Skip to Main Content

E-mail: jean.cline@unlv.edu

Abstract

This contribution provides brief introductions to research on Carlin-type gold deposits completed since publication of the 2005 review paper on the deposits in the Economic Geology 100th Anniversary Volume (Cline et al., 2005). Major advances in our understanding of the deposits have resulted from these studies that cover a broad range of topics, from the geology of deposits to recent discoveries and current geologic models.

Studies of host rocks include expanded application of sequence stratigraphy that is refining our understanding of favorable host rocks, now known to have formed on shallow carbonate platforms during lowstands as well as in deep-water slope to basin environments. Sparse igneous dikes at the surface that were emplaced coincident with formation of deposits of the Carlin trend indicate that a batholith of about 1,000 km2 underlies the trend. Reactivated and inverted normal Neoproterozoic faults formed anticlines and fed ore fluids into structurally prepared reactive rock types. Collaborative district studies determined that structural preparation of host rocks along the Carlin trend occurred during three discrete contractional events followed by Eocene extension and coincident mineralization.

Ore and alteration studies identified systematic trace element and sulfur isotope zoning in ore-stage pyrite rims that formed from temporally discrete ore fluids fed by separate structures. Deposit-scale studies determined that ore minerals in shallowly formed deposits are similar to late ore-stage minerals of typical, more deeply formed Carlin-type gold deposits. Breccias containing high-grade ore formed both by replacement and by calcite dissolution and collapse processes. Halos useful in vectoring toward mineralization include rock quality designation values, trace elements above mineralization in premineral rock and in postmineral clay, oxygen isotope ratios, and soil, soil gas, vegetation, and groundwater chemistry. Isotopic studies have indicated relative timing of ore fluid movement through discrete structures.

Deposit ages coincide with spatially related intrusion ages, from about 42 to 35 Ma, and both young from northeast to southwest. Magmatism and deposit formation are interpreted as related to Eocene delamination of subcontinental lithospheric mantle. Apatite fission track data indicate that the Betze-Post deposit, which contained >1, 240 tonnes (40 Moz) of gold, formed in <15,000 to 45,000 years.

New geologic maps illustrate structural and stratigraphic relationships that will contribute to exploration efforts and potential new discoveries. Recent Nevada discoveries include South Arturo on the northern Carlin trend, the Long Canyon deposit in Cambrian-Ordovician rocks in the newly recognized Pequop district in northeastern Nevada, the giant Goldrush deposit on the Battle Mountain-Eureka trend, and the North Bullion deposit at the southern end of the Carlin trend. Two potential new districts of deposits are being actively explored in the Yukon Territory, Canada, and the Golden Triangle, southern China. Deposits in the Golden Triangle and prospects in the Yukon are currently much smaller than deposits in Nevada, and the presence of proximal coeval magmatism, now recognized in Nevada, is unclear. Studies of some of the Chinese deposits indicate that they formed at conditions intermediate to Carlin-type and orogenic deposits.

Recently published geologic models propose that either shallow, basin-related processes or deep magmatic processes provided gold for the Nevada deposits. Studies evaluating the Harrison Pass pluton and the Emigrant Pass volcanic rocks, both the same age as the Carlin deposits, addressed the magmatic model and provide information about potential magmatic ore fluids and systems that may have formed the deposits.

Introduction

Research, exploration, and mining during the 10 to 15 years since the 2005 publication of the summary paper on Carlin-type gold deposits (Cline et al., 2005) in the Economic Geology 100th Anniversary Volume have continued to refine and expand our understanding of these deposits from the ore mineral microscale to the deposit and district scales and on topics ranging from deposit architecture to the time frame of deposit formation. New deposits and districts, perhaps beyond the boundaries of the USA, are being studied, and revised geologic models have been proposed, though wide diversity in deposit models continues.

This introductory paper, in a volume focused on “Carlin-style” deposits that includes papers on Carlin-type gold deposits but also mainly on “Carlin-like” deposits that show both similarities to and differences from classic Carlin-type gold deposits, provides brief introductions to new observations, data, and interpretations about “Carlin-type” deposits. Thus, this paper both advances our knowledge of these deposits and contributes to a continuously expanding understanding of Carlin-type deposits with which Carlin-like deposits can be compared. Classic Carlin-type gold deposits are defined by the characteristics of deposits on the four main trends and districts: Carlin, Battle Mountain-Eureka, Getchell, and Jerritt Canyon. These deposits, which make up one of the largest gold districts in the world, exhibit strong similarities and should be considered the “type” Carlin deposits. Carlin-type gold deposits formed between about 42 and 35 Ma (Muntean et al., 2011; Henry et al., 2012) occur along trends or in districts related to deep, high-angle structures (Roberts, 1960; Teal and Jackson, 1997; Crafford and Grauch, 2002), exhibit no spatial relationship to similar-aged, high-level intrusions or skarns, and do not grade into or occur in rocks that exhibit coeval alteration formed at temperatures in excess of ~250°C (Cline et al., 2005). However, excepting the Getchell trend, the deposits are spatially related to coeval dikes that are seldom mineralized, and both deposits and dikes young from northeast Nevada to the southwest (Ressel and Henry, 2006; Muntean et al., 2011). The type deposits are hosted in Paleozoic miogeoclinal, carbonaceous, pyrite-bearing, silty carbonate rocks that occur in the lower plate of a major thrust fault; the upper plate consists of less permeable and reactive siliciclastic rocks (Wells and Mullins, 1973; Hofstra and Cline, 2000; Cline et al., 2005). Large, high-grade deposits tend to have a geometry in which deep, high-angle structures fed ore fluids into higher-level porous and permeable, slope to basin facies, reactive carbonate rocks (Cook and Corboy, 2004; Muntean et al., 2007; Rhys et al., 2015). Deposit size and grade are also associated with strong carbonate dissolution and/or brecciation that concentrated gold-bearing pyrite (Wells and Mullins, 1973; Emsbo et al., 2003). The single ore mineral is gold-bearing and trace element-rich pyrite with gold primarily ionically bound in the pyrite lattice (Wells and Mullins, 1973) but also present in pyrite as nanosized gold particles (Simon et al., 1999; Deditius et al., 2014). Main ore-stage minerals formed in response to cooling and fluid-rock reaction between moderately acidic, aqueous ore fluids at ~180° to 240°C, ~3 wt % NaCl equiv, and trace to minor CO2 and reactive carbonate rocks (Cline and Hofstra, 2000; Hofstra and Cline, 2000). Fluid-rock reaction sulfidized trace iron in host rocks to form ore pyrite, dissolved carbonate minerals creating pore space and/or altering them to jasperoid, and altered silicate minerals to illite, kaolinite, and/or dickite (Hofstra et al., 1991; Hofstra and Cline, 2000; Cline, 2001; Cline et al., 2005; Maroun et al., 2017). Veining is largely absent from ore owing to increased rock porosity that accompanied advancing ore fluid-rock reaction and mineralization.

The deposits also contain late ore-stage minerals of widely varying abundances that include open-space-filling drusy quartz, realgar, orpiment, and calcite and minor to nil fluorite, stibnite, and galkhaite (Hofstra and Cline, 2000; Cline, 2001; Cline et al., 2005). Late ore-stage minerals formed as fluids cooled to <125°C as the hydrothermal system collapsed and meteoric water infiltrated porous and permeable mineralized rock. Ore-stage pyrite trace element chemistry, which is characterized by Au, As, Hg, Cu, Sb, ±Tl, and Te, indicates that these are the elements that were transported by the ore fluid. Silver is low to nil in ore pyrite (Cline, 2001; Barker et al., 2009; Maroun et al., 2017), indicating that, where present in ore, Ag was contributed by other geologic processes. Mineralization is both stratigraphically and structurally controlled with high-grade ore zones occurring at favorable structural and stratigraphic intersections and in breccias (Teal and Jackson, 1997).

This paper focuses on relatively recent studies of Carlin-type gold deposits, with a goal of providing sufficient information to whet the reader’s appetite regarding new data and knowledge, such that the reader pursues the details in the original literature. The studies are organized around the topics of deposit architecture; ore, alteration, breccias, and halos; deposit ages and duration of formation; geologic maps; discoveries; beyond Nevada; and geologic models.

Architecture: Host Rocks, Intrusions, Structure, and Fluid Pathways

Some of the most important advances in our understanding of these deposits fall within the general topic of host-rock architecture, which formed over several hundred million years prior to formation of the ore deposits, including new information about carbonate host rocks, intrusive rocks, and structural preparation. New knowledge about the formation of ideal host rocks has advanced our understanding of and capability to explore for these deposits during the past 10 to 15 years.

Carbonate host rocks

The integration of sequence stratigraphy with carbonate petrology has produced perhaps the most important advance to our understanding of the host-rock types during the past 10 to 15 years. Based on 10-plus years of consulting across northern Nevada on numerous properties and projects, Cook (2015) expanded upon his earlier collaborative work, Cook and Corboy (2004). This effort yielded a comprehensive presentation of geologic processes related to changes in sea level that produced ideal reactive, carbonaceous, pyritic, porous, and permeable carbonate host rocks for Carlin-type gold deposits, supplemented with maps and cross sections illustrating the locations of favorable rocks.

In northern Nevada, sea level fell and rose 13 times from the Cambrian through the Devonian (Fig. 1) (Cook, 2015). At the time that sea level was low, referred to as a lowstand, wave motion eroded platform margins, generating collapse features and producing reactive and porous strata in deeper-water slope to basin environments that seem essential in Carlin-type host rocks. Collapse features include debris flows, turbidites, and platform margin slides and slumps that transported reef material to deeper environments. Millions of years later, during the Eocene, gold was deposited within these carbonate facies in formations such as the Devonian Popovich and Wenban Formations in the northern Carlin trend and Cortez district, respectively, that are host to some of the largest and highest-grade deposits.

Fig. 1.

West to east cross section from Cook (2015) that incorporates time (vertical scale) showing “Pre-Antler depositional facies profile: Lower Cambrian-Upper Devonian total stratigraphic thickness about 15,000 –20,000 feet thick (4575–6100 meters). Lower-Upper Cambrian about 8,000 feet thick (2,450 meters).… Relative thicknesses of stratigraphic units have been altered for diagrammatic purposes” (from Cook, 2015, p. 7). Not to scale; true distance is about 130 to 145 km.

Fig. 1.

West to east cross section from Cook (2015) that incorporates time (vertical scale) showing “Pre-Antler depositional facies profile: Lower Cambrian-Upper Devonian total stratigraphic thickness about 15,000 –20,000 feet thick (4575–6100 meters). Lower-Upper Cambrian about 8,000 feet thick (2,450 meters).… Relative thicknesses of stratigraphic units have been altered for diagrammatic purposes” (from Cook, 2015, p. 7). Not to scale; true distance is about 130 to 145 km.

While wave action was eroding reef margins during low-stands, karsts were forming to the east on carbonate platforms, interior lagoons, and supratidal flats. These shallow-water rocks occur more than 150 km east of the well-known Carlin and Battle Mountain-Eureka trends. The recent discovery of the Long Canyon deposit, hosted in carbonate platform rocks (Bedell et al., 2010; Felder et al., 2011; Smith et al., 2011, 2013; Powell, 2015a; Smith and Cook, 2018), has demonstrated that Cambrian-Ordovician carbonate rocks deposited in a periodically emergent, platform to shelf-edge environment and in superjacent, transgressive calcareous shale and siltstone environments (Cook, 2015; Smith and Cook, 2018) can also provide suitable, permeable, and porous host rocks for Carlin-type gold deposits. This discovery has expanded the area of prospective host-rock terrane available for exploration for Carlin-type deposits eastward into what have been called “shelf rocks.”

Intrusive rocks

The importance of roughly coeval Eocene igneous rocks in the vicinity of the gold deposits was largely unrecognized during the early period of exploration, as most plutons visible at the surface are weakly mineralized at best and dikes crosscutting the deposits, though highly altered, are generally not mineralized. Ressel and Henry (2006) described, dated, and mapped dikes at several deposits, leading to the significant recognition that the Carlin trend is likely underlain by a major Eocene plutonic complex (Fig. 2). The authors determined that the distribution of exposed Eocene dikes of predominantly rhyolitic composition are consistent with emplacement of possibly 10,000 km3 of Eocene magma beneath the northern and central Carlin trend. Furthermore, this complex was emplaced over an ~4-m.y. period that coincided with the formation of Carlin-type gold deposits along the Carlin trend. The deposits and plutons young from north to the south and, based on aeromagnetic data, the plutons appear to shallow to the south. Ressel and Henry (2006) suggest that the Carlin trend may contain the largest concentration of Carlin-type deposits, because the Eocene igneous episode there, which may have contributed to deposit formation, was the largest and longest lived in the Great Basin.

Fig. 2.

“Schematic … cross section of interpreted Eocene plutons beneath the northern and central Carlin trend. The cross section runs approximately north to south…. Geologic and aeromagnetic data suggest that plutons in the north lie at greater depths than plutons in the south. Dikes of the Carlin trend are apophyses from these plutons” (from Ressel and Henry, 2006, p. 377).

Fig. 2.

“Schematic … cross section of interpreted Eocene plutons beneath the northern and central Carlin trend. The cross section runs approximately north to south…. Geologic and aeromagnetic data suggest that plutons in the north lie at greater depths than plutons in the south. Dikes of the Carlin trend are apophyses from these plutons” (from Ressel and Henry, 2006, p. 377).

Structure

Carlin deposits have long been described as being both structurally and stratigraphically controlled (Teal and Jackson, 1997; Cline et al., 2005). Significant structural preparation for Carlin mineralization has been recognized as related to inversion of lithospheric faults formed during Neoproterozoic rifting of Rodinia, during the Antler orogeny and later compressional events (Muntean et al., 2007). These linked high-angle faults were likely major conduits for later deep, gold-bearing ore fluids. Inversion commonly led to formation of overlying anticlines cut by numerous structures including fold hinges, axial plane cleavage, and especially bedding plane slip that were later exploited by hydrothermal fluids. Thus, an architecture of linked deep faults and overlying reactive carbonate rocks with high permeability was established long before the Eocene (Fig. 3) (Muntean et al., 2007). This geometry contributed to formation of major trends of deposits rather than individual deposits only.

Fig. 3.

Cross section showing development of structures formed by inversion of an originally normal structure during compression (from Muntean et al., 2007).

Fig. 3.

Cross section showing development of structures formed by inversion of an originally normal structure during compression (from Muntean et al., 2007).

Major structures exert profound control over deposits as well as district architecture, and a structural study at the Pipe-line deposit, Cortez district, Battle Mountain-Eureka trend (Leonardson, 2011) confirmed that flat structures that are commonly difficult to identify can be as important as high-angle structures that have been long recognized (Roberts, 1960; Radtke et al., 1980; Crafford and Grauch, 2002). The Roberts Mountains thrust, which is present in many deposits on the major trends, is present at Pipeline. The thrust is composed of western assemblage siliciclastic rocks that were thrust over eastern assemblage carbonate rocks, the host rocks in typical Carlin-type gold deposits. Most ore occurs in the underlying carbonate rocks. The thrust is interpreted as having confined hydrothermal flow beneath it within the lower plate. The Pipeline deposit displays greater complexity than most deposits, owing to a thrust-propagated duplex that has repeated the package of lower plate-thrust-upper plate, above the Abyss thrust fault (Leonardson, 2011). Extension in the hanging-wall anticline created damage zones that localized mineralization in the anticline apex and leading steeper limb.

A direct relationship between fault events, fluid migration, and mineralization was inferred along the Post-Genesis fault system, north Carlin trend (Micklethwaite, 2011). The model identified a distribution of aftershock fracturing on damage zone structures along Post and Genesis fault segments that are linked by a stepover across a granodiorite intrusion. Stress transfer modeling is consistent with a hypothesis that fluid migration through fault-related damage zones, triggered by slip events on the Post-Genesis fault system, exerted first-order controls on the distribution of gold (Micklethwaite, 2011). Results show a match between the distribution of stress change and gold distribution. Fault footwalls contain broad scallops of shallow mineralization (0.2–0.6 km depth), whereas deeper mineralization (0.6–2.0 km) correlates with fault system tips (~0.7–0.9 km), stepovers (0.3–0.9 km), and deep hanging wall (>1 km). Results are consistent with fault system enhanced permeability that tapped fluids to 15-km depth.

