe2O3 (wt %)CaO (wt %)MgO (wt %)Na2O (wt %)K2O (wt %)P2O5 (wt %)TiO2 (wt %)MnO (wt %)LOI (wt %)Total
Shuiyindong carbonate-hosted ore
PDI-1-18Ore6.344,230741241451312.210.018.880.446.4225.7014.500.010.070.050.060.3333.0099.52
PDI-1-20 6.814,51025101100918512211.36.718.967.8517.7517.169.830.041.600.311.570.3524.0099.54
IIIa-02 1.4634,1005115<1216<5<5813619.35.18.565.7236.6211.985.150.091.180.550.980.7026.8698.53
IIIb-01 7.792432<13015<51930.811.88.881.016.2426.8615.40<0.010.170.060.160.4637.5096.85
720-45 48.64,600941251452811.810.314.910.695.1125.8415.810.010.120.060.130.3335.4398.45
IIIa-01 224,89013617942<556212.58.230.073.709.1920.569.610.060.660.310.660.5024.0399.42
PDI-1-9 441,1401331172351310.96.745.080.252.9116.209.670.010.050.060.030.2321.5096.00
PDI-1-15 43.91,490153112195611.19.721.630.213.6223.1114.250.010.040.090.020.2332.7095.93
PDI-1-16 21.41,1909211355711.08.038.420.143.2018.7011.500.010.030.200.020.1725.9098.31
002-33 12.41,4201641662831192.45.155.682.005.5512.917.320.010.400.250.380.2913.9298.75
002-34 9.191,080113<18119428102.86.144.872.078.5815.627.78<0.010.440.110.340.4017.2297.50
PD1-1-8 20.31,04010615125<55043.44.263.171.736.467.443.770.010.380.040.280.1611.6595.17
PD1-1-11 26.81,1409512230<54232.03.380.490.963.143.772.190.010.220.090.100.087.8899.04
PD1-1-12 16.7560852<1912<5710.510.816.820.143.2525.8514.73<0.010.020.050.020.2637.0098.20
PD1-1-13 572,76012311040<5611.810.715.850.124.7825.6114.52<0.010.020.090.010.2734.1695.48
PD1-1-14 33.81,67072<11129<51211.19.625.750.143.7222.2413.68<0.010.020.030.010.2531.1097.00
PD1-1-17 20.93,55018511365822.711.113.680.126.3126.7716.72<0.010.020.050.010.2834.6298.65
AverageLimestone0.0197120.237519170.5 12.600.471.9742.303.230.100.090.090.050.1138.4099.90
Shuiyindong siltstone-hosted ore
002-20Ore0.186,31050623681076165366.93.244.1814.2311.565.002.160.232.890.352.690.1113.6597.14
002-23 0.6931939142332406116267.26.638.1412.9312.416.372.540.082.930.192.470.1720.5098.82
002-25 0.276,5704710241410981464010.94.434.8013.3016.945.442.240.112.960.253.140.1419.1098.51
002-28 0.312,67046102418815152366.06.729.9312.3112.979.844.230.072.780.252.180.2721.0095.94
002-29 0.497,560381234591167137527.81.637.0214.7212.593.741.770.113.250.633.350.0520.9098.23
002-62 0.192,1704452189601377368.68.131.498.8012.559.645.850.031.930.211.380.4422.9995.40
002-99 0.503,010122961,460958123339.53.945.5611.5112.074.422.400.032.490.292.320.0916.8598.24
002-69 0.16963128118667556185.88.424.099.8111.6116.149.490.032.240.221.850.2622.7398.54
002-72 0.355,270391322471065148358.34.641.6013.5811.895.062.640.033.180.322.900.1416.5097.89
002-81 0.206145162246588115264.54.444.4014.148.236.583.190.033.410.292.330.1515.3598.17
002-85 0.438531571581,1108511156268.21.353.9513.139.770.480.420.033.170.271.970.0115.2598.60
720-43 0.876911272362916166377.93.539.9615.5110.754.552.350.063.400.323.110.1018.8099.01
002-24 4.684,020138142376618574.43.643.3212.579.518.123.280.102.730.602.240.2112.9995.78
720-92 3.848,2001541081044679211166347.71.249.8516.739.540.740.550.053.590.432.860.0114.8599.28
720-93 6.4810,0003042212183677510125537.61.048.7712.2710.390.500.430.052.610.292.190.0121.0098.57
720-96 7.452,4306045858304527106265.71.057.3111.087.420.400.390.042.340.251.950.0117.2098.43
720-95 8.887,620294108101327731790648.51.050.7111.0311.390.340.370.052.300.211.970.0120.4098.84
720-97 3.8849563101015148859123.60.576.985.174.800.260.220.031.050.160.930.049.2498.91
720-98 5.844986511121,080476111113.60.678.805.674.640.280.240.041.170.161.000.037.6499.81
720-99 7.1974810391376692558132.40.885.632.073.370.230.100.020.310.100.330.066.8699.08
PD1-1-7 1.50597139112516<551124.25.253.784.568.999.324.100.030.950.060.840.2015.6598.56
720-31 2.436,3909216822537121.65.447.964.135.4513.486.900.020.750.510.660.2916.2796.50
002-21 3.451,55063115537577191.88.024.847.3811.9118.297.270.201.310.301.330.4424.5097.88
002-65 1.948,13023622061146771910.34.433.259.5916.079.655.320.022.230.341.930.2520.1198.84
002-64 1.121,2101762274327104303.47.840.7413.725.397.144.560.033.120.252.670.1817.1595.03
002-66 1.194,330186215555978106.67.523.937.0713.6717.309.980.021.680.271.400.4822.6198.50
002-67 7.627,890461231921087120377.07.131.5110.8811.0510.706.880.022.430.232.110.3422.5198.74
002-70 4.124,2604917321491765289.55.332.7711.0714.058.194.640.022.550.271.960.1520.1695.89
002-68 1.318,76032203275152121373713.13.338.3615.0117.032.281.340.053.420.333.030.0617.9098.89
002-71 10.2810,000135271014914323602221.62.624.449.0427.451.881.110.042.030.171.970.0530.9099.13
002-31 9.8910,00080184172295851618.83.430.364.7326.197.693.480.070.970.600.820.6622.5098.11
Shuiyindong siltstone-hosted ore
PDI-1-10 12.601,340151421,115357308463.23.040.3124.274.260.740.720.075.340.535.140.0116.7098.47
720-94 19.1010,00086236433236784597218.30.949.7212.078.770.290.390.052.530.162.140.0122.4098.59
002-30 14.2510,000671742165551191915.52.340.746.2721.775.472.420.051.330.950.780.3417.9098.07
002-32 11.7510,00053132270585891517.32.238.106.2223.724.802.310.071.290.431.460.3318.7597.54
002-22 23.801,820105122939591192.05.740.329.038.8812.685.170.101.860.211.770.2317.4697.81
AverageSiltstone0.0150.21143512611168513.7 35.1617.3414.592.702.200.713.510.303.410.0916.55100.20
Anna diabase-hosted deposit
AN-201Ore0.1213,65061 bdl550845112452.6 39.9411.6312.467.934.560.173.660.472.510.2113.6697.30
AN-202 2.7423,90062 bdl460917125497.2 31.8014.1615.199.625.050.174.480.443.050.2813.5697.94
AN-204 0.507,92036 bdl58054354462.0 40.6712.3311.2210.093.000.143.770.482.790.2413.1798.03
AN-205 2.1234,30077 bdl320983244486.9 34.7911.7214.459.664.730.123.630.802.760.2413.2096.22
AN-206 0.4911,95072 bdl5101024122323.2 41.4612.2614.447.213.340.143.920.432.600.1611.0897.13
AN-207 2.2417,90098 bdl550148893473.8 26.7114.1714.7213.355.060.204.380.483.100.2414.3396.86
AN-208 1.3022,30073 bdl33096770474.0 34.1313.2411.7911.314.910.162.780.623.240.2215.7798.28
AN-209 2.7326,60076 bdl45096498495.7 34.9312.4413.789.884.840.163.950.352.750.2112.6096.02