A collaborative study by consulting, Barrick, and New-mont geologists (Rhys et al., 2015) synthesized observations at several deposits along the Carlin trend and produced an integrated model for structural control over the distribution of gold. The study provides a coherent understanding of the development of the various structures in response to discrete tectonic events and of the continuity of some structural features for some distance as well as the presence of local controls at some deposits. The study confirmed that a variety of structures along the trend formed at different times and that the intersection of local favorable structures—contractional and/or extensional—with stratigraphy controls mineralization.

Specifically, Carlin trend structures evolved during three contractional events. The Roberts Mountains thrust fault formed by eastward thrusting during the Mississippian. Later ENE- to SE-vergent folds associated with W- to WNW-dipping reverse faults probably formed during E- to SE-directed deformation during Paleozoic and Jurassic time. Upright N- to NW-trending folds and NW-trending reverse faults formed during late Mesozoic or early Tertiary Laramide-style deformation (Rhys et al., 2015). Eocene extensional faulting associated with gold mineralization followed these contractional events. The net result is an ideal structural geometry in which ore fluids were channeled into structural culminations by multiple generations of major structures dipping away from a central fault network in the core of the Carlin trend that promoted fluid-rock reaction in lower plate rocks (Rhys et al., 2015; Fig. 4). Examples of significant structurally controlled mineralization include presence of breccias along the Chukar-Alunite fault zone at the Gold Quarry deposit that formed by contractional events and were overprinted by Eocene normal faulting, normal reactivation of the east limb of the E-verging Post-Tuscarora anticline as part of the Post-Gen fault system, and intersection of the shallow-dipping Dillon deformation zone with the rheologic contrast along the contact of sedimentary rocks with the underlying Goldstrike stock and calc-silicate hornfels. Mineralized collapse breccias commonly overprint faulted rock along normal faults and locally reactivated reverse faults.

Fig. 4.

“Schematic cross section looking north through the northern Carlin trend, incorporating generalized mineralization and lithostructural patterns which occur between the Post and Meikle mine areas. The diagram illustrate(s) relationships between structural features, stratigraphic units, and mineralization” (from Rhys et al., 2015, p. 1290).

Fig. 4.

“Schematic cross section looking north through the northern Carlin trend, incorporating generalized mineralization and lithostructural patterns which occur between the Post and Meikle mine areas. The diagram illustrate(s) relationships between structural features, stratigraphic units, and mineralization” (from Rhys et al., 2015, p. 1290).

The relationship of low-angle structures to mineralization at the Pipeline deposit identified by Leonardson (2011) was further examined by Hickey et al. (2014a) by using δ18O and δ13C isotopes to identify ore fluid pathways below the deposit (Fig. 5). The lack of modified δ18O and δ13C signatures and the low concentrations of trace elements in the rocks immediately beneath the main ore zone at Pipeline indicate that the deposit was not a product of large-scale vertical upwelling of auriferous fluids directly into the mineralized region. Instead, flow was focused laterally underneath the deposit along pre-existing low-angle thrusts, particularly the Abyss fault, and subsequently upward into the area of the main ore zone that formed in the Wenban Formation. Fault reactivation likely formed fracture networks in damage zones along low-angle structures, enhancing permeability. The Wenban Formation that hosts most mineralization exhibits the greatest 18O and 13C depletion, indicating strong hydrothermal fluid-rock reaction.

Fig. 5.

Fluid flow was focused laterally along the preexisting low-angle Abyss thrust fault underneath the main ore zone and then up into the reactive Devonian Wenban Formation. A. Geology of the Pipeline orebody interpreted from drill hole logs and from maps and sections presented by Leonardson (2011) and Hickey et al. (2014a). B. Interpreted fluid flow based on δ18O and δ13C signatures and the low concentrations of trace elements in the rocks immediately beneath the main ore zone at Pipeline (Hickey et al., 2014a). Abbreviations: Dhc = Devonian Horse Canyon formation, Dw = Devonian Wenban Formation, ff = fracture flow, Ohc = Ordovician Hanson Creek Formation, Pzl = undifferentiated Ordovician-Devonian Horse Canyon, Wenban, Roberts Mountain, and Hanson Creek Formations, Pzu = undifferentiated Ordovician-Devonian Slaven, Elder, and Valmy Formations, RMT = Roberts Mountain thrust, Srm = Silurian Roberts Mountain Formation, TQa = Miocene-Quaternary volcaniclastic, fluvial, lacustrine, and alluvial sediments.

Fig. 5.

Fluid flow was focused laterally along the preexisting low-angle Abyss thrust fault underneath the main ore zone and then up into the reactive Devonian Wenban Formation. A. Geology of the Pipeline orebody interpreted from drill hole logs and from maps and sections presented by Leonardson (2011) and Hickey et al. (2014a). B. Interpreted fluid flow based on δ18O and δ13C signatures and the low concentrations of trace elements in the rocks immediately beneath the main ore zone at Pipeline (Hickey et al., 2014a). Abbreviations: Dhc = Devonian Horse Canyon formation, Dw = Devonian Wenban Formation, ff = fracture flow, Ohc = Ordovician Hanson Creek Formation, Pzl = undifferentiated Ordovician-Devonian Horse Canyon, Wenban, Roberts Mountain, and Hanson Creek Formations, Pzu = undifferentiated Ordovician-Devonian Slaven, Elder, and Valmy Formations, RMT = Roberts Mountain thrust, Srm = Silurian Roberts Mountain Formation, TQa = Miocene-Quaternary volcaniclastic, fluvial, lacustrine, and alluvial sediments.

Detailed questions about deposit dismemberment by postore normal faults are of major exploration significance. Postmineral structures related to post-Eocene extensional faulting (Colgan et al., 2014) displaced Carlin-type gold deposits and their gold-controlling structures. In the northern Shoshone Range, post-Eocene W-dipping faults tilted blocks to the east. Lower plate sections, potentially mineralized, are exposed locally in the updip parts of tilted blocks (Colgan et al., 2014).

Ore, Alteration, Breccias, and Halos

Ore and alteration studies at the deposits continue to increase understanding of processes of ore formation and have identified halos to the deposits that can be used to vector toward ore. Microscale studies of ore-stage pyrites have provided further detail on pyrite morphology, geochemistry, and sulfur isotopes that contribute to the geologic model. Studies of alteration and mineralization at three Carlin-type deposits on the Carlin (Emigrant, Betze-Post) and Battle Mountain-Eureka trends (Cortez Hills) illustrate generally subtle differences between deposits that probably formed at similar conditions (Betze-Post and Cortez Hills) or more significant differences in deposits formed under atypical conditions (Emigrant). Several studies have further refined or identified new deposit halos, contributing to new or improved exploration techniques.

Ore pyrite

Late ore-stage marcasite veins cutting the Rodeo Creek formation at the Gold Quarry deposit consist principally of microcolloform-banded marcasite. Framboidal pyrite in the sample is restricted to veins or immediately adjacent halos of intensely sulfidized wall rock (Fig. 6; Scott et al., 2009) and is always overgrown by the earliest stage of microcolloform-textured marcasite. The framboids exhibit the same range in size, microcrystal shape, and packing arrangement as framboids interpreted to be of early diagenetic origin. Laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry analyses of framboids rimmed by the earliest marcasite growth stage determined that both framboids and colloform-textured marcasite are enriched in arsenic (2.9–12.0%), antimony (0.4–1.9%), and thallium (176–4,280 ppm). While the spatial resolution of the laser does not permit clear compositional discrimination of the framboids and the enveloping marcasite, analyses centered on framboids suggest these are slightly enriched in gold (~0.5–1.5 ppm), consistent with their interpreted late ore-stage timing of formation (e.g., Emsbo et al., 2003) and demonstrating that framboids do not form unequivocally from sedimentary processes but can form under hydrothermal conditions.

Fig. 6.

Analyses identified gold in framboidal pyrite that formed under hydrothermal conditions and was overgrown by hydrothermal marcasite. Thus, the presence of gold in framboids does not require that gold mineralization occurred during diagenesis (from Scott et al., 2009).

Fig. 6.

Analyses identified gold in framboidal pyrite that formed under hydrothermal conditions and was overgrown by hydrothermal marcasite. Thus, the presence of gold in framboids does not require that gold mineralization occurred during diagenesis (from Scott et al., 2009).

Nanoscale secondary ion mass spectrometer (NanoSIMS) analyses (~170 analytical points per μm) were collected across an ore-stage pyrite rim that formed on a preore pyrite core (dark triangular area on left side of images, Fig. 7) from the Turquoise Ridge deposit, Getchell trend (Barker et al., 2009). Analyses were compiled as maps of Cu, As, Te, and Au (Fig. 7). The vast majority of gold in Carlin-type gold deposits is ionically bound in pyrite, and stages 3a, b, and c shown on the gold map in Figure 7 illustrate the gold and trace metal chemistry of pyrite formed during the ore-forming event at the Turquoise Ridge Carlin-type gold deposit. The high relief and irregular morphology of Au-rich growth stage 3c, the outermost rim, implies growth at higher pyrite supersaturation. Results emphasize the strong, independent variations in Au, Cu, As, and Te concentrations across a single rim that represents the mineralizing event.

Fig. 7.

“Trace element maps from Turquoise Ridge pyrite section (936 881), showing the distribution of Cu (as 32S63Cu), As (as 32S75As), Te (as 130Te), and Au (as 197Au). Different growth stages are separated by red lines in each trace element map and are labeled as growth stages 1, 2, 3a, 3b, and 3c in the Au map. Stages 3a, b, and c represent the Carlin Au event. Shown at the bottom are relative intensity profiles of Au (black line), As (red line), Te (purple line), and Cu (green line) along white line shown in the 32S75As map. Separate growth stages are labeled on the line profile” (Barker et al., 2009, p. 901).

Fig. 7.

“Trace element maps from Turquoise Ridge pyrite section (936 881), showing the distribution of Cu (as 32S63Cu), As (as 32S75As), Te (as 130Te), and Au (as 197Au). Different growth stages are separated by red lines in each trace element map and are labeled as growth stages 1, 2, 3a, 3b, and 3c in the Au map. Stages 3a, b, and c represent the Carlin Au event. Shown at the bottom are relative intensity profiles of Au (black line), As (red line), Te (purple line), and Cu (green line) along white line shown in the 32S75As map. Separate growth stages are labeled on the line profile” (Barker et al., 2009, p. 901).

Because pyrite rather than gold precipitated in Carlin-type gold deposits, and because the pyrite captured ions available in the hydrothermal fluid during pyrite precipitation, ore-stage pyrite chemistry provides information about metals in the ore fluid at the time of pyrite rim precipitation. The variation in pyrite chemistry across the rim in the ore-stage pyrite at Turquoise Ridge, therefore, suggests that concentrations of Au, Cu, As, and Te in the ore fluid independently varied over time (Barker et al., 2009).

NanoSIMS analyses also produced sulfur isotope maps, though analyses were not standardized. Sulfur isotopes in ore pyrite from the West Banshee deposit, north Carlin trend, reveal four major growth stages (Fig. 8) that can be distinguished based on mineral chemistry and texture. Stages 3a to 3c, which form the brightest region on the backscattered electron image (Fig. 8B) and the darkest orange zone on the sulfur isotope map (Fig. 8C), have variably elevated Au and As and the lowest 34S/32S ratios and represent the ore-forming event at West Banshee. “The correlation of higher gold concentrations with the lowest 34S/32S values in pyrite at West Banshee and Turquoise Ridge suggests that precipitation of pyrite with incorporated gold was linked to the influx of a fluid with a distinct sulfur isotope composition or that gold incorporation into pyrite was linked to an event that caused fractionation of sulfur isotopes (e.g., fluid oxidation)” (Barker et al., 2009, p. 903).

Fig. 8.

“NanoSIMS maps showing distribution of (A) 32S (denoting the distribution of pyrite), (B) 197Au in ore-stage pyrite sample 664 211 from Turquoise Ridge, (C) 197Au for the area inside the red square shown in (A) and (B). (D). Sulfur isotope ratio (34S/32S) over almost exactly the same area as the map of 197Au shown in (C), with the dashed white line in (D) representing the boundary between gold-poor and gold-rich pyrite. Note the strong correlation between distribution of gold in (C) and change in sulfur isotope ratios in (D)” (Barker et al., 2009, p. 902).

Fig. 8.

“NanoSIMS maps showing distribution of (A) 32S (denoting the distribution of pyrite), (B) 197Au in ore-stage pyrite sample 664 211 from Turquoise Ridge, (C) 197Au for the area inside the red square shown in (A) and (B). (D). Sulfur isotope ratio (34S/32S) over almost exactly the same area as the map of 197Au shown in (C), with the dashed white line in (D) representing the boundary between gold-poor and gold-rich pyrite. Note the strong correlation between distribution of gold in (C) and change in sulfur isotope ratios in (D)” (Barker et al., 2009, p. 902).

Ore fluid pathways at the Turquoise Ridge deposit, Getchell trend, were identified using patterns of lithology, structure, hydrothermal alteration, gold grade, carbonate oxygen isotopes, and trace element concentrations (Muntean et al., 2009a, b). Gold distribution patterns show that fluid flow was fracture controlled and ore fluids migrated up the district-scale Getchell and Getchell-related faults, entered small-displacement faults in the hanging wall, and followed a preore dike-sedimentary rock contact updip to high-grade orebodies. “The largest ore zone coincides with the footwall of a reactive sedimentary carbonate breccia unit, the base of ferroan calcite-bearing rocks, and a gradient in the organic carbon content of the host rocks” (Muntean et al., 2009a, p. 251). Abundant late ore-stage realgar marks the location of collapse of the hydrothermal system through incursion of meteoric waters down and into the Getchell fault zone. “The patterns of fluid flow agree with percolation theory, whereby at low strain, flow along the Getchell fault linked the source of fluids and metals with sites of discharge into reactive host rocks. Small strain changes likely occurred during the change from compressional to extensional tectonics in the Eocene in northern Nevada” (Muntean et al., 2009a, b).

Submicron Au-bearing pyrite along fluid pathways contains trace metals in addition to gold, and metal ratios and abundances vary systematically across pyrite rims that formed at different locations vertically and laterally across these deposits (Figs. 7, 9). Thus, pyrite rims examined across the deposit exhibit different parts of a single stratigraphy of trace element abundances (Longo et al., 2009a, b). Collectively, these patterns show that the chemical evolution and flux of ore fluids differed along different fluid pathways, and the trace element stratigraphy reveals the relative timing of permeability and fluid transport along various fluid pathways with respect to one another (Fig. 9). “Ore pyrite chemistry along one east-west transect at Turquoise Ridge in the Getchell district demonstrates fluid ingress from the E-dipping Getchell fault at depth into the hanging wall but also reveals that ore deposition migrated in an east to west direction toward the Getchell fault over time. This east to west evolution of permeability indicates transient opening and sealing of ore fluid pathways during mineralization and may have been a response to changing strain domains related to movement along the master Getchell fault during incipient extension and ore deposition” (Longo et al., 2009a, p. 242).

Fig. 9.

East-west cross section through the Better Be There (BBT), High Grade Bullion (HGB), and 148 ore zones at the Turquoise Ridge deposit. Patterns highlight locations of chemically distinct zones in ore pyrite rims and show that, over time, fluid flow shifted from the 148 zone to the HGB zone and finally to the BBT. System collapse, indicated by the presence of late ore-stage realgar, is centered on the BBT. From Longo et al., 2009a.

Fig. 9.

East-west cross section through the Better Be There (BBT), High Grade Bullion (HGB), and 148 ore zones at the Turquoise Ridge deposit. Patterns highlight locations of chemically distinct zones in ore pyrite rims and show that, over time, fluid flow shifted from the 148 zone to the HGB zone and finally to the BBT. System collapse, indicated by the presence of late ore-stage realgar, is centered on the BBT. From Longo et al., 2009a.