AN-210 2.0926,10070 bdl5501054102435.0 34.7912.4414.9710.234.880.203.970.412.750.2013.1698.14
AN-404aDiabase0.01104<5 bdl5771101112157bdl 44.7513.5414.348.245.493.110.500.553.060.215.6799.66
AN-404b 0.0134<5 bdl408116713758bdl 44.6914.8515.464.535.843.540.330.623.520.215.3099.06
AN-406a <0.0122<5 bdl1,0901107113570.7 45.3514.0115.088.245.743.031.010.563.110.222.57100.86
AN-406b <0.0110<5 bdl1,0351137122540.1 46.3714.1215.556.936.003.260.780.593.260.252.65100.14
AN-419a 0.01108<5 bdl6211091513053bdl 44.0013.5615.086.175.802.360.560.553.120.207.9199.49
AN-422 0.0138<5 bdl2671279484590.1 35.8813.6213.809.266.130.031.220.553.250.2915.0099.21
AN-211 0.015813 bdl940105811759bdl 45.4314.2614.429.175.572.661.230.483.250.223.1399.99
ANW-201 <0.01745 bdl1,1001094124650.1 47.1413.3914.397.455.343.521.650.563.250.232.5199.61
Badu diabase-hosted deposit
BD-101Ore0.7511,95010 0.52,08085478383.4 37.7411.839.7311.005.210.662.890.482.460.1615.7498.23
BD-102 1.2124,00028 0.61,51548974446.0 33.1412.8912.9510.275.320.813.150.452.740.1815.1997.34
BD-103 1.0529,40022 0.61,59560973436.0 34.8312.7812.839.485.180.793.170.432.720.1815.5098.14
BD-104 1.8221,50019 0.61,680751180446.0 38.7412.2712.908.894.601.112.850.442.660.1514.7999.69
BD-105 1.1516,45018 0.61,97084481414.5 37.6112.3811.179.944.970.852.960.462.620.1614.8098.26
BD-106 0.8417,75016 0.51,985885101455.1 37.5811.9213.109.844.780.702.830.502.610.1714.4898.83
BD-107 0.8816,40018 0.61,86082688414.4 36.0011.8211.8810.445.100.532.890.462.510.1715.4197.54
BD-108 0.567,8409 0.52,04086390413.4 39.2512.399.429.534.630.623.040.452.570.1714.9897.38
BD-112 0.9515,75028 0.71,785901358457.3 37.7511.9912.648.775.020.093.240.462.660.1615.2298.26
BD-113 2.1732,20037 0.51,360721381546.6 37.0712.4613.378.384.410.063.240.422.820.1715.1897.81
BD-114 0.277,9608 0.71,32095485431.9 39.2912.2211.707.914.730.113.210.472.630.1816.3599.02
BD-115 1.5224,90024 0.61,345591359507.2 32.9712.8213.8510.295.700.103.420.432.730.2015.6298.37
BD-116 1.9126,70031 0.51,1608215124516.8 38.8811.8913.018.714.750.073.120.422.620.1714.6298.46
BD-118 1.0318,55027 0.71,415891484467.7 36.4412.2513.208.544.850.133.260.452.630.1715.3797.53
BD-119 1.623,00044 0.71,3551031482487.0 39.3711.9512.517.774.320.073.240.472.610.1615.3798.04
BD-120 1.4927,70025 0.62,800751392447.1 33.1911.9613.5810.205.720.143.180.412.600.1915.7997.35
BDN-402Diabase0.0135<5 bdl30514412118520.1 45.4214.2614.814.536.163.070.190.733.460.136.2799.26
BDN-403 <0.01110<5 bdl1,6801558128590.3 44.0415.4213.615.483.702.731.120.813.730.208.0199.78
BDN-404 <0.0132<5 bdl1,3401269109490.1 39.8512.5413.258.205.621.881.280.633.070.2113.31100.18
BDN-405 <0.0114<5 bdl2921327118530.0 44.5414.2014.595.835.874.100.120.703.330.226.0899.73
BDN-407 <0.015<5 bdl99113712112500.1 44.8513.9814.706.205.673.590.490.733.410.226.32100.44
Sample no.Ore/host rockAu (ppm)As (ppm)Sb (ppm)Hg (ppm)Tl (ppm)Ba (ppm)Cu (ppm)Pb (ppm)Zn (ppm)Co (ppm)S (wt %)C (wt %)SiO2 (wt %)Al2O3 (wt %)Fe2O3 (wt %)CaO (wt %)MgO (wt %)Na2O (wt %)K2O (wt %)P2O5 (wt %)TiO2 (wt %)MnO (wt %)LOI (wt %)Total
Shuiyindong carbonate-hosted ore
PDI-1-18Ore6.344,230741241451312.210.018.880.446.4225.7014.500.010.070.050.060.3333.0099.52
PDI-1-20 6.814,51025101100918512211.36.718.967.8517.7517.169.830.041.600.311.570.3524.0099.54
IIIa-02 1.4634,1005115<1216<5<5813619.35.18.565.7236.6211.985.150.091.180.550.980.7026.8698.53
IIIb-01 7.792432<13015<51930.811.88.881.016.2426.8615.40<0.010.170.060.160.4637.5096.85
720-45 48.64,600941251452811.810.314.910.695.1125.8415.810.010.120.060.130.3335.4398.45
IIIa-01 224,89013617942<556212.58.230.073.709.1920.569.610.060.660.310.660.5024.0399.42
PDI-1-9 441,1401331172351310.96.745.080.252.9116.209.670.010.050.060.030.2321.5096.00
PDI-1-15 43.91,490153112195611.19.721.630.213.6223.1114.250.010.040.090.020.2332.7095.93
PDI-1-16 21.41,1909211355711.08.038.420.143.2018.7011.500.010.030.200.020.1725.9098.31
002-33 12.41,4201641662831192.45.155.682.005.5512.917.320.010.400.250.380.2913.9298.75
002-34 9.191,080113<18119428102.86.144.872.078.5815.627.78<0.010.440.110.340.4017.2297.50
PD1-1-8 20.31,04010615125<55043.44.263.171.736.467.443.770.010.380.040.280.1611.6595.17
PD1-1-11 26.81,1409512230<54232.03.380.490.963.143.772.190.010.220.090.100.087.8899.04
PD1-1-12 16.7560852<1912<5710.510.816.820.143.2525.8514.73<0.010.020.050.020.2637.0098.20
PD1-1-13 572,76012311040<5611.810.715.850.124.7825.6114.52<0.010.020.090.010.2734.1695.48
PD1-1-14 33.81,67072<11129<51211.19.625.750.143.7222.2413.68<0.010.020.030.010.2531.1097.00
PD1-1-17 20.93,55018511365822.711.113.680.126.3126.7716.72<0.010.020.050.010.2834.6298.65
AverageLimestone0.0197120.237519170.5 12.600.471.9742.303.230.100.090.090.050.1138.4099.90
Shuiyindong siltstone-hosted ore
002-20Ore0.186,31050623681076165366.93.244.1814.2311.565.002.160.232.890.352.690.1113.6597.14
002-23 0.6931939142332406116267.26.638.1412.9312.416.372.540.082.930.192.470.1720.5098.82
002-25 0.276,5704710241410981464010.94.434.8013.3016.945.442.240.112.960.253.140.1419.1098.51
002-28 0.312,67046102418815152366.06.729.9312.3112.979.844.230.072.780.252.180.2721.0095.94
002-29 0.497,560381234591167137527.81.637.0214.7212.593.741.770.113.250.633.350.0520.9098.23
002-62 0.192,1704452189601377368.68.131.498.8012.559.645.850.031.930.211.380.4422.9995.40
002-99 0.503,010122961,460958123339.53.945.5611.5112.074.422.400.032.490.292.320.0916.8598.24
002-69 0.16963128118667556185.88.424.099.8111.6116.149.490.032.240.221.850.2622.7398.54
002-72 0.355,270391322471065148358.34.641.6013.5811.895.062.640.033.180.322.900.1416.5097.89
002-81 0.206145162246588115264.54.444.4014.148.236.583.190.033.410.292.330.1515.3598.17
002-85 0.438531571581,1108511156268.21.353.9513.139.770.480.420.033.170.271.970.0115.2598.60
720-43 0.876911272362916166377.93.539.9615.5110.754.552.350.063.400.323.110.1018.8099.01
002-24 4.684,020138142376618574.43.643.3212.579.518.123.280.102.730.602.240.2112.9995.78