Alteration

De Almeida et al. (2010) examined ore and alteration across the giant Betze-Post system, northern Carlin trend, and identified two types of ore that exhibit differences in mineralogy and trace element chemistry. Ore 1, which is hosted by the Roberts Mountains and Rodeo Creek Formations and the Wispy, Planar, and Upper Mud units of the Popovich Formation, is the most abundant and widespread in the system. This ore is characterized by intense hydrothermal alteration, including carbonate dissolution, silicification, precipitation of pyrite, and elevated trace elements (e.g., Ag, As, Au, Ba, Cd, Cu, Hg, Mo, Ni, S, Sb, Se, Te, Tl, and Zn). Ore 2, alternatively, is restricted to the Wispy, Planar, and Soft Sediment Deformation units of the Popovich Formation, is primarily confined to the central-north-northwest portion of the Screamer deposit, and exhibits weak alteration with low concentrations of trace elements. High-grade samples of ores 1 and 2 contain similar average concentrations of Au in whole rock (14 and 19 g/t Au, respectively) and in pyrite (290 and 540 ppm, respectively); however, auriferous pyrite from ore 1 has higher trace element (As, Ag, Cu, Hg, Ni, Sb, Se, and Tl) to Au ratios than ore 2.

Results suggest that higher trace metals and stronger alteration in ore 1 formed proximal to the major conduit, the Post fault, as hot, acidic, SiO2 and trace element-rich auriferous fluids interacted with impure Fe-bearing carbonate host rocks, dissolving the carbonate and precipitating quartz and auriferous pyrite (de Almeida et al., 2010). As ore fluids moved laterally away from the conduit through favorable host rocks, fluid-rock reaction and fluid pH increased, leading to a decreasing rate of carbonate dissolution and quartz precipitation, favoring the formation of more distal ore 2.

The distribution of gold >0.2 g/t in the south half of the Emigrant deposit, southern Carlin trend (Fig. 10), which formed at significantly shallower depths than most Carlin-type gold deposits, is illustrated in longitudinal section (Ressel et al., 2015). This mineralization is localized along the contact of overlying Devonian-Mississippian Pilot shale with underlying Devonian Guillmette limestone. Above the Pilot shale is Late Cretaceous-Eocene conglomerate that contains gold, arsenic, antimony, and mercury and is approximately 200 m thick. The amount of erosion in the Eocene is uncertain but probably no more than the thickness of existing Eocene rocks, implying that the Emigrant deposit formed between 125 and ~500 m paleodepth. Emigrant differs from classic Carlin-type gold deposits by exhibiting (1) more chalcedony and less quartz in jasperoid, (2) greater silicification, (3) elevated Ag, and (4) lower Au/Ag. These characteristics resemble the cooler late ore paragenetic stages of typical Carlin-type gold deposits that formed at greater depths, including deposition of vugfilling chalcedony, barite, calcite, stibnite, zinc-rich sphalerite, marcasite, and adularia, possibly from cooling and dilution of late-stage and relatively Au depleted ore fluid by near-surface, oxidized waters (Ressel et al., 2015). Results are consistent with deposit formation from nearly spent ore fluids that may have deposited less gold with significantly lower Au/Ag ratios than in typical Carlin-type gold deposits.

Fig. 10.

Long section of south half of the Emigrant deposit, southern Carlin trend, showing the location of low-grade gold mineralization. Blue lines are drill holes projected ±150 m (500 ft) into section (from Ressel et al., 2015). Abbreviations: Dg = Devonian Guillmette limestone, Mim = Mississippian Island Mountain Formation, Mp = Mississippian Pilot Shale, Mw = Mississipian Web Formation, Tcgl = Tertiary conglomerate, Te = Eocene/Tertiary Elko Formation, Th = Tertiary/Mid-Miocene Humboldt Formation, Tiw = Oligocene-Eocene Indian Well Formation.

Fig. 10.

Long section of south half of the Emigrant deposit, southern Carlin trend, showing the location of low-grade gold mineralization. Blue lines are drill holes projected ±150 m (500 ft) into section (from Ressel et al., 2015). Abbreviations: Dg = Devonian Guillmette limestone, Mim = Mississippian Island Mountain Formation, Mp = Mississippian Pilot Shale, Mw = Mississipian Web Formation, Tcgl = Tertiary conglomerate, Te = Eocene/Tertiary Elko Formation, Th = Tertiary/Mid-Miocene Humboldt Formation, Tiw = Oligocene-Eocene Indian Well Formation.

Breccias

High-grade ore in the Cortez Hills deposit, Battle Mountain-Eureka trend, is hosted in a large conical-shaped breccia body, the Cortez Hills breccia zone, (Jackson et al., 2011) that is generally contained between Tertiary quartz porphyry sills. The breccia occurs above the Cortez Hills lower zone, a tabular structurally controlled mineralized body (Arbonies et al., 2011). The breccia crosscuts stratigraphy and is zoned from a high-grade (>34 g/t Au) central polymictic breccia outward to a lower-grade zone of rotated breccia (Jackson et al., 2011). Peripheral crackle breccia forms the outer zone. Breccia matrix is dominated by clastic infill with precipitation of late calcite and realgar forming local cement, and much of the deposit has been thoroughly oxidized (Jackson et al., 2011). The Cortez Hills lower zone that appears to have fed mineralizing fluids into the Cortez Hills breccia zone is controlled by a steeply dipping dike swarm and a low-angle structural zone of folding and imbrication known as the Ponderosa fault zone (Arbonies et al., 2011). Gold in both the breccia and lower zones is associated with decarbonatization and silicification, and abundant calcite veins crosscut the deposit. Anomalous arsenic, mercury, antimony, and thallium accompany gold.

Sample transects from low-grade (≤0.03 g/t) or below-detection (<5 ppb) gold to high-grade ore from the Cortez Hills breccia zone (Clark, 2009; Maroun et al., 2017) were examined to identify alteration minerals and to determine the timing of brecciation relative to the timing of ore formation. Sample transects show that grade increases with increasing gold-bearing pyrite, porosity, jasperoid replacement of calcite, and alteration of tremolite, dickite, and clinochlore to illite (Fig. 11). Intense alteration caused near-complete decalcification, producing a microscale, matrix-supported replacement breccia in which a matrix of soft carbon-rich illite, gold-bearing pyrite, and noninterlocking jasperoid contains clasts of relict, variably altered calcite and jasperoid. Collapse of the hydrothermal ore system led to precipitation of coarser late ore-stage mineralization during which sulfide minerals gave way to sulfosalt minerals. Infiltrating, cooler meteoric water contributed to retrograde dissolution of calcite, further concentrating ore-stage minerals and forming the high-grade breccia orebody.

Fig. 11.

(A-D) Hand samples (left), thin sections (center) and photomicrographs under crossed polarized transmitted light (right) of four samples selected along an ~5-m drill hole transect from low to high grade in the Cortez Hills deposit. The samples increase in Au concentration, porosity, and ore pyrite, illite, and jasperoid abundances from rock A to D (from Clark, 2009; Maroun et al., 2017). Abbreviations: cc = calcite, jsp = jasperoid.

Fig. 11.

(A-D) Hand samples (left), thin sections (center) and photomicrographs under crossed polarized transmitted light (right) of four samples selected along an ~5-m drill hole transect from low to high grade in the Cortez Hills deposit. The samples increase in Au concentration, porosity, and ore pyrite, illite, and jasperoid abundances from rock A to D (from Clark, 2009; Maroun et al., 2017). Abbreviations: cc = calcite, jsp = jasperoid.

Deposit halos

A challenge in exploring for Carlin-type gold deposit is the general lack of known geochemical and/or alteration halos that extend beyond the boundaries of mineralization in these deposits, which makes vectoring toward ore a challenge. The small size of most recognized halos is related to the relatively low temperature and short time frame of deposit formation, which have minimized significant transport of indicator elements and formation of distal alteration. Nine studies provide insight into potential alteration, fracture density, trace element, and isotopic halos, which has proven effective in exploration or has contributed to an increased understanding of deposit formation. Systematic lithogeochemical studies of Carlin-type gold deposits by companies have begun in the last few years. Though results generally remain proprietary, they have contributed to identifying halos and vectors toward mineralization in some deposits (Bradley and Eck, 2015).

Deposit characteristics and alteration minerals were examined at Turquoise Ridge, Getchell trend (Cassinerio and Muntean, 2011), to identify halos relative to the 0.34-ppm gold contour, which coincides with the limit of visible alteration (Fig. 12). Decalcification, silicification, argillization, and the presence of late ore-stage realgar rarely extend beyond the gold contour. Geochemical halos that do include arsenic ≥100 ppm to 30 m and antimony ≥5 ppm to 12 m beyond visible alteration. The study determined that arsenic concentrations on fractures might be significantly higher than in adjacent rock but that thallium, tellurium, degree of sulfidation, calcium depletion, and realgar do not form significant halos beyond visible alteration. Mineralogical halos include the presence of kaolinite and illite on fractures forming incoherent halos to 20 m beyond visible alteration. The general lack of halos is related to restricted fracture-controlled hydrothermal fluid flow, rather than pervasive, lithologically controlled fluid flow in this deposit. In highly fractured areas of the deposit, increased fluid-rock reaction resulted in more intense alteration and mineralization. Areas of greater fracturing, identified during core logging, have rock quality designation values of <25%. Such areas, which are the result of preexisting fractures and fracturing caused by collapse during carbonate dissolution, provide, along with arsenic, the largest halos identified in the study.

Fig. 12.

(A-D) Cross sections of the Turquoise Ridge High Grade Bullion ore zone showing alteration, late-stage mineralization, gold grade, and rock quality designation (RQD) halos. RQD values provide the widest halo in this fracture-controlled system. Tick marks indicate depths of 2,000 ft (610 m) and 3,000 ft (915 m) (from Cassinerio and Muntean, 2011).

Fig. 12.

(A-D) Cross sections of the Turquoise Ridge High Grade Bullion ore zone showing alteration, late-stage mineralization, gold grade, and rock quality designation (RQD) halos. RQD values provide the widest halo in this fracture-controlled system. Tick marks indicate depths of 2,000 ft (610 m) and 3,000 ft (915 m) (from Cassinerio and Muntean, 2011).

District-scale geochemical patterns for the Jerritt Canyon district were recognized by Patterson and Muntean (2011), who examined multielement geochemical data determined for samples from >6,400 drill holes. The analyzed rock was from the Saval discontinuity, a stratigraphic interval mainly above or within ore zones at Jerritt Canyon. Statistical analyses and trace element maps identified an Au-Tl-Hg-As-Te signature related to Carlin-type gold deposits in the district. Halos of anomalous elements that extend up to thousands of meters along the discontinuity, laterally away from the vertical projection of the deposits, include Au ≥50 ppb, Tl ≥0.5 ppm, Hg ≥1 ppm, As ≥50 ppm, and gold factor scores from factor analysis (Patterson and Muntean, 2011). The halo most coherent to the Jerritt Canyon deposits is the 50-ppb gold contour, though mercury (1 ppm) and arsenic (50 ppm) also form large halos. The irregular distribution of ore-related features is interpreted as a function of fracture-controlled vertical fluid flow rather than pervasive lateral hydrothermal fluid flow (Patterson and Muntean, 2011).

Gold-bearing fluids were identified as migrating along the same fluid conduits as ammonium-rich fluids at the Water-pipe Canyon area, Jerritt Canyon district, and the Screamer deposit, north Carlin trend, possibly as part of the same hydrothermal fluid, producing ammonium-bearing mica halos at the surface (Mateer, 2010). These surface halos may be an effective tool for remote sensing reconnaissance of clay alteration patterns associated with some Carlin-type deposits.

Four types of micaceous clays (sericite, phengite, illite, and intermediate illite) were identified based on the wavelength position of the AlOH absorption feature (Mateer, 2010). Ammonium was primarily found in sericite and phengite. Sericite was identified in proximity to gold mineralization, whereas phengite was identified outboard of mineralized zones. Both micaceous clays are byproducts produced from the interaction of ore-bearing fluids with K-bearing wall rock. The surface expression of the halos reflects ore-controlling faults and halos that coincide with hematite alteration mapped on the surface (Fig. 13). These alteration patterns provide evidence that ammonium was a component of hydrothermal fluids associated with gold deposition in some Carlin-type deposits (Mateer, 2010).

Fig. 13.

Conceptual model depicting a mechanism for deposition of NH4+ illite in a hydrothermal system. NPI is normal-potassic illite (from Mateer, 2010).

Fig. 13.

Conceptual model depicting a mechanism for deposition of NH4+ illite in a hydrothermal system. NPI is normal-potassic illite (from Mateer, 2010).

Cluer (2012) determined that the geochemistry of clay-filled fractures in postore Miocene Carlin Formation tuffaceous sediments overlying mineralized Paleozoic rocks could be used to explore for Carlin-type gold deposits (Fig. 14). On the northern Carlin trend, Carlin Formation occurring 800 m above the Ren deposit is crosscut by fractures containing predominantly brown montmorillonite (Fig. 14). Selective sampling of montmorillonite revealed anomalous concentrations of the distinctive Carlin geochemical indicators including Au, As, Sb, Hg, Tl, and S. These elements were inferred to be related to the underlying, deep mineralization in lower plate rocks below the Roberts Mountains thrust. These young, in situ geochemical anomalies are an interpreted result of a paleogeothermal event that may have been seismically triggered by the Yellowstone plume, which provided increased heat flow and, coupled with crustal extension, remobilized ore-related elements from the underlying Eocene Carlin deposit. Such fracture-fill clays may successfully guide exploration for deep ore systems (Cluer, 2012).

Fig. 14.

Conceptual geologic section through the Ren 24 zone gold deposit, north Carlin trend, showing main stratotectonic units and faults and hypothesized fracture system that connects deep gold zones to remobilized geochemical anomalies in mapped Carlin Formation fractures (from Cluer, 2012).

Fig. 14.

Conceptual geologic section through the Ren 24 zone gold deposit, north Carlin trend, showing main stratotectonic units and faults and hypothesized fracture system that connects deep gold zones to remobilized geochemical anomalies in mapped Carlin Formation fractures (from Cluer, 2012).

A new quick and inexpensive exploration analytical technique to obtain carbon and oxygen isotope data on carbonate rocks (Barker et al., 2013) provides a tool to search for isotopic halos related to mineralization. The technique utilizes infrared absorption spectroscopy (e.g., off-axis integrated cavity output spectroscopy), and the technology permits rapid and inexpensive analysis and field portability. Carbon and oxygen isotope ratios were obtained on samples from the Screamer ore zone in the giant Betze-Post deposit, northern Carlin trend, where δ18Ov-smow values range between ~7 and 25‰, significantly different from values of similar rocks not altered by hydrothermal fluids (Barker et al., 2013). Analyses of samples from several drill holes along a transect across Screamer showed that the lowest median isotope values coincide with significant gold and that the values in each drill hole decrease toward the center of the deposit, forming halos to ore that extend 3 to 4 km from the main orebodies. The greater degree of 18O depletion coincident with ore is interpreted to result from a greater flux of hydrothermal fluids at the center of mineralization (Barker et al., 2013).

In a study at the North Banshee Carlin-type gold deposit in the northern Carlin trend, Vaughan et al. (2016) determined that calcite veins related to hydrothermal alteration can be identified by depleted 18O, bright cathodoluminescence (CL) imaging, and positive Eu anomalies. The “alteration of wall-rock calcite and evidence of hydrothermal calcite veins define the distal expression of low-temperature hydrothermal alteration in calcite-bearing rocks” (Vaughan et al., 2016, p. 1127). Microdrilled calcite samples of wall rock proximal to gold mineralization have markedly depleted oxygen isotope ratios. Near homogeneous 18O depletion in calcite is a result of pseudomorphic alteration of the limestone through dissolution and precipitation. In addition, replaced limestones have markedly brighter CL responses as a result of increased Mn and Fe in the calcite.