720-92 3.848,2001541081044679211166347.71.249.8516.739.540.740.550.053.590.432.860.0114.8599.28
720-93 6.4810,0003042212183677510125537.61.048.7712.2710.390.500.430.052.610.292.190.0121.0098.57
720-96 7.452,4306045858304527106265.71.057.3111.087.420.400.390.042.340.251.950.0117.2098.43
720-95 8.887,620294108101327731790648.51.050.7111.0311.390.340.370.052.300.211.970.0120.4098.84
720-97 3.8849563101015148859123.60.576.985.174.800.260.220.031.050.160.930.049.2498.91
720-98 5.844986511121,080476111113.60.678.805.674.640.280.240.041.170.161.000.037.6499.81
720-99 7.1974810391376692558132.40.885.632.073.370.230.100.020.310.100.330.066.8699.08
PD1-1-7 1.50597139112516<551124.25.253.784.568.999.324.100.030.950.060.840.2015.6598.56
720-31 2.436,3909216822537121.65.447.964.135.4513.486.900.020.750.510.660.2916.2796.50
002-21 3.451,55063115537577191.88.024.847.3811.9118.297.270.201.310.301.330.4424.5097.88
002-65 1.948,13023622061146771910.34.433.259.5916.079.655.320.022.230.341.930.2520.1198.84
002-64 1.121,2101762274327104303.47.840.7413.725.397.144.560.033.120.252.670.1817.1595.03
002-66 1.194,330186215555978106.67.523.937.0713.6717.309.980.021.680.271.400.4822.6198.50
002-67 7.627,890461231921087120377.07.131.5110.8811.0510.706.880.022.430.232.110.3422.5198.74
002-70 4.124,2604917321491765289.55.332.7711.0714.058.194.640.022.550.271.960.1520.1695.89
002-68 1.318,76032203275152121373713.13.338.3615.0117.032.281.340.053.420.333.030.0617.9098.89
002-71 10.2810,000135271014914323602221.62.624.449.0427.451.881.110.042.030.171.970.0530.9099.13
002-31 9.8910,00080184172295851618.83.430.364.7326.197.693.480.070.970.600.820.6622.5098.11
Shuiyindong siltstone-hosted ore
PDI-1-10 12.601,340151421,115357308463.23.040.3124.274.260.740.720.075.340.535.140.0116.7098.47
720-94 19.1010,00086236433236784597218.30.949.7212.078.770.290.390.052.530.162.140.0122.4098.59
002-30 14.2510,000671742165551191915.52.340.746.2721.775.472.420.051.330.950.780.3417.9098.07
002-32 11.7510,00053132270585891517.32.238.106.2223.724.802.310.071.290.431.460.3318.7597.54
002-22 23.801,820105122939591192.05.740.329.038.8812.685.170.101.860.211.770.2317.4697.81
AverageSiltstone0.0150.21143512611168513.7 35.1617.3414.592.702.200.713.510.303.410.0916.55100.20
Anna diabase-hosted deposit
AN-201Ore0.1213,65061 bdl550845112452.6 39.9411.6312.467.934.560.173.660.472.510.2113.6697.30
AN-202 2.7423,90062 bdl460917125497.2 31.8014.1615.199.625.050.174.480.443.050.2813.5697.94
AN-204 0.507,92036 bdl58054354462.0 40.6712.3311.2210.093.000.143.770.482.790.2413.1798.03
AN-205 2.1234,30077 bdl320983244486.9 34.7911.7214.459.664.730.123.630.802.760.2413.2096.22
AN-206 0.4911,95072 bdl5101024122323.2 41.4612.2614.447.213.340.143.920.432.600.1611.0897.13
AN-207 2.2417,90098 bdl550148893473.8 26.7114.1714.7213.355.060.204.380.483.100.2414.3396.86
AN-208 1.3022,30073 bdl33096770474.0 34.1313.2411.7911.314.910.162.780.623.240.2215.7798.28