In situ oxygen isotope analyses of various stages of quartz tracked ore fluid movement across the Betze-Post deposit, northern Carlin trend, and documented increasing dilution by meteoric water in both space and time (Lubben et al., 2012). Preore, ore-, late ore-, and postore-stage quartz were identified in various ore zones across the deposit and fluid inclusion temperatures, and oxygen isotope signatures for each stage were determined using fluid inclusion microthermometry and in situ ion probe isotope analyses, respectively. The δ18O values determined for quartz using in situ ion probe (Fig. 15) and conventional analyses and calculated for inclusion fluids show that the isotopic composition of hydrothermal fluids became 18O depleted with time, from the ore stage through the late ore stage to the postore stage. The δ18O composition of each stage of quartz also varies spatially across the Betze-Post deposit, and δ18OV-SMOW values of ore-, late ore-, and postore-stage quartz became more depleted with increasing distance from the Post fault on the east side of the deposit. These patterns are interpreted to result from increasing dilution of the 18O-enriched ore fluid by unevolved meteoric fluids over time and with increased ore fluid transport to the west, away from the master Post fault that delivered hydrothermal fluids to the deposit.

Fig. 15.

(A-F) In situ secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) oxygen isotope ratios of preore quartz (PREq), ore-stage jasperoid (OSjsp), late ore vein and drusy quartz (LOvq, LOdq), and postore drusy quartz (POdq) at North Betze, northern Carlin trend. The open squares indicate locations of analyses. Image A is a combined cathodoluminescence (CL) (15%) and backscattered electron (85%) image; B, C, and D are CL images; E is a photomicrograph; and F is a backscattered electron image. From Lubben et al., 2012.

Fig. 15.

(A-F) In situ secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) oxygen isotope ratios of preore quartz (PREq), ore-stage jasperoid (OSjsp), late ore vein and drusy quartz (LOvq, LOdq), and postore drusy quartz (POdq) at North Betze, northern Carlin trend. The open squares indicate locations of analyses. Image A is a combined cathodoluminescence (CL) (15%) and backscattered electron (85%) image; B, C, and D are CL images; E is a photomicrograph; and F is a backscattered electron image. From Lubben et al., 2012.

Chemical and isotopic compositions of the Devonian Popovich Formation, the major host of ore on the northern Carlin trend, were determined for barren and mineralized drill core from the vicinity of the Screamer ore zone in the Betze-Post deposit (Hofstra et al., 2011). Results permit multiple interpretations, including that minor ore formed without meteoric or magmatic fluid inputs or typical Carlin-type processes. Analyzed samples (n = 332) were obtained from 1.524-m (5 ft) core intervals from five drill holes from rock not altered by the Goldstrike stock, weathering, or oxidation. Mineralized intervals contain up to 19.9 g/t Au, and unmineralized intervals contain ≤0.031 g/t Au. Four rock packages were identified using R-mode factor analysis, including CO2-(–Si)-Ca-Mn-Mg-Sr-(–Sb) in carbonate rocks, Al-Nd-La-Ti-K-Sc-Co-Nb-Na-Ce-Ga in terrigenous detrital rocks, Ni-Cu-V-Zn-Cd-organic C-Mo-Y-Cr in organic material and typical of metalliferous black shales, and Au-As-Mn-Fe-S-Li in Carlin-type mineralized rock.

Unmineralized Popovich Formation (Hofstra et al., 2011) has carbon and oxygen isotope ratios typical of marine limestone, and δ18Ocarbonate and δ13Ccarbonate have ranges of 19 to 27‰ and –2.0 to 1.8‰, respectively. Mineralized core is shifted as low as δ18Ocarbonate equal to 8.6‰ with δ13Ccarbonate of 0.5‰, with the oxygen isotope shift to lower values reflecting alteration by hot meteoric water. Some core containing Au up to 12.1 g/t has isotopic compositions close to typical marine limestone.

Barren core exhibits a range of δ34Ssulfide values from –16 to 16‰, with a mean near 0‰. In mineralized core, δ34Ssulfide values converge from the initial wide range of values toward values near 0‰ with coincident increasing Au; Au/As, As/S, S/Al203, and Fe2O3/Al2O3 ratios; and degree of sulfidation. This result is consistent with formation of ore-stage pyrite with δ34S near 0‰ by sulfidation of host-rock Fe and Fe in a separate fluid. Results are also consistent with Au introduction from a magmatic fluid, though a negative correlation between Au, Cu, and Te does not support a magmatic model (Hofstra et al., 2011).

Geochemical orientation surveys were tested above mineralization in the Cortez mine area, Battle Mountain-Eureka trend, to identify geochemical methods that could be effectively used for exploration for mineralization below transported alluvium (Muntean and Taufen, 2011). Groundwater was found to be an effective and underutilized reconnaissance-scale sample medium, and gold is likely to be soluble in neutral to alkaline groundwater in Nevada and could provide a direct indicator of blind covered ore. Effective techniques that identified Carlin-type and base metal skarn mineralization in material above the covered Gap deposit included soil, soil gas, and vegetation surveys. Arsenic soil anomalies were detectable where there was 25 to 50 m of alluvium, and zinc in soil formed the most coherent anomaly relative to gold. Carbon dioxide and O2 anomalies in soil gas revealed the presence of faults and underlying mineralized carbonate rocks that are likely altering and releasing CO2. Gold, arsenic, and zinc were found in sagebrush and shadscale over most ore zones. Drill hole assays at the gravel-bedrock unconformity yielded a 4 to 5 km2 footprint of the Pipeline deposit at the ≥50 ppb gold level. Alkaline groundwater from monitoring wells was enriched in arsenic, thallium, potassium, and fluorine and provided a ≥5 km2 hydrogeochemical footprint. The surface metal anomalies are consistent with upward migration of metals through fractured alluvial cover (Muntean and Taufen, 2011) owing to barometric pumping of gases or other mechanisms, rather than upward diffusion of metals through a thick vadose zone.

Deposit Ages and Duration of Formation

Deposit ages

Determining the age of individual deposits is necessary in identifying some ore-related processes and is critical in determining whether spatially associated igneous rocks are the same age as the deposits. Henry and colleagues (Henry et al., 2012, 2015; Henry and John, 2015) refined the ages of magmatic events at the Cortez district on the Battle Mountain-Eureka trend and on the southern end of the Carlin trend, where they continue to find near-coeval magmatism and deposit formation. At Cortez Hills (Henry et al., 2012), abundant rhyolite dikes formed coincident with Carlin-type gold mineralization. The dikes were unreactive with ore fluids and are rarely mineralized; however, some dikes do contain marcasite, pyrite, arsenian pyrite, orpiment, and realgar. The weakly mineralized and unmineralized dikes bracket ore, confirming a mineralization age at Cortez Hills of 35.8 to 35.7 Ma (Arbonies et al., 2011; Henry et al., 2012; Henry and John, 2015). Carlin-type gold mineralization at the North Bullion deposit, located in the southern part of the Carlin trend, is no older than ~38.4 Ma, based on ages determined for weakly mineralized dacite dikes and sills. The analyzed dikes require the presence of at least one large pluton in each district.

Ages determined for the North Bullion and Cortez Hills deposits and other Carlin-type gold deposits (Muntean et al., 2011; Henry and John, 2015) correlate with the sweep of magmatism associated with slab rollback (Humphreys, 1995; Henry et al., 2015) that occurred nearly continuously in the Great Basin from about 47 Ma to the present (Henry and John, 2015). The patterns (Fig. 16; Muntean et al., 2011) show that the ages of the deposits and the locations of the fronts of magmatism across central Nevada, related to delamination of subcontinental lithospheric mantle (Humphreys, 1995), coincide in time and space. The coincidence of magmatism and deposit formation supports the magmatic model and the interpretation that magmatism contributed heat and energy to drive hydrothermal mineralization and potentially provided gold and other metals as well (Ressel and Henry, 2006; Muntean et al., 2011; Henry and John, 2015).

Fig. 16.

“Locations of the four main clusters of Carlin-type gold deposits and their estimated age of mineralization (Min) and associated magmatism (Mag)…. the margin of the underlying Precambrian craton (based on Sr isotopes), Mid-Tertiary magmatic fronts…. locations of old reactivated fault systems, and the easternmost extent of the Roberts Mountain thrust fault” (from Muntean et al., 2011, p. 122).

Fig. 16.

“Locations of the four main clusters of Carlin-type gold deposits and their estimated age of mineralization (Min) and associated magmatism (Mag)…. the margin of the underlying Precambrian craton (based on Sr isotopes), Mid-Tertiary magmatic fronts…. locations of old reactivated fault systems, and the easternmost extent of the Roberts Mountain thrust fault” (from Muntean et al., 2011, p. 122).

Duration of deposit formation

The question of how long it took for a Carlin-type gold deposit to form was addressed by a study that coupled apatite fission track thermochronology with thermal modeling at the Betze-Post deposit, northern Carlin trend (Hickey et al., 2014b). Apatite fission track data collected across the Goldstrike stock were used to derive limits on the magnitude of conductive heating and to derive from that the maximum duration of hydrothermal fluid flow along the sides of the stock. These parameters, an estimated deposit formation temperature range from 180° to 220°C from fluid inclusion data, and an estimated average gold flux of ~80 to 30 kg/yr, comparable to modern geothermal field reservoirs, were used to calculate the time required to form the >1,960 tonnes (t) (>63 Moz) gold deposit (Hickey et al., 2009). Assuming a temperature of 200°C, <15,000 to 45,000 years were identified as the time necessary to form Betze-Post, the largest known Carlin-type gold deposit (Hickey et al., 2014b).

Parameters used in calculations including the flux of water, gold, and heat are similar to those measured in the deep fluid reservoirs of large magmatic geothermal systems, indicating that the formation of Betze-Post did not require unusual conditions such as high gold in the fluid or a high flux of fluid through the deposit. Instead, the most important factors to generate this huge deposit in such a geologically short time frame include a large and continuous source of gold and an efficient gold deposition process. Efficient deposition in Carlin-type gold deposit involved sulfidation of host-rock iron by the ore fluid, forming pyrite that captured Au+1 and other trace metal ions proximal to the rapidly precipitating pyrite (Hofstra et al., 1991; Simon et al., 1999), rather than precipitation of native gold. This process, which did not require ore fluids to become saturated in gold or other trace metals (Simon et al., 1999; Reich et al., 2005), may have stripped significantly more gold from the fluid than would have been removed by equilibrium saturation processes. The efficient sulfidation process is probably one of the key factors in the formation of the giant Nevada Carlin-type gold deposit district. The required large and continuous source of gold has yet to be confidently identified.

Geologic Maps

Recently published regional Nevada maps that include Carlin-type and Carlin-like deposits provide geologic relationships and information that significantly advance geologic understanding and exploration efforts. Relevant to known deposits, the maps illustrate relationships between host-rock formations, folds and faults that both increased and reduced rock porosity and permeability, and locations of dikes and intrusions of Eocene and older ages that may have contributed thermal energy, hydrothermal fluid, and/or metals to ore deposit formation or formed zones of enhanced structural preparation owing to rheologic contrasts along igneous/sedimentary rock contacts. Examination of geologic relationships illustrated in maps and cross sections for these districts should prove effective in deducing prospective exploration targets.

The “Preliminary geologic map of the Jerritt Canyon mining district, Elko County, Nevada” (Muntean and Henry, 2007) illustrates surface geologic relationships and interpreted third-dimensional geology at several deposits in the classic Carlin-type Jerritt Canyon district. Significantly, the publication is based on all previous data collected by Yukon-Nevada Gold, the operators at the time mapping was conducted, plus previous data from Freeport Exploration Company, Independence Mining Corporation Inc., Anglo Gold, and Queenstake Resources Ltd., including geology from 12,000 holes drilled by these companies and field checking and mapping from scratch by the authors (Muntean and Henry, 2007). The map and cross section reveal key relationships between the major host rocks in the district—Silurian-Ordovician Hanson Creek member three and Devonian-Silurian Roberts Mountains Formation—with significant structural relationships, including high-angle normal faults cutting potential host rocks, thrust faults that placed upper plate on lower plate rocks, folding of major host rocks forming anticlines and synclines, removal of some members of the Hanson Creek Formation by low-angle faulting, duplication of the Hanson Creek by thrusting, interpreted depths below upper plate to potential host rocks, and locations of Eocene basalt, quartz monzonite, and andesite dikes.

The “Geologic map of the southern part of the Eureka mining district and surrounding areas of the Fish Creek Range, Mountain Boy Range, and Diamond Mountains, Eureka and White Pine Counties, Nevada” (Long et al., 2014), published by the Nevada Bureau of Mines and Geology, also contains several cross sections illustrating structural and stratigraphic interpretations. The accompanying text describes the mineral deposits and geologic history of the area including polymetallic and Carlin-type gold deposits (Long et al., 2014). Described Carlin-type gold deposits within the district include the Windfall (Nolan, 1962; Wilson and Wilson, 1986), Ratto Canyon, and Archimedes deposits and also Lookout Mountain, currently under exploration and for which “Timberline Resources Corporation released a measured and indicated resource estimate of 28,949,000 tons grading 0.018 oz per ton and containing 508,000 oz of gold” (Long et al., 2014, p. 17). Most of this ore occurs in a hydrothermal collapse breccia along a normal fault separating Devonian and Cambrian rocks (Long et al., 2014).

Di Fiori et al. (2015) describe efforts to identify favorable structural settings for Carlin-type gold deposits in the southern Eureka mining district based on integrated information from geologic maps at three scales—1:24,000 (Long et al., 2014), 1:6000 (Di Fiori et al., 2014), and <1:500—generated during exploration mapping. The study identified first-order, kilometer-scale normal faults, including a kilometer-scale faulted relay ramp, second-order normal faults with tens to hundreds of meters of offset, which transferred slip between first-order faults, and third-order normal faults with meterscale offset. Hydrothermal alteration and mineralization were also mapped and are spatially associated with second-order normal faults. The second-order faults display “complex normal fault interactions in an accommodation zone, including zones of dense fault intersections, antithetic normal faults, and fault-damage zones” (Di Fiori et al., 2015, p. 886). The spatially associated alteration, mineralization, and secondary structures demonstrate that “structural conditions were fundamental for generating a network of open-system fluid pathways, which created an ideal structural architecture for Carlin-type mineralization” (Di Fiori et al., 2015, p. 886).

Discoveries

Important discoveries have expanded the prospective terrane for new discoveries in Nevada within and beyond the known deposit districts and trends as well as outside Nevada and the United States. The 2000 discovery of the Long Canyon deposit, east of the previously recognized districts of Carlin-type gold deposits in slope facies carbonate rocks, generated significant excitement by extending the area of prospective terrane in Nevada to the east and by demonstrating that platform carbonate rocks may be sufficiently porous, permeable, and reactive to host economically viable deposits (see Smith and Cook, 2018). The South Arturo discovery at the north end of the Carlin trend in 2005 demonstrated that exploration perseverance within well-endowed mining camps, flexibility in application of a geologic model, and commitment in completing drill hole depths can make the difference in exploration success (Cope et al., 2008). The 2009 discovery of the Goldrush deposit in the Cortez district yielded the third giant Carlin-type gold deposit in the central part of the Battle Mountain-Eureka trend (Creel and Bradley, 2013; Bradley and Eck, 2015), and advanced exploration by 2010 of the North Bullion discovery extended the Carlin trend to the south, beyond the Rain and Emigrant deposits (Jackson et al., 2015).

Pequop district, northeast Nevada

Several gold deposits and prospects, including Long Canyon in the central Pequop Mountains of Elko County, northeastern Nevada, define the new Pequop district (Bedell et al., 2010; Felder et al., 2011; Hellbusch et al., 2011) 100 km east of previously known Carlin deposits. This district is associated with several geophysical anomalies that suggest it may be underlain by a deep magmatic plumbing system (Bedell et al., 2010). “A west- to northwest-trending conductor [is] defined by magnetotelluric surveys that may mark the transition between rocks of the Archean Grouse Creek block and the Paleoproterozoic Mojave Province. Aeromagnetic data suggest the district is astride a northeastern alignment of intrusions that extends from the Bald Mountain district, located to the southwest, and the Tecoma district that can be traced northeast. Low-frequency filtering of gravity data reveals a distinct northwest-trending boundary that coincides with a similarly oriented trend of barite vein occurrences” (Bedell et al., 2010, p. 29) (Fig. 17). Similar to other districts of Carlin-type deposits, the Pequop district is cut by abundant Jurassic and Eocene intrusions (Milliard et al., 2015).

Fig. 17.

Pequops trends. Great Basin isostatic gravity map; warmer colors represent higher density. Yellow barite vein trends are from Papke (1984), dashed black and brown lead isotope boundaries are from Tosdal et al. (2000), and magnetotelluric (MT) shear zone is from Rodriguez et al. (2005). Modified from Bedell et al., 2010.

Fig. 17.

Pequops trends. Great Basin isostatic gravity map; warmer colors represent higher density. Yellow barite vein trends are from Papke (1984), dashed black and brown lead isotope boundaries are from Tosdal et al. (2000), and magnetotelluric (MT) shear zone is from Rodriguez et al. (2005). Modified from Bedell et al., 2010.

Long Canyon: Reserves and resources reported for 2014 for the Long Canyon deposit, the most advanced project in the Pequop district, are 31.53 t gold (1,013,745 oz) at 2.02 g/t and 57.13 t gold (1,836,649 oz) at 2.83 g/t, respectively (Powell, 2015a). Production commenced in late 2016. Long Canyon is unlike most Carlin-type gold deposits in that it is hosted in Cambrian-Ordovician carbonate rocks deposited in a periodically emergent, platform to shelf-edge environment (Smith et al., 2013; Smith and Cook, 2018). Crustal thickening and burial during the Jurassic Elko and Cretaceous Sevier orogenies were responsible for penetrative deformation and metamorphism (Bedell et al., 2010) that deformed and weakly metamorphosed the host rocks (Bedell et al., 2010; Smith et al., 2011, 2013; Smith and Cook, 2018). Though the deposit is brecciated and thoroughly oxidized, mineralization and alteration are typical of known Carlin-type gold deposits (Smith et al., 2011, 2013; Powell, 2015a, b).

West Pequop: Though not a new discovery, exploration by Agnico Eagle and Newmont in a 51/49 joint venture is refining the geology of the West Pequop project (Ricks and Schneider, 2015) west of Long Canyon on the west flank of the Pequop Mountain range. Mineralization occurs in Cambrian to Silurian carbonate rocks and calcareous shales, particularly “along lithologic contacts, erosional surfaces, silty interbeds, low-angle fault planes, and within karst/dissolution cavities” (Hellbusch et al., 2011, p. 609). The project exhibits disseminated mineralization and alteration, including decalcification, argillic alteration, and variable silicification that are similar to typical Carlin deposits (Hellbusch et al., 2011).

Northern Carlin trend, South Arturo

The South Arturo deposit, discovered in 2005 by drilling beneath Dee open-pit waste disposal facilities, is an oxidized, breccia-hosted Carlin-type gold deposit located at the north end of the Carlin trend (Cope et al., 2008; W. Valliant, unpub. report, 2015). The deposit is a 60/40 joint venture between Barrick Gold Exploration Inc. and Premier Gold Mines, Canada (W. Valliant, unpub. report, 2015). The current operation is a large-scale open pit that is producing oxide and refractory ore and heap leach mineralization (W. Valliant, unpub. report, 2015). Resource modeling based on results from exploration activities identified a resource at the time of discovery of 40.4 t (1,300,000 oz) gold (Cope et al., 2008). The three-year mine life was estimated to conclude in 2017 (W. Valliant, unpub. report, 2015).

Carlin-type gold mineralization occurs in a cone-shaped breccia body capped by a relatively thin sequence of Ordovician Vinini Formation in the upper plate of the Roberts Mountain thrust, which is overlain by a thick section of Tertiary Carlin Formation (Cope et al., 2008). Mineralization is structurally controlled along the NS-striking Dee fault, with high grade at intersections with NW-striking faults. The breccia body extends into underlying Silurian-Devonian Bootstrap limestone and the Popovich and Rodeo Creek Formations (Cope et al., 2008; W. Valliant, unpub. report, 2015). Ore occurs dominantly in complex breccias formed by dissolution of carbonate rock, collapse, strong silicification, and local argillization. Gold values range from 0.2 to >35 g/t gold, with an average grade of ~2.0 g/t gold (W. Valliant, unpub. report, 2015). Contrary to typical Carlin-type deposits, Ag/Au is typically 1:1 and increases to 5:1 as gold decreases.

Although Barrick began exploration in this area in 1998, the discovery hole was not drilled until 2005 (Cope et al., 2008). Exploration was initially focused on discovery of a deep sulfide deposit; however, the discovered ore is mostly oxidized and amenable to open-pit mining.

Cortez district, Battle Mountain-Eureka trend, Goldrush deposit

The giant Goldrush deposit, which as of the end of 2016 contained a resource of 298 t gold (9,567,320 oz) and 60 t gold (1,942,560 oz) in the measured and indicated and inferred categories, respectively (Davis and Muntean, 2017), is hosted by the Devonian Wenban Formation and the overlying informally named Devonian Horse Canyon formation, which are also the major host rocks in the nearby Cortez Hills breccia zone (Bradley and Eck, 2015). These rocks are correlative with the Devonian Popovich and Rodeo Creek Formations, respectively, which are the best host rocks on the Carlin trend. The Goldrush deposit exhibits alteration and mineralization typical of other Carlin-type deposits, and mineralization is concentrated in thrust-faulted and folded fossiliferous debris flows that contain “a large stratiform silicified and sulfidized [pyrite-rich] breccia horizon from 15 to 70 m thick that extends more than 7 km” (Bradley and Eck, 2015, p. 403) (Fig. 18).

Fig. 18.

Northwest to southeast long section of the Goldrush deposit displaying lateral extent and continuity of alteration and mineralization in the Wenban Formation (from Bradley and Eck, 2015).

Fig. 18.

Northwest to southeast long section of the Goldrush deposit displaying lateral extent and continuity of alteration and mineralization in the Wenban Formation (from Bradley and Eck, 2015).

Several key elements contributed to the discovery of Goldrush (Creel and Bradley, 2013; Bradley and Eck, 2015). Rocks previously thought to be upper plate rocks that typically overlie the deposits were determined to be lower plate Horse Canyon formation with significant host-rock potential. Wenban and Horse Canyon stratigraphy were reinterpreted using ages from fossils and carbonate sequence stratigraphy principles enhanced by lithogeochemical signatures. A debris flow subunit within the Wenban was recognized as the major host lithology. The detailed stratigraphic study led to recognition of important structures including district-wide fold-and-thrust geometries that variably repeated or attenuated the stratigraphic section. E-verging asymmetrical fault-propagation anticlines and associated underlying thrusts were recognized throughout the Cortez district. A pattern of gold concentration in steeper east limbs and near the apex of folds was recognized.

Southern Carlin trend, North Bullion deposit

The discovery of the North Bullion deposit has extended the Carlin trend south beyond the Rain deposit to the Railroad dome, the fourth and southernmost lower plate window on the Carlin trend (Fig. 19). Identified mineralization occurs in a horst in the footwall of the major N-striking, steeply E-dipping North Bullion fault zone. Mineralization occurs over an area at least 400 × 1,000 m and is open in all directions (Jackson et al., 2015).

Fig. 19.

The North Bullion deposit is centered on the fourth and southernmost dome on the Carlin trend in a horst in the footwall of the major N-striking, steeply E-dipping North Bullion fault zone (from Gold Standard Ventures, 2016). Abbreviations: Ki = Cretaceous intrusion, Ti = Tertiary intrusion.

Fig. 19.

The North Bullion deposit is centered on the fourth and southernmost dome on the Carlin trend in a horst in the footwall of the major N-striking, steeply E-dipping North Bullion fault zone (from Gold Standard Ventures, 2016). Abbreviations: Ki = Cretaceous intrusion, Ti = Tertiary intrusion.

Gold occurs in Mississippian Tripon Pass limestone, Webb Formation, and Chainman Formation, and in a flat-lying dissolution collapse breccia developed in these units and in underlying Devonian Devils Gate limestone (Jackson et al., 2015). The Mississippian autochthonous flysch deposits lie disconformably on the underlying Devonian carbonates (Longo et al., 2002). Though hosted in rock types that are different from typical Carlin-type host rocks, the deposit exhibits Carlin deposit characteristics. Ore zones occur at intersections of one or more structures with favorable rock types. Alteration includes decalcification and formation of illite that encompasses jasperoid that replaced calcite, gold-bearing pyrite is the ore mineral, and the Devils Gate limestone has been dolomitized (Jackson et al., 2015; Newton, 2015).

The geology of the Railroad district that contains North Bullion, coupled with ages determined for igneous rocks (Henry et al., 2012), suggests a zoned relationship with an Eocene polymetallic to Carlin-type gold system (Jackson and Koehler, 2014; Jackson, et al., 2015), indicating that North Bullion also shows similarities to Carlin-like deposits. A copper-molybdenum composite porphyry stock is located 2 km southwest of the North Bullion gold deposit, and associated dikes contained within the N-striking Bullion fault extend to the North Bullion deposit. The stock is rimmed by silver-copper-lead-zinc-molybdenum skarn, and Carlin-type gold-associated alteration minerals overprint skarn minerals (M. McComb, unpub. report, 2013; Koehler et al., 2015). Isotopic dates determined for igneous rocks and alteration products at the stock, skarn, and North Bullion are 38.9 to 37.4 Ma (Henry et al., 2015).

Beyond Nevada?

Over the years, numerous Carlin-type gold deposit discoveries beyond the Nevada borders have been announced, but continued exploration demonstrated that these discoveries were generally limited to rather small, isolated deposits rather than new districts or trends, or the deposits were determined to exhibit, on further examination, significant differences from Nevada Carlin-type deposits. In the past few years, however, two potential new districts of Carlin-type gold deposits have been described, continue to be explored, and continue to show strong similarities to the Nevada deposits. One of these districts was discovered in the Yukon by ATAC Resources Ltd., in Proterozoic Selwyn basin-Paleozoic calcareous host rocks in a passive-margin sequence of the fragmented Rodinian supercontinent (Arehart et al., 2013). These deposits, though still relatively small in size, exhibit strong similarities to the Nevada deposits and continue to be explored (Lane et al., 2015; Tucker et al., 2018). The second district is in the Golden Triangle in southern China, where numerous deposits containing gold-bearing pyrite occur in Permian to Jurassic carbonate and siliciclastic sedimentary sequences (Hu et al., 2002; Zhang et al., 2003; Su et al., 2009). Ongoing exploration and research in both districts are providing increasing detail on deposit characteristics that will determine whether Carlin-type deposits formed beyond the confines of northeastern Nevada.

Yukon Territory, Canada

Proterozoic-Paleozoic calcareous host rocks in the Yukon Territory, Canada, deposit discoveries, which formed during passive-margin rifting of Rodinia (Arehart et al., 2013) (Fig. 20), exhibit strong similarities to the architecture of the Nevada deposits. Other similarities include compressional tectonism as well as thrust faulting and magmatism in the late Paleozoic and Mesozoic. Also, similar to the Nevada deposits, ore-stage minerals include gold in trace element-rich pyrite associated with decarbonatization, silicification, and argillization. The ore stage was followed by late ore realgar, orpiment, stibnite, fluorite, and quartz precipitation, and ore- and late ore-stage minerals indicate that pressure-temperature-chemistry conditions in the Yukon deposits were comparable to those of the Nevada deposits. A potentially important difference is the absence of recognized synore extension and magmatism (Arehart et al., 2013) that appear to be important to formation of the Nevada deposits.

Fig. 20.

A model for the “Rodinian supercontinent just prior to breakup at ~700 Ma showing the location of the future Great Basin and Yukon along the rifted margin of the continent.” From Arehart et al. (2013, p. 390); redrawn from Hoffman (1991).

Fig. 20.

A model for the “Rodinian supercontinent just prior to breakup at ~700 Ma showing the location of the future Great Basin and Yukon along the rifted margin of the continent.” From Arehart et al. (2013, p. 390); redrawn from Hoffman (1991).

Exploration is continuing on the 185-km-long Rackla belt area, where the initial discovery in the Rau trend in the western part of the project area led to delineation of combined oxide and sulfide indicated and inferred resources of 15.8 t (508,000 oz) and 9.0 t (290,000 oz) of gold, respectively (Lane et al., 2015). In 2010, the Osiris cluster of gold concentrations was discovered within the Nadaleen trend in the eastern part of the project. In 2012, the Anubis cluster of gold concentrations was discovered, also within the Nadaleen trend. Gold mineralization in the Nadaleen trend continues to exhibit characteristics of typical Nevada Carlin-type deposits (Lane et al., 2015; Tucker et al., 2018), including δ13C and δ18O depletion in mineralized zones related to increased fluid flow associated with gold mineralization (Tucker et al., 2013). Mineralization is younger than a 74.4 Ma gabbro dike and older than ~42 Ma fission tracks related to cooling of a hydrothermal event or exhumation of the host rocks (Tucker et al., 2018).

Golden Triangle, Guizhou Province, China

Sediment-hosted gold deposits in the “Golden Triangle” in southern China are described as quite similar to the Nevada Carlin-type deposits, although they are smaller and lower in grade (Hu et al., 2002; Su et al., 2009, 2018; Chen et al., 2011). The Chinese deposits display several characteristics of Nevada Carlin-type gold deposits, including that they formed during rifting and passive margin formation, they are enriched in As, Hg, Tl, and Sb in addition to Au (Hu et al., 2002; Zhang et al., 2003), and the vast majority of Au is ionically bound in arsenian pyrite and arsenopyrite (Zhang et al., 2003; Su et al., 2009, 2012). A potentially significant difference between the two districts is that intrusive igneous rocks related to the China deposits have not been recognized, although such a relationship has been difficult to establish, because, as with the Nevada deposits in the past, the age of mineralization has been difficult to confirm (Chen et al., 2015; Hou et al., 2016). Late Cretaceous felsic and ultramafic igneous rocks are present in the vicinity of the deposits, but most researchers have concluded that the deposits are older than these igneous events (Hou et al., 2016). While numerous ages for mineralization have been proposed (e.g., see Chen et al., 2015; Hou et al., 2016), Re-Os analyses of arsenopyrite (~200 Ma; Chen et al., 2015) and Sm-Nd analyses of calcite (~135 Ma; Su et al., 2009) have provided consistent isochron ages (Hou et al., 2016); however, these ages do not correspond with magmatism in the basin (Hou et al., 2016).

Recent studies of the China deposits (Su et al., 2009; Chen et al., 2011; Hou et al., 2016) and studies comparing samples from the China and Nevada deposits (Cline et al., 2013; Xie et al., 2018) identified both similarities to and differences from the two districts. Similarities include (1) tectonic settings in which rifting and passive-margin sedimentation produced similar deposit architectures, (2) orebody host rocks that include structurally prepared limestone and calcareous siltstone (Fig. 21), (3) gold occurring in gold- and trace element-rich arsenian pyrite, and (4) late ore minerals that include calcite, realgar, and orpiment. Significant differences between the two districts include China ore pyrite contains lower gold and trace metals and the gold-bearing pyrite rims have physical characteristics like the earlier formed, preore pyrite cores including a high polishing relief. The rims are, therefore, not visible under the microscope. Decarbonatization, a key alteration process in the Nevada deposits, is a less important process in the China deposits. Instead, host-rock Fe dolomite was sulfidized to form coexisting pyrite and Fe-poor dolomite that is stable in the ore assemblage (Su et al., 2009; Cline et al., 2013; Xie et al., 2018). Hou et al. (2016) used high-resolution SHRIMP δ34S analyses to obtain some of the first in situ sulfur isotope analyses in these deposits. They determined that the ore pyrites have ratios between –2.6 to 1.5‰, and possible sulfur sources include an unidentified magmatic source and an average sedimentary source. The China deposits are also known to have formed at temperatures and pressures higher than formation conditions determined for the Nevada deposits and from fluids that, during the late ore stage, contained abundant CO2 (Su et al., 2009). Observed similarities and differences between the two districts are consistent with the China deposits having formed at conditions intermediate to formation conditions of shallower Carlin deposits and higher pressure-temperature orogenic gold deposits (Su et al., 2009; Cline et al., 2013; Xie et al., 2018).