AN-209 2.7326,60076 bdl45096498495.7 34.9312.4413.789.884.840.163.950.352.750.2112.6096.02
AN-210 2.0926,10070 bdl5501054102435.0 34.7912.4414.9710.234.880.203.970.412.750.2013.1698.14
AN-404aDiabase0.01104<5 bdl5771101112157bdl 44.7513.5414.348.245.493.110.500.553.060.215.6799.66
AN-404b 0.0134<5 bdl408116713758bdl 44.6914.8515.464.535.843.540.330.623.520.215.3099.06
AN-406a <0.0122<5 bdl1,0901107113570.7 45.3514.0115.088.245.743.031.010.563.110.222.57100.86
AN-406b <0.0110<5 bdl1,0351137122540.1 46.3714.1215.556.936.003.260.780.593.260.252.65100.14
AN-419a 0.01108<5 bdl6211091513053bdl 44.0013.5615.086.175.802.360.560.553.120.207.9199.49
AN-422 0.0138<5 bdl2671279484590.1 35.8813.6213.809.266.130.031.220.553.250.2915.0099.21
AN-211 0.015813 bdl940105811759bdl 45.4314.2614.429.175.572.661.230.483.250.223.1399.99
ANW-201 <0.01745 bdl1,1001094124650.1 47.1413.3914.397.455.343.521.650.563.250.232.5199.61
Badu diabase-hosted deposit
BD-101Ore0.7511,95010 0.52,08085478383.4 37.7411.839.7311.005.210.662.890.482.460.1615.7498.23
BD-102 1.2124,00028 0.61,51548974446.0 33.1412.8912.9510.275.320.813.150.452.740.1815.1997.34
BD-103 1.0529,40022 0.61,59560973436.0 34.8312.7812.839.485.180.793.170.432.720.1815.5098.14
BD-104 1.8221,50019 0.61,680751180446.0 38.7412.2712.908.894.601.112.850.442.660.1514.7999.69
BD-105 1.1516,45018 0.61,97084481414.5 37.6112.3811.179.944.970.852.960.462.620.1614.8098.26
BD-106 0.8417,75016 0.51,985885101455.1 37.5811.9213.109.844.780.702.830.502.610.1714.4898.83
BD-107 0.8816,40018 0.61,86082688414.4 36.0011.8211.8810.445.100.532.890.462.510.1715.4197.54
BD-108 0.567,8409 0.52,04086390413.4 39.2512.399.429.534.630.623.040.452.570.1714.9897.38
BD-112 0.9515,75028 0.71,785901358457.3 37.7511.9912.648.775.020.093.240.462.660.1615.2298.26
BD-113 2.1732,20037 0.51,360721381546.6 37.0712.4613.378.384.410.063.240.422.820.1715.1897.81
BD-114 0.277,9608 0.71,32095485431.9 39.2912.2211.707.914.730.113.210.472.630.1816.3599.02
BD-115 1.5224,90024 0.61,345591359507.2 32.9712.8213.8510.295.700.103.420.432.730.2015.6298.37
BD-116 1.9126,70031 0.51,1608215124516.8 38.8811.8913.018.714.750.073.120.422.620.1714.6298.46
BD-118 1.0318,55027 0.71,415891484467.7 36.4412.2513.208.544.850.133.260.452.630.1715.3797.53
BD-119 1.623,00044 0.71,3551031482487.0 39.3711.9512.517.774.320.073.240.472.610.1615.3798.04
BD-120 1.4927,70025 0.62,800751392447.1 33.1911.9613.5810.205.720.143.180.412.600.1915.7997.35
BDN-402Diabase0.0135<5 bdl30514412118520.1 45.4214.2614.814.536.163.070.190.733.460.136.2799.26
BDN-403 <0.01110<5 bdl1,6801558128590.3 44.0415.4213.615.483.702.731.120.813.730.208.0199.78
BDN-404 <0.0132<5 bdl1,3401269109490.1 39.8512.5413.258.205.621.881.280.633.070.2113.31100.18
BDN-405 <0.0114<5 bdl2921327118530.0 44.5414.2014.595.835.874.100.120.703.330.226.0899.73
BDN-407 <0.015<5 bdl99113712112500.1 44.8513.9814.706.205.673.590.490.733.410.226.32100.44

Abbreviations: bdl = below detection of limit, LOI = loss on ignition

Table 2.