Fig. 21.

The Golden Triangle, Guizhou Province, southern China, showing the distribution of the Chinese Carlin-type deposits in late Paleozoic carbonate platform rocks (yellow), Triassic basin turbidites (pink), and Triassic platform carbonates (gray). From Xie et al. (2018); modified from Chen et al. (2011). Inset shows location in China.

Fig. 21.

The Golden Triangle, Guizhou Province, southern China, showing the distribution of the Chinese Carlin-type deposits in late Paleozoic carbonate platform rocks (yellow), Triassic basin turbidites (pink), and Triassic platform carbonates (gray). From Xie et al. (2018); modified from Chen et al. (2011). Inset shows location in China.

Geologic Models—Shallow to Deep

Though our knowledge of the deposits has continued to improve during the past 10 to 15 years, interpretations of the geologic processes responsible for deposit formation continue to vary significantly between shallow, basin-related processes (Emsbo et al., 1999, 2003, 2006; Emsbo and Koenig, 2007; Large et al., 2011) and deep magmatic processes that range from contributing heat and energy only to contributing metal as well (Sillitoe and Bonham, 1990; Henry and Ressel, 2000; Ressel et al., 2000; Heitt et al., 2003; Ressel and Henry, 2006; Muntean et al., 2011; Thompson, 2011; Musekamp, 2012; Large et al., 2016). A shallow, two-stage model for the formation of Carlin-type gold deposit and orogenic gold deposits (Large et al., 2009, 2011) suggests that initially gold, arsenic, and a range of trace elements became concentrated in fine-grained black mudstone and siltstone. The gold and other elements were partitioned into syngenetic arsenian pyrite forming in sea floor mud during early diagenesis, producing extensive black shales and turbidites containing from 5 to 100 ppb Au and 10 to 200 ppm As. Late diagenesis and early metamorphism recrystallized the arsenian pyrite to coarser-grained pyrite. Subsequently (Fig. 22), lower green-schist facies and higher-grade metamorphism released gold, arsenic, and other trace elements from source rocks, and the elements were concentrated by hydrothermal processes, depositing gold in structural sites within or above the black shale sequence.

Fig. 22.

Model for shallow basin formation of Carlin-type gold deposit. Gold and arsenic enriched in host rocks during sedimentation were removed and transported laterally by meteoric fluids by initial compression followed by extension and/or by metamorphism and Tertiary intrusions. Metals were deposited in secondary rims on previously formed diagenetic pyrite (from Large et al., 2011).

Fig. 22.

Model for shallow basin formation of Carlin-type gold deposit. Gold and arsenic enriched in host rocks during sedimentation were removed and transported laterally by meteoric fluids by initial compression followed by extension and/or by metamorphism and Tertiary intrusions. Metals were deposited in secondary rims on previously formed diagenetic pyrite (from Large et al., 2011).

An alternative deep magmatic model (Muntean et al., 2011) proposes that delamination of the subducting Farallon slab and related upwelling asthenosphere generated magmas and geochemical processes that produced acidic, high-Au hydrothermal fluids that rose through the crust and deposited Au-bearing pyrite (Fig. 23). This model calls upon a perfect storm of events, including the confluence of an ideal deposit architecture and a tectonic trigger that caused efficient transport and deposition of gold. Key requirements in the model include upwelling asthenosphere and heating of strongly modified subcontinental lithospheric mantle, generating magmas that released gold-bearing fluids at depths of ~10 to 12 km. Rising hydrothermal fluids with elevated H2S and a high ratio of Au/Cu underwent phase changes and mixed with meteoric water. Within a few kilometers of the surface, the fluids dissolved, silicified, argillized, and sulfidized carbonate wall rocks, forming gold-bearing pyrite.

Fig. 23.

Schematic cross section showing magmatic model in which magmas generated at depth transported gold and other metals and passed them off to exsolving hydrothermal fluids near the ductile/brittle transition. These ore fluids rose through the crust and sulfidized iron-bearing calcareous rocks, forming gold-bearing pyrite (from Muntean et al., 2011). SCLM = subcontinental lithospheric mantle, SOLM = suboceanic lithospheric mantle.

Fig. 23.

Schematic cross section showing magmatic model in which magmas generated at depth transported gold and other metals and passed them off to exsolving hydrothermal fluids near the ductile/brittle transition. These ore fluids rose through the crust and sulfidized iron-bearing calcareous rocks, forming gold-bearing pyrite (from Muntean et al., 2011). SCLM = subcontinental lithospheric mantle, SOLM = suboceanic lithospheric mantle.

A contribution from magmas?

Recognition that magmatism coincided in time and space with formation of the Nevada Carlin-type gold deposits has added fuel to the debate over the contribution of magmas to the origin of Carlin-type deposits. This recognition also led to investigations of Eocene igneous rocks proximal to the deposits as potential source magmas. Magmas elsewhere identified as genetically related to ore deposits (Dilles, 1987; Halter et al., 2005, Longo et al., 2010; Richards, 2011; Richards et al., 2012; Chambefort et al., 2013) are typically water rich, strongly oxidized, and sulfur rich, suggesting that these characteristics may be critical ingredients in fertile magmas.

Petrographic characteristics of the Emigrant Pass volcanic field, which formed from 38.4 to 34.1 Ma (Henry and Faulds, 1999) southwest of the Carlin trend coincident with formation of Carlin-type gold deposits (Fig. 24), have similarities to other ore-forming arc magmas (Johnson et al., 2015). The lavas contained ~3 to >4 wt % H2O based on studies of hornblende phenocrysts (Burnham, 1979; Dilles, 1987; Johnson, 2015; Johnson et al., 2015). High Sr/Y ratios in the lavas (Johnson, 2015; Johnson et al., 2015) owing to suppressed plagioclase crystallization related to high amphibole (±garnet) fractionation further indicate high-magmatic water (Richards, 2011; Loucks, 2014). The Emigrant Pass magmas were relatively oxidized, based on the presence of elevated V/Sc ratios, relatively abundant magnetite, and the presence of titanite phenocrysts (Wones, 1989; Loucks, 2014; Johnson, 2015; Johnson et al., 2015). The oxidized magmas reduced the potential loss of elements such as copper and gold from the melt to magmatic sulfides. Metals instead remained in the melt and were available for partitioning to exsolving vapor and formation of metal-rich hydrothermal fluids (Richards, 2011). An additional significant magmatic feature relevant to formation of copper-poor Carlin-type gold deposits compared to typical calc-alkaline arc magmas is persistent copper depletion in Emigrant Pass magmas (Johnson et al., 2015). Immiscible magmatic Cu-Fe sulfide melt, intermediate solid solution (~chalcopyrite), and monosulfide (pyrrhotite), which are present in Emigrant Pass volcanic rocks, fractionally removed copper (Johnson, 2015; Johnson et al., 2015). Thus, the Emigrant Pass (Fig. 24) “volcanic rocks likely represent eruptive equivalents of deeper, unexposed Eocene plutons that may be the source of heat, fluids, and metals of Carlin-type gold deposits” (Johnson et al., 2015, p. 391).

Fig. 24.

“Schematic north-south cross section through the EPV [Emigrant Pass Volcanics] and southernmost Carlin-type Au deposits (Carlin, West Leeville, Turf) of the northern Carlin trend. This schematic illustrates the close proximity of the EPV to inferred plutons of Welches Canyon and the Carlin Au district. ……. The projection of the base of the EPV illustrates the rough location of the Eocene paleosurface and supports the hypothesis that Carlin-type Au deposits likely formed at shallow depths (Cline et al., 2005; Ressel and Henry, 2006)” (from Johnson, 2015, p. 406). Abbreviations: Bt = biotite, Hbl = hornblende, Jg = Jurassic granite, Kg = Cretaceous granite, Pl/Plag/Plg = plagioclase, Qtz = quartz, RMT = Roberts Mountains thrust, San = sanidine.

Fig. 24.

“Schematic north-south cross section through the EPV [Emigrant Pass Volcanics] and southernmost Carlin-type Au deposits (Carlin, West Leeville, Turf) of the northern Carlin trend. This schematic illustrates the close proximity of the EPV to inferred plutons of Welches Canyon and the Carlin Au district. ……. The projection of the base of the EPV illustrates the rough location of the Eocene paleosurface and supports the hypothesis that Carlin-type Au deposits likely formed at shallow depths (Cline et al., 2005; Ressel and Henry, 2006)” (from Johnson, 2015, p. 406). Abbreviations: Bt = biotite, Hbl = hornblende, Jg = Jurassic granite, Kg = Cretaceous granite, Pl/Plag/Plg = plagioclase, Qtz = quartz, RMT = Roberts Mountains thrust, San = sanidine.

The Harrison Pass pluton, located in the Ruby Mountains about 80 km southeast of the major deposits on the Carlin trend, is a ~36 Ma granodiorite to monzogranite, high-K, calc-alkaline intrusion (Burton, 1997). The pluton is the best exposed of the few Eocene plutons that coincide in age with the Carlin-type gold deposits and may be an analogue of unexposed plutons of similar ages at depth below the Carlin trend (Ressel and Henry, 2006; Musekamp, 2012; Gates, 2015). Studies using fluid inclusions, oxygen and carbon isotopes, field relationships, and petrology examined the Harrison Pass intrusion and surrounding altered rocks to characterize hydrothermal fluids related to magma intrusion and cooling (Musekamp, 2012; Gates, 2015). These studies identified high-temperature liquid and vapor trapped in inclusions in miarolitic cavities, interpreted to have formed from fluid immiscibility. Trapping temperatures reached 800°C. Fluid inclusions further indicate that skarn minerals that formed at the periphery of the intrusion precipitated from mixed magmatic and connate or meteoric waters. Associated potassic and phyllic alteration assemblages formed predominantly from magmatic fluids. Inclusion trapping temperatures from ~480° to 200°C and a wide range of oxygen isotope values in quartz and calcite veins above and peripheral to the intrusion reflect mixing of varying abundances of magmatic and meteoric fluids as the intrusion cooled.

These studies were interpreted as supporting a magmatic model (Muntean et al., 2011) in which magmatic fluids exsolving from deep plutons became immiscible (Fig. 25). At Harrison Pass, gold is interpreted to have partitioned into the vapor phase and was transported upward from the deep, crystallizing pluton. As the vapor rose, it cooled, condensed, and variably mixed with convecting meteoric fluids, forming the mixed magmatic-meteoric aqueous ore fluids that precipitated gold-bearing pyrite in Carlin deposits (Fig. 25) (Musekamp, 2012).

Fig. 25.

“A model for the source of fluids responsible for transporting gold in the Carlin trend after Muntean et al., 2011” (Musekamp, 2012). “Within” refers to within the interior of the Harrison Pass pluton, “on” refers to within 5 to 10 m of the Harrison Pass pluton-metasedimentary wall rock contact, and “away” refers to ~10 m to 2 km from the pluton–wall-rock contact (from Musekamp, 2012, p. 149). Abbreviations: P = primary fluid inclusions, S = secondary fluid inclusions, WR = wall rock.

Fig. 25.

“A model for the source of fluids responsible for transporting gold in the Carlin trend after Muntean et al., 2011” (Musekamp, 2012). “Within” refers to within the interior of the Harrison Pass pluton, “on” refers to within 5 to 10 m of the Harrison Pass pluton-metasedimentary wall rock contact, and “away” refers to ~10 m to 2 km from the pluton–wall-rock contact (from Musekamp, 2012, p. 149). Abbreviations: P = primary fluid inclusions, S = secondary fluid inclusions, WR = wall rock.

Stepping out to the deep crustal scale, Hronsky et al. (2012, p. 339) proposed a unified model for major gold deposits of any type, in which deposit formation requires the conjunction in time and space of three essential factors: “a fertile upper-mantle source region, favorable transient remobilization of components from the previously fertilized mantle lithosphere, and favorable lithospheric-scale plumbing structure.” Key ingredients for the Carlin-type gold deposits (Fig. 26) (Hronsky, 2012) include prefertilization of old lithosphere (Grouse Creek Archean crust), the Carlin and Battle Mountain-Eureka trends that comprise major translithospheric structures, and close temporal association of deposit formation with a transient remobilization event that in Nevada resulted from slab rollback and related magmatism that retreated to the southwest.

Fig. 26.

Map showing the three essential factors of the unified model, including translithospheric structures represented by the deposit trends, the prefertilized source region in the Archean Grouse Creek block, and a favorable transient remobilization event indicated by the locations of magmatic fronts at 40, 36, and 25 Ma (from Hronsky et al., 2012).

Fig. 26.

Map showing the three essential factors of the unified model, including translithospheric structures represented by the deposit trends, the prefertilized source region in the Archean Grouse Creek block, and a favorable transient remobilization event indicated by the locations of magmatic fronts at 40, 36, and 25 Ma (from Hronsky et al., 2012).

Conclusions

Investigation of and research on Carlin-type gold deposits continue to produce new information and hypotheses advancing our understanding of how these deposits formed, revealing new exploration tools for this uncommon deposit type. A new Nevada district comprised of platform carbonate host rocks has been identified, opening up new exploration terrane in northeast Nevada. And geologically similar districts of deposits have potentially been identified in southern China and the Yukon Territory, Canada. Continued exploration will determine if these now relatively small districts have gold endowments that approach the endowments of the Nevada deposits. Studies of ore-related structures, deposit formation ages, alteration processes, the geometry and relative timing of ore fluid flow that formed deposits and districts, and the time required for deposit formation have refined our understanding of details involved in processes of deposit formation. Recognition of synchronous magmatism and deposit formation in Nevada has spurred studies now investigating potential linkages between coeval Eocene magmatism and deposit formation.

While we have learned much in the past 10 to 15 years, further studies are needed to produce a generally accepted geologic model for formation of the world-class Nevada gold district. Studies that further clarify the contribution of Eocene magmatism are needed as well as studies testing the hypothesis of shallow basin deposit formation. Expanded geophysical studies accompanied by release of company geophysical data sets should better illuminate the geology of ore system roots and relationships, or lack thereof, with underlying plutons. Expanded and increasingly accurate dating of ore-stage minerals and minerals that crosscut, or are crosscut by, ore minerals is needed to further refine deposit ages and relationships of ore deposition with spatially related magmatism. Hydrologic and geochemical modeling of company lithogeochemical data sets could contribute substantially to exploration and testing of both the shallow basin and magmatic models for deposit formation. Detailed ore microscopy studies at additional deposits will advance our knowledge of ore formation and ore fluid chemistry. Knowledge of ore pyrite chemistry, including metal variability across pyrite rims, will advance our understanding of ore formation processes and metal sources. In situ high-precision SIMS and nanoscale sulfur isotope analyses on preore pyrite cores and ore pyrites are critical to improve our knowledge of sulfur source. Routine core-scanning studies that identify and characterize ore and alteration minerals and chemistry should be coordinated with microanalytical studies to extend information gleaned from the microscale to deposit and district scales. Continued investigations at all scales will both refine our definitions of Carlin-type and Carlin-like deposits and, where combined with knowledge gained from exploration and mining, will continue to enrich the details of geologic and exploration models for these deposits.

Acknowledgments

Acknowledgments

I am grateful to the many prospectors, geologists, and mining companies that have been exploring for, discovering, and mining Carlin-type gold deposits during the last 65 or more years. I’m indebted to my students, colleagues, and fellow geologists for improving my understanding of these deposits during thesis projects and collaborative research, on field trips, at professional meetings, through the literature, and especially during “creative conversations” over beer and wine.

I am grateful to the many prospectors, geologists, and mining companies that have been exploring for, discovering, and mining Carlin-type gold deposits during the last 65 or more years. I’m indebted to my students, colleagues, and fellow geologists for improving my understanding of these deposits during thesis projects and collaborative research, on field trips, at professional meetings, through the literature, and especially during “creative conversations” over beer and wine.