Summary of Fluid Inclusion Types, Associated Mineral Assemblages, and Microthermometric Data

 Fluid inclusion assemblageMicrothermometric data 
DepositStageGenerationTypeNo.Tm CO2ThCO2TmTm clThSalinityReference
ShuiyindongEarly-stage quartzPrimaryType 1a14  –3.5 to –4.3 218–2315.7–6.9Su et al. (2009b)
 Main-stage quartzSecondaryType 1a18  –2.3 to –3.3 194–2293.9–5.4 
  SecondaryType 1b28–58.8 to –56.618.0–29.5 V 9.1–9.9214–2250.2–1.8This study
YataEarly-stage quartzPrimaryType 1a23  –3.0 to –4.1 190–2585.0–6.6Su et al. (2009b)
 Main-stage quartzSecondaryType 1a22  –2.1 to –3.3 165–2303.6–5.4 
  Primary and secondaryType 1b67–58.1 to –56.610.2–26.1 L 8.3–9.8190–2450.4–3.3 
 Late-stage quartz and stibnitePrimary in stibniteType 1a12  –1.7 to –3.0 178–2122.9–5.0This study
  Secondary in quartzType 1a23  –1.2 to –4.5 151–2612.1–7.2Su et al. (2009b)
   Type 26–59.6 to –58.16.3–20.9 L 9.5–10.7205d–232d0–1.0 
   Type 325–60.5 to –59.6–24.3 to –22.5 L     
LannigouEarly-stage quartzPrimaryType 1a28  –2.5 to –3.9 207–2784.2–6.5Su (2002)
 Main-stage quartzSecondaryType 1a44  –2.3 to –3.2 180–2283.9–5.3 
   Type 1b8–58.9 to –57.419.8–24.3 L 7.1–9.4241–3591.2–5.5Zhang et al. (2003)
 Late-stage quartz and calciteSecondary in quartzType 1a26  –0.1 to –3.2 117–1660.2–5.3Su (2002)
  Secondary in calcite 25  0.0 to –3.9 116–2070.0–6.3Zhang et al. (2003)
AnnaMain-stage quartzPrimaryType 1b118–59.7 to –56.810.8–28.2 L 9.1–10.0208–3120.0–1.8Dong et al. (2016)
 Fluid inclusion assemblageMicrothermometric data 
DepositStageGenerationTypeNo.Tm CO2ThCO2TmTm clThSalinityReference
ShuiyindongEarly-stage quartzPrimaryType 1a14  –3.5 to –4.3 218–2315.7–6.9Su et al. (2009b)
 Main-stage quartzSecondaryType 1a18  –2.3 to –3.3 194–2293.9–5.4 
  SecondaryType 1b28–58.8 to –56.618.0–29.5 V 9.1–9.9214–2250.2–1.8This study
YataEarly-stage quartzPrimaryType 1a23  –3.0 to –4.1 190–2585.0–6.6Su et al. (2009b)
 Main-stage quartzSecondaryType 1a22  –2.1 to –3.3 165–2303.6–5.4 
  Primary and secondaryType 1b67–58.1 to –56.610.2–26.1 L 8.3–9.8190–2450.4–3.3 
 Late-stage quartz and stibnitePrimary in stibniteType 1a12  –1.7 to –3.0 178–2122.9–5.0This study
  Secondary in quartzType 1a23  –1.2 to –4.5 151–2612.1–7.2Su et al. (2009b)
   Type 26–59.6 to –58.16.3–20.9 L 9.5–10.7205d–232d0–1.0 
   Type 325–60.5 to –59.6–24.3 to –22.5 L     
LannigouEarly-stage quartzPrimaryType 1a28  –2.5 to –3.9 207–2784.2–6.5Su (2002)
 Main-stage quartzSecondaryType 1a44  –2.3 to –3.2 180–2283.9–5.3 
   Type 1b8–58.9 to –57.419.8–24.3 L 7.1–9.4241–3591.2–5.5Zhang et al. (2003)
 Late-stage quartz and calciteSecondary in quartzType 1a26  –0.1 to –3.2 117–1660.2–5.3Su (2002)
  Secondary in calcite 25  0.0 to –3.9 116–2070.0–6.3Zhang et al. (2003)
AnnaMain-stage quartzPrimaryType 1b118–59.7 to –56.810.8–28.2 L 9.1–10.0208–3120.0–1.8Dong et al. (2016)

All values are in °C for temperature and wt % NaCl equiv for salinity

Abbreviations: d = decrepitation temperature, L = homogenized to liquid, Th = homogenization temperature, ThCO2 = homogenization temperature of CO2, Tm = melting temperature of ice, Tmcl = final melting temperature of clathrate, Tm CO2 = final melting temperature of CO2

Table 3.

Summary of Sulfur Isotope Compositions for Sulfides from the Dian-Qian-Gui Area

DepositHost rockStageMineralNo.Range of δ34S (‰)AverageReference
ShuiyindongPermian carbonateMain orePy21–0.6 to 8.44.5Wang et al. (2010), Wang et al. (2013), and Tan et al. (2015b)
  Late oreReal231.5–6.23.4
   Stb7–4.9 to 1.8–1.5
  DiagenesisPy19–25.7 to 17.9–2.3 
  Main orePy31–2.7 to 4.7–0.1Hou et al. (2016)
   Asp4–0.9 to 0.5–0.4 
  DiagenesisPy23–6.9 to 4.9–0.7 
Zimudang Main orePy110.2–4.32.4Guo (1988) and Wang et al. (2013)
  Late oreReal111.1–2.71.8
  DiagenesisPy20.3–2.01.1 
Taipingdong Main orePy11–0.5 to 1.50.6Hou et al. (2016)
   Asp4–0.4 to 0.90.2 
  DiagenesisPy8–5.3 to 3.91.6 
  Late oreReal50.8–3.01.5Wang et al. (2013)
Nibao Main orePy8–1.8 to 0.9–0.2Liu et al. (2006)
Getang Main orePy3–1.3 to 5.01.9Li et al. (1989) and Zhang et al. (2003)
  Late oreStb4–4.5 to –1.9–3.3
  DiagenesisPy12–33.8 to –13.2–25.3 
LannigouTriassci turbiditeMain orePy307.3–13.611.2Zhang et al. (2003)
  Late oreStb38.4–9.89.2 
   Real711.4–11.911.7 
   Cinb410.2–11.310.7 
  DiagenesisPy610.4–13.211.9 
Yata Main orePy19–2.3 to 8.04.7Li et al. (1989) and Zhang et al. (2003)
  Late oreStb32.7–3.93.3
   Real24.3–7.45.9 
  DiagenesisPy2–0.7 to 3.81.6 
Jinya Main orePy10–5.3 to 1.9–3.2Guo et al. (1992) and Liu et al. (2014)
   Asp9–9.0 to –3.9–4.5
  Late oreReal2–2.0 to –6.3–4.2 
  DiagenesisPy8–6.9 to 14.03.1 
ZhesangPermian siltstoneMain orePy128.4–15.810.8Zhang et al. (2013) and Dai et al. (2014)
   Asp69.2–11.310.6
  DiagenesisPy210.3–10.810.5 
 DiabaseMain orePy189.5–12.511.2Dong (2017)
AnnaDiabaseMain orePy1615.0–16.916.1 
   Asp2015.1–16.615.8 
Badu Main orePy2115.3–18.817.6 
   Asp816.6–18.517.8 
  Late oreStb1516.2–16.816.5 
DepositHost rockStageMineralNo.Range of δ34S (‰)Average