I particularly want to thank and acknowledge Getchell Gold Corporation and its predecessor companies, Barrick Gold Corporation, Newmont Mining Corporation, Placer Dome Exploration, Gold Standard Ventures Corporation, and the many mine and exploration geologists working for these and other companies, who generously provided their knowledge, logistical support, project funding, and opportunities to visit, sample, and study these deposits for the past 28 years. Many thanks are extended to John Muntean for help preparing numerous previously published figures included in this paper. I am especially grateful to the Geological Society of Nevada for permission to include several figures in this paper that were originally published in the society’s symposium volumes. I also want to thank the many authors cited in this paper, who provided images for publication. John Norby, Shaun Barker, John Muntean, and Patrick Mercier-Langevin provided insightful reviews of earlier versions of this manuscript that contributed significantly to an improved final product.

I particularly want to thank and acknowledge Getchell Gold Corporation and its predecessor companies, Barrick Gold Corporation, Newmont Mining Corporation, Placer Dome Exploration, Gold Standard Ventures Corporation, and the many mine and exploration geologists working for these and other companies, who generously provided their knowledge, logistical support, project funding, and opportunities to visit, sample, and study these deposits for the past 28 years. Many thanks are extended to John Muntean for help preparing numerous previously published figures included in this paper. I am especially grateful to the Geological Society of Nevada for permission to include several figures in this paper that were originally published in the society’s symposium volumes. I also want to thank the many authors cited in this paper, who provided images for publication. John Norby, Shaun Barker, John Muntean, and Patrick Mercier-Langevin provided insightful reviews of earlier versions of this manuscript that contributed significantly to an improved final product.

REFERENCES

Arbonies
,
D.G.
,
Creel
,
K.D.
, and
Jackson
,
M.L.
,
2011
,
Cortez Hills lower zone discovery and geologic update
, in
Steininger
,
R.
, and
Pennell
,
B.
, eds.,
Great Basin evolution and metallogeny: Geological Society of Nevada Symposium volume
:
Reno/Sparks, Nevada
,
Geological Society of Nevada
, p.
447
462
.
Arehart
,
G.B.
,
Ressel
,
M.
,
Carne
,
R.
, and
Muntean
,
J.
,
2013
,
A comparison of Carlin-type deposits in Nevada and Yukon
:
Society of Economic Geologists, Special Publication 17
 , p.
389
401
.
Barker
,
S.L.L.
,
Hickey
,
K.A.
,
Cline
,
J.S.
,
Dipple
,
G.M.
,
Kilburn
,
M.R.
,
Vaughan
,
J.R.
, and
Longo
,
A.A.
,
2009
,
Uncloaking invisible gold: Use of nanoSIMS to evaluate gold, trace elements, and sulfur isotopes in pyrite from Carlin-type gold deposits
:
Economic Geology
 , v.
104
, p.
897
904
.
Barker
,
S.L.L.
,
Dipple
,
G.M.
,
Hickey
,
K.A.
,
Lepore
,
W.A.
, and
Vaughan
,
J.R.
,
2013
,
Applying stable isotopes to mineral exploration: Teaching an old dog new tricks
:
Economic Geology
 , v.
108
, p.
1
9
.
Bedell
,
R.
,
Struhsacker
,
E.
,
Craig
,
L.
,
Miller
,
M.
,
Coolbaugh
,
M.
,
Smith
,
J.
, and
Parratt
,
R.
,
2010
,
The Pequop mining district, Elko County, Nevada: An evolving new gold district
:
Society of Economic Geologists, Special Publication 15
 , p.
29
56
.
Bradley
,
M.A.
, and
Eck
,
N.
,
2015
,
The Goldrush discovery, Cortez district, Nevada—the stratigraphic story
, in
Pennell
,
W.M.
, and
Garside
,
L.J.
, eds.,
New concepts and discoveries: Geological Society of Nevada Symposium proceedings
:
Reno, Nevada
,
Geological Society of Nevada
, p.
435
452
.
Burnham
,
C.W.
,
1979
,
Magmas and hydrothermal fluids
, in
Barnes
,
H.L.
, ed.,
Geochemistry of hydrothermal ore deposits
:
New York
,
Wiley
, p.
71
136
.
Burton
,
B.
,
1997
,
Structural geology and emplacement history of the Harrison Pass pluton, central Ruby Mountains, Elko County, Nevada
: Unpublished Ph.D. thesis,
Laramie, Wyoming
,
University of Wyoming
,
295
p.
Cassinerio
,
M.
, and
Muntean
,
J.
,
2011
,
Patterns of lithology, structure, alteration, and trace elements around high-grade ore zones at the Turquoise Ridge gold deposit, Getchell district, Nevada
, in
Steininger
,
R.
, and
Pennell
,
B.
, eds.,
Great Basin evolution and metallogeny: 2010 Symposium proceedings
:
Reno, Nevada
,
Geological Society of Nevada
, p.
949
977
.
Chambefort
,
I.
,
Dilles
,
J.H.
, and
Longo
,
A.A.
,
2013
,
Amphibole geochemistry of the Yanacocha volcanics, Peru—evidence for diverse sources of magmatic volatiles related to gold ores
:
Journal of Petrology
 , v.
54
, no.
5
, p.
1017
1046
.
Chen
,
M.H.
,
Mao
,
J.W.
,
Bierlein
,
F.P.
,
Norman
,
T.
, and
Uttley
,
P.J.
,
2011
,
Structural features and metallogenesis of the Carlin-type Jinfeng (Lannigou) gold deposit, Guizhou Province, China
:
Ore Geology Reviews
 , v.
43
, p.
217
234
.
Chen
,
M.H.
,
Mao
,
J.W.
,
Li
,
C.
,
Zhang
,
Z.
, and
Dang
,
Y.
,
2015
,
Re-Os isochron ages for arsenopyrite from Carlin-like gold deposits in the Yunnan-Guizhou-Guangxi “Golden Triangle,” southwestern China
:
Ore Geology Reviews
 , v.
64
, p.
316
327
.
Clark
,
L.R.
,
2009
,
Ore and gangue mineral paragenesis of the Cortez Hills Carlin-type gold deposit, Nevada: Evidence for coincident high-grade gold deposition and collapse brecciation
: Unpublished M.S. thesis,
Las Vegas, Nevada
,
University of Nevada, Las Vegas
,
212
p.
Cline
,
J.S.
,
2001
,
Timing of gold and arsenic sulfide mineral deposition at the Getchell Carlin-type gold deposit, north-central Nevada
:
Economic Geology
 , v.
96
, p.
75
90
.
Cline
,
J.S.
, and
Hofstra
,
A.H.
,
2000
,
Ore fluid evolution at the Getchell Carlin-type gold deposit, Nevada, USA
:
European Journal of Mineralogy
 , v.
12
, p.
195
212
.
Cline
,
J.S.
,
Hofstra
,
A.H.
,
Muntean
,
J.L.
,
Tosdal
,
R.M.
, and
Hickey
,
K.A.
,
2005
,
Carlin-type gold deposits in Nevada: Critical geologic characteristics and viable Models
:
Economic Geology 100th Anniversary Volume
 , p.
451
484
.
Cline
,
J.S.
,
Muntean
,
J.L.
,
Gu
,
X.X.
, and
Xia
,
Y.
,
2013
,
A comparison of Carlin-type gold deposits: Guizhou Province, Golden Triangle, southwest China, and northern Nevada, USA
:
Earth Science Frontiers
,
Beijing, China
, v.
20
, p.
1
18
.
Cluer
,
J.K.
,
2012
,
Remobilized geochemical anomalies related to deep gold zones, Carlin Trend, Nevada
:
Economic Geology
 , v.
107
, p.
1343
1349
.
Colgan
,
J.P.
,
Henry
,
C.D.
, and
John
,
D.A.
,
2014
,
Evidence for large-magnitude, post-Eocene extension in the northern Shoshone Range, Nevada, and its implications for the structural setting of Carlin-type gold deposits in the lower plate of the Roberts Mountains allocthon
:
Economic Geology
 , v.
109
, p.
1843
1862
.
Cook
,
H.E.
,
2015
,
The evolution and relationship of the western North American Paleozoic carbonate platform and basin depositional environments to Carlin-type gold deposits in the context of carbonate sequence stratigraphy
, in
Pennell
,
W.M.
, and
Garside
,
L.J.
, eds.,
New concepts and discoveries, Geological Society of Nevada 2015 Symposium proceedings
:
Reno, Nevada
,
Geological Society of Nevada
, p.
1
80
.
Cook
,
H.E.
, and
Corboy
,
J.J.
,
2004
,
Great Basin Paleozoic carbonate platform: Facies, facies transitions, depositional models, platform architecture, sequence stratigraphy, and predictive mineral host models
:
U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2004–1078
 ,
129
p.
Cope
,
E.
,
Hipsley
,
R.
,
Dobak
,
P.
,
Arbonies
,
D.
, and
Brower
,
S.
,
2008
,
South Arturo: A recent gold discovery on the Carlin trend
:
Mining Engineering
 , January, p.
19
25
.
Crafford
,
A.E.J.
, and
Grauch
,
V.J.S.
,
2002
,
Geologic and geophysical evidence for the influence of deep crustal structures on Paleozoic tectonics and the alignment of world-class gold deposits, north central Nevada, USA
:
Ore Geology Reviews
 , v.
21
, p.
157
184
.
Creel
,
K.D.
, and
Bradley
,
M.A.
,
2013
,
Goldrush—lessons learned from the latest giant gold deposit discovered in Nevada
:
Society of Economic Geologists, Special Publication 17
 , p
403
413
.
Davis
,
D.A.
, and
Muntean
,
J.L.
,
2017
,
Metals
:
Nevada Bureau of Mines and Geology, Special Publication MI-2016
 , p.
14
53
.
de Almeida
,
C.M.
,
Olivo
,
G.R.
,
Chouinard
,
A.
,
Weakly
,
C.
, and
Poirier
,
G.
,
2010
,
Mineral paragenesis, alteration, and geochemistry of the two types of gold ore and the host rocks from the Carlin-type deposits in the southern part of the Goldstrike property, northern Nevada: Implications for sources of ore-forming elements, ore genesis, and mineral exploration
:
Economic Geology
 , v.
105
, p.
971
1004
.
Deditius
,
A.P.
,
Reich
,
M.
,
Kesler
,
S.E.
,
Utsunomiya
,
S.
,
Chryssoulis
,
S.L.
,
Walshe
,
J.
, and
Ewing
,
R.C.
,
2014
,
The coupled geochemistry of Au and As in pyrite from hydrothermal ore deposits
:
Geochimica Cosmochimica Acta
 , v.
140
, p.
644
670
.
Di Fiori
,
R.V.
,
Long
,
S.P.
,
Muntean
,
J.L.
, and
Edmondo
,
G.P.
,
2014
,
Preliminary geologic and alteration maps of Lookout Mountain, Ratto Ridge, and Rocky Canyon, southern Eureka mining district, Eureka, Nevada
:
Nevada Bureau of Mines and Geology Open-File Report 2014–08, scale 1:10,000
 .
Di Fiori
,
R.V.
,
Long
,
S.P.
,
Muntean
,
J.L.
, and
Edmondo
,
G.P.
,
2015
,
Structural analysis of gold mineralization in the southern Eureka Mining district, Eureka County, Nevada: A predictive structural setting for Carlin-type mineralization
, in
Pennell
,
W.M.
, and
Garside
,
L.J.
, eds.,
New concepts and discoveries: Geological Society of Nevada 2015 Symposium proceedings
:
Reno, Nevada
,
Geological Society of Nevada
, p.
885
903
.
Dilles
,
J.H.
,
1987
,
Petrology of the Yerington batholith, Nevada; evidence for evolution of porphyry copper ore fluids
:
Economic Geology
 , v.
82
, p.
1750
1789
.
Emsbo
,
P.
, and
Koenig
,
A.E.
,
2007
,
Transport of Au in petroleum: Evidence from the northern Carlin trend, Nevada [abs.]
:
Digging Deeper, Biennial Society of Geology Applied to Mineral Deposits (SGA) Meeting, 9th
,
Dublin
,
2007
, Proceedings, p.
695
698
.
Emsbo
P.
,
Hutchinson
,
R.W.
,
Hofstra
,
A.H.
,
Volk
,
J.A.
,
Bettles
,
K.H.
,
Baschuk
,
G.J.
, and
Johnson
,
C.A.
,
1999
,
Syngenetic Au on the Carlin trend: Implications for Carlin-type deposits
:
Geology
 , v.
27
, p.
59
62
.
Emsbo
,
P.
,
Hofstra
,
A.H.
,
Lauha
,
E.A.
,
Griffin
,
G.L.
, and
Hutchinson
,
R.W.
,
2003
,
Origin of high-grade gold ore, source of ore fluid components, and genesis of the Meikle and neighboring Carlin-type deposits, northern Carlin trend, Nevada
:
Economic Geology
 , v.
98
, p.
1069
1105
.
Emsbo
,
P.
,
Groves
,
D.I.
,
Hofstra
,
A.H.
, and
Bierlein
,
R.P.
,
2006
,
The giant Carlin gold province: A protracted interplay of orogenic, basinal, and hydrothermal processes above a lithospheric boundary
:
Mineralium Deposita
 , v.
41
, p.
517
525
.
Felder
,
R.P.
,
Struhsacker
,
E.M.
, and
Miller
,
M.S.
,
2011
,
The history of exploration and discovery of the Long Canyon gold deposit, Elko County, Nevada, USA
, in
Steininger
,
R.
, and
Pennell
,
B.
, eds.,
Great Basin evolution and metallogeny: 2010 Symposium proceedings
:
Reno, Nevada
,
Geological Society of Nevada
, p.
141
151
.
Gates
,
C.
,
2015
,
A field-based geochemical and petrographic study of the fluids preserved within the Harrison Pass pluton with implications for the fluid origin of Carlin-type gold deposits [abs.]
, in
Pennell
,
W.M.
and
Garside
,
L.J.
eds.,
New concepts and discoveries, Geological Society of Nevada 2015 Symposium proceedings
:
Reno, Nevada
,
Geological Society of Nevada, DVD
.
Gold Standard Ventures
,
2016
, www.goldstandardv.com/projects/railroad, accessed March 4, 2016.
Halter
,
W.E.
,
Heinrich
,
C.A.
, and
Pettke
,
T.
,
2005
,
Magma evolution and the formation of porphyry Cu-Au ore fluids: Evidence from silicate and sulfide melt inclusions
:
Mineralium Deposita
 , v.
39
, no.
8
, p.
845
863
.
Heitt
,
D.G.
,
Dunbar
,
W.B.
,
Thompson
,
T.B.
, and
Jackson
,
R.G.
,
2003
,
Geology and geochemistry of the Deep Star gold deposit, Carlin trend, Nevada
:
Economic Geology
 , v.
98
, p.
1107
1135
.
Hellbusch
,
C.
,
Abrams
,
M.
, and
Loptien
,
G.
,
2011
,
Gold occurrences at the West Pequop project, Elko County, Nevada
, in
Steininger
,
R.
, and
Pennell
,
B.
, eds.,
Great Basin evolution and metallogeny: 2010 Symposium proceedings
:
Reno, Nevada
,
Geological Society of Nevada
, p.
609
623
.
Henry
,
C.
,
Muntean
,
J.
,
John
,
D.
, and
Colgan
,
J.
,
2012
,
Mesozoic-Cenozoic magmatism and mineralization in the Greater Cortez area: An example of NBMG framework studies [abs.]
:
Reno, Nevada
,
Geological Society of Nevada, University of Nevada
, https://nbmg.wordpress.com/?s=cortez +gold+deposit+henry.
Henry
,
C.D.
, and
Faulds
,
J.E.
,
1999
,
Preliminary geologic map of the Emigrant Pass quadrangle, Nevada
:
Nevada Bureau of Mines and Geology Open-File Report 99–9, scale 1:24,000
 ,
20
p.
Henry
,
C.D.
, and
John
,
D.A.
,
2015
,
The relationship between Cenozoic roll-back magmatism and mineral deposits in the Great Basin, USA [abs.]
, in
Pennell
,
W.M.
, and
Garside
,
L.J.
, eds.,
New concepts and discoveries, Geological Society of Nevada 2015 Symposium proceedings
:
Reno, Nevada
,
Geological Society of Nevada, DVD
.
Henry
,
C.D.
, and
Ressel
,
M.W.
,
2000
,
Eocene magmatism of northeastern Nevada: The smoking gun for Carlin-type gold deposits
, in
Cluer
,
J.K.
,
Price
,
J.G.
,
Struhsacker
,
E.M.
,
Hardyman
,
R.F.
, and
Morris
,
C.L.
,
Geology and ore deposits 2000: The Great Basin and beyond: Symposium proceedings
:
Reno, Nevada
,
Geological Society of Nevada
, p.
365
388
.
Henry
,
C.D.
,
Jackson
,
M.R.
,
Mathewson
,
D.C.
,
Koehler
,
S.R.
, and
Moore
,
S.C.
,
2015
,
Eocene igneous geology and relation to mineralization: Railroad district, southern Carlin trend, Nevada
, in
Pennell
,
W.M.
, and
Garside
,
L.J.
, eds.,
New concepts and discoveries, Geological Society of Nevada 2015 Symposium proceedings
:
Reno, Nevada
,
Geological Society of Nevada
, p.
939
965
.
Hickey
,
K.A.
,
Dipple
,
G.M.
,
Barker
,
S.L.L.
, and
Donelick
,
R.A.
,
2009
,
In the blink of an eye: Thermal constraints on the duration of hydrothermal fluid flow during formation of the Carlin Au deposits, USA
:
Smart Science for Exploration and Mining, Society for Geology Applied to Mineral Deposits (SGA) Biennial Meeting, 10th
,
Townsville, Australia
, August 17–20, 2009, Proceedings, p.
282
284
.
Hickey
,
K.A.
,
Ahmed
,
A.D.
,
Barker
,
S.L.L.
, and
Leonardson
,
R.
,
2014a
,
Fault-controlled lateral fluid flow underneath and into a Carlin-type gold deposit: Isotopic and geochemical footprints
:
Economic Geology
 , v.
109
, p.
1431
1460
.
Hickey
,
K.A.
,
Barker
,
S.L.L.
,
Dipple
,
G.M.
,
Arehart
,
G.B.
, and
Donelick
,
R.A.
,
2014b
,
The brevity of hydrothermal fluid flow revealed by thermal halos around giant gold deposits: Implications for Carlin-type gold systems
:
Economic Geology
 , v.
109
, p.
1461
1487
.
Hoffman
,
P.F.
,
1991
,
Did the breakout of Laurentia turn Gondwanaland inside-out?
:
Science
 , v.
252
, p.
1409
1412
.
Hofstra
,
A.H.
, and
Cline
,
J.S.
,
2000
,
Characteristics and models for Carlin-type gold deposits
:
Reviews in Economic Geology
 , v.
13
, p.
163
220
.
Hofstra
,
A.H.
,
Leventhal
,
J.S.
,
Northrop
,
H.R.
,
Landis
,
G.P.
,
Rye
,
R.O.
,
Birak
,
D.J.
, and
Dahl
,
A.R.
,
1991
,
Genesis of sediment-hosted disseminated gold deposits by fluid mixing and sulfidization: Chemical-reaction-path modeling of ore-depositional processes documented in the Jerritt Canyon district, Nevada
:
Geology
 , v.
19
, p.
36
40
.
Hofstra
,
A.H.
,
Christiansen
,
W.D.
,
Zohar
,
P.B.
, and
Tousignant
,
G.
,
2011
,
Lithogeochemistry of the Devonian Popovich Formation in the northern Carlin trend, Nevada
, in
Steininger
,
R.
, and
Pennell
,
B.
, eds.,
Great Basin evolution and metallogeny: 2010 Symposium proceedings
:
Reno, Nevada
,
Geological Society of Nevada
, p.
63
95
.
Hou
,
L.
,
Peng
,
H.
,
Ding
,
J.
,
Zhang
,
J.
,
Zhu
,
S.
,
Wu
,
S.
,
Wu
,
Y.
, and
Ouyang
,
H.
,
2016
,
Textures and in situ chemical and isotopic analyses of pyrite, Huijiabao trend, Youjiang basin, China: Implications for paragenesis and source of sulfur
:
Economic Geology
 , v.
111
, p.
331
353
.
Hronsky
,
J.M.A.
,
Groves
,
D.I.
,
Loucks
,
R.R.
, and
Begg
,
G.C.
,
2012
,
A unified model for gold mineralization in accretionary orogens and implications for regional-scale exploration targeting methods
:
Mineralium Deposita
 , v.
47
, p.
339
358
.
Hu
,
R.Z.
,
Su
,
W.C.
,
Bi
,
X.W.
,
Tu
,
G.Z.
, and
Hofstra
,
A.H.
,
2002
,
Geology and geochemistry of Carlin-type gold deposits in China
:
Mineralium Deposita
 , v.
37
, p.
378
392
.
Humphreys
,
E.
,
1995
,
Post Laramide removal of the Farallon slab, western United States
:
Geology
 , v.
23
, p.
987
990
.
Jackson
,
M.L.
,
Arbonies
,
D.
, and
Creel
,
K.
,
2011
,
Architecture of the Cortez Hills breccia body
, in
Steininger
,
R.
, and
Pennell
,
B.
, eds.,
Great Basin evolution and metallogeny: 2010 Symposium proceedings
,
Reno, Nevada
,
Geological Society of Nevada
, p.
97
123
.
Jackson
,
M.R.
, and
Koehler
,
S.R.
,
2014
,
Carlin-style gold and polymetallic targets within a large Eocene, magmato-thermal system on the Carlin trend, Nevada [abs.]
:
Mineral Exploration Roundup 2014, Association for Mineral Exploration: Vancouver, British Columbia
 , 2014.
Jackson
,
M.R.
,
Mathewson
,
D.C.
,
Koehler
S.R.
,
Harp
,
M.T.
,
Edie
,
R.J.
,
Whitmer
,
N.E.
,
Norby
,
J.W.
, and
Newton
,
M.N.
,
2015
,
Geology of the North Bullion gold deposit: Eocene extension, intrusion and Carlin-style mineralization, the Railroad district, Carlin trend, Nevada
, in
Pennell
,
W.M.
, and
Garside
,
L.J.
, eds.,
New concepts and discoveries, Geological Society of Nevada 2015 Symposium proceedings
:
Reno, Nevada
,
Geological Society of Nevada
, p.
313
331
.
Johnson
,
C.L.
,
2015
,
Petrology and geochemistry of the Emigrant Pass volcanics, Nevada: Implications for a magmatic-hydrothermal origin of the Carlin gold deposits
: Unpublished M.S. thesis,
Corvallis, Oregon
,
Oregon State University
,
124
p.
Johnson
,
C.L.
,
Dilles
,
J.H.
,
Kent
,
A.J.R.
, and
Farmer
,
L.P.
,
2015
,
Petrology and geochemistry of the Emigrant Pass volcanics, Nevada: Implications for a magmatic-hydrothermal origin of the Carlin gold deposits
, in
Pennell
,
W.M.
, and
Garside
,
L.J.
, eds.,
New concepts and discoveries, Geological Society of Nevada 2015 Symposium proceedings
:
Reno, Nevada
,
Geological Society of Nevada
, p.
391
408
.
Koehler
,
S.R.
,
Edie
,
R.J.
,
Harp
,
M.T.
,
Henry
,
C.
,
Jackson
,
M.R.
,
Mathewson
,
D.C.
,
Norby
,
J.W.
, and
Whitmer
,
N.E.
,
2015
,
Precious and base metal mineralization within a large Eocene, magmato-thermal system, Railroad district, Carlin trend, Nevada
, in
Pennell
,
W.M.
, and
Garside
,
L.J.
, eds.,
New concepts and discoveries, Geological Society of Nevada 2015 Symposium proceedings
:
Reno, Nevada
,
Geological Society of Nevada
, p.
1229
1242
.
Lane
,
J.
,
Phillips
,
R.
, and
Carne
,
R.
,
2015
,
Recent Carlin-type gold discoveries by ATAC Resources Ltd. on the Rackla gold project in central Yukon [abs.]
, in
Pennell
,
W.M.
, and
Garside
,
L.J.
, eds.,
New concepts and discoveries, Geological Society of Nevada 2015 Symposium proceedings
:
Reno, Nevada
,
Geological Society of Nevada, DVD
.
Large
,
R.R.
,
Danyushevsky
,
L.V.
,
Hollit
,
C.
,
Maslennikov
,
V.
,
Meffre
,
S.
,
Gilbert
,
S.
,
Bull
,
S.
,
Scott
,
R.
,
Emsbo
,
P.
,
Thomas
,
H.
,
Singh
,
B.
, and
Foster
,
J.
,
2009
,
Gold and trace element zonation in pyrite using a laser imaging technique: Implications for the timing of gold in orogenic and Carlin-style sediment hosted deposits
:
Economic Geology
 , v.
104
, p.
635
668
.
Large
,
R.R.
,
Bull
,
S.W.
, and
Maslennikov
,
V.V.
,
2011
,
A carbonaceous sedimentary source-rock model for Carlin-type and orogenic gold deposits
:
Economic Geology
 , v.
106
, p.
331
358
.
Large
,
S.J.E.
,
Bakker
,
E.Y.N.
,
Weis
,
P.
, Wä
lle
,
M.
,
Heinrich
,
C.A.
, and
Ressel
,
M.W.
,
2016
,
Trace elements in fluid inclusions in sediment-hosted gold deposits: Indicators for a magmatic-hydrothermal origin for the Carlin and Battle Mountain ore trends
:
Geology
 , v.
44
, p.
1015
1018
.
Leonardson
,
2011
,
Barrick Cortez Gold Acres structure
, in
Steininger
,
R.
, and
Pennell
,
B.
, eds.,
Great Basin Evolution and Metallogeny: 2010 Symposium proceedings
:
Reno, Nevada
,
Geological Society of Nevada
, p.
17
29
.
Long
,
S.P.
,
Henry
,
C.D.
,
Muntean
,
J.L.
,
Edmondo
,
G.P.
, and
Thomas
,
R.D.
,
2014
,
Geologic map of the southern part of the Eureka mining district and surrounding areas of the Fish Creek Range, Mountain Boy Range, and Diamond Mountains, Eureka and White Pine Counties, Nevada
:
Reno, Nevada
,
Nevada Bureau of Mines and Geology
, Map
183
.
Longo
,
A.A.
,
Thompson
,
T.B.
, and
Harlan
,
J.B.
,
2002
,
Geologic overview of the Rain subdistrict: Gold deposits of the Carlin trend
:
Nevada Bureau of Mines and Geology, Bulletin
 
111
, p.
168
189
.
Longo
,
A.A.
,
Cline
,
J.S.
, and
Muntean
,
J.
,
2009a
,
Detecting ore fluid pathways in Carlin-type gold deposits using pyrite chemistry
:
Smart Science for Exploration and Mining, Society for Geology Applied to Mineral Deposits (SGA) Biennial Meeting, 10th
,
Townsville, Australia
, August 17–20, 2009, Proceedings, v.
1
, p.
242
244
.
Longo
,
A.A.
,
Cline
,
J.S.
, and
Muntean
,
J.
,
2009b
,
Using pyrite to track evolving fluid pathways and chemistry in Carlin-type deposits
:
Geological Society of Nevada, Special Publication 49
 , p.
63
65
.
Longo
,
A.A.
,
Dilles
,
J.H.
,
Grunder
,
A.L.
, and
Duncan
,
R.
,
2010
,
Evolution of calc-alkaline volcanism and associated hydrothermal gold deposits at Yanacocha, Peru
:
Economic Geology
 , v.
105
, p.
1191
1241
.
Loucks
,
R.R.
,
2014
,
Distinctive composition of copper-ore-forming arc magmas
:
Australian Journal of Earth Sciences
 , v.
61
, p.
5
16
.
Lubben
,
J.D.
,
Cline
,
J.S.
, and
Barker
,
S.L.L.
,
2012
,
Silicification across the Betze-Post Carlin-type Au deposit: Clues to ore fluid properties and sources, northern Carlin trend, Nevada
:
Economic Geology
 , v.
107
, p.
1351
1385
.
Maroun
,
L.R.C.
,
Cline
,
J.S.
,
Simon
,
A.
,
Anderson
,
P.
, and
Muntean
J.
,
2017
,
High-grade gold deposition and collapse brecciation, Cortez Hills Carlin-type gold deposit, Nevada, USA
:
Economic Geology
 , v.
112
, p.
707
740
.
Mateer
,
M.A.
,
2010
,
Ammonium illite at the Jerritt Canyon district and Goldstrike property, Nevada: Its spatial distribution and significance in the exploration of Carlin-type deposits
: Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation,
Laramie, Wyoming
,
University of Wyoming
,
214
p.
Micklethwaite
,
2011
,
Fault-induced damage controlling the formation of Carlin-type ore deposits
, in
Steininger
,
R.
, and
Pennell
,
B.
, eds.,
Great Basin evolution and metallogeny: 2010 Symposium proceedings
:
Reno, Nevada
,
Geological Society of Nevada
, p.
221
231
.
Milliard
,
A.K.
,
Ressel
,
M.W.
,
Henry
,
C.D.
,
Ricks
,
C.
, and
Loptien
,
G.
,
2015
,
Age, distribution, and composition of igneous rocks of the Pequop Mountains, northeast Nevada: Association with Carlin-type gold deposits
, in
Kizis
,
J.A.
, Jr.
, and
Benchley
,
K.
, eds.,
The Pequop trend, Nevada’s “newest” Carlin trend: Geological Society of Nevada 2015 conference field trip guidebook
,
Reno, Nevada
, p.
161
189
.
Muntean
,
J.L.
, and
Henry
,
C.D.
,
2007
,
Preliminary geologic map of the Jerritt Canyon mining district, Elko County, Nevada
:
Nevada Bureau of Mines and Geology, Open-File Report 07–3
 , 1 sheet with cross section.
Muntean
,
J.L.
, and
Taufen
,
P.
,
2011
,
Geochemical exploration for gold through transported alluvial cover in Nevada: Examples from the Cortez mine
:
Economic Geology
 , v.
106
, p.
809
833
.
Muntean
,
J.L.
,
Coward
,
M.P.
, and
Tarnocai
,
C.A.
,
2007
,
Paleozoic normal faults in north-central Nevada: Deep crustal conduits for Carlin-type gold deposits
:
Geological Society of London, Special Publication 272
 , p.
571
587
.
Muntean
,
J.L
,
Cassinerio
,
M.
,
Cline
,
J.S.
,
Arehart
,
G.
, and
Longo
,
A.A.
,
2009a
,
Fluid pathways at the Turquoise Ridge Carlin-type gold deposit, Getchell district, Nevada
:
Smart Science for Exploration and Mining, Society for Geology Applied to Mineral Deposits (SGA) Biennial Meeting, 10th
,
Townsville, Australia
, August 17–20,
2009
, Proceedings, p.
251
253
.
Muntean
,
J.L.
,
Cassinerio
,
M.D.
,
Arehart
,
G.B.
Cline
,
J.S.
, and
Longo
,
A.A.
,
2009b
,
Fluid pathways at the Turquoise Ridge Carlin-type gold deposit, Getchell district, Nevada
:
Geological Society of Nevada, Special Publication 49
 , p.
67
69
.
Muntean
,
J.L.
,
Cline
,
J.S.
,
Simon
,
A.
, and
Longo
,
A.A.
,
2011
,
Origin of Carlin-type gold deposits
:
Nature Geoscience
 , v.
4
, no.
2
, p.
122
127
, www.nature.com/articles/ngeo1064.
Musekamp
,
C.O.J.
,
2012
,
Field, fluid inclusion and isotope chemistry evidence of fluids circulating around the Harrison Pass pluton during intrusion: A fluid model for Carlin-type deposits
: Unpublished M.S. thesis, Fort
Collins, Colorado
,
Colorado State University
,
195
p.
Newton
,
M.N.
,
2015
,
Characterization of gold and related mineralization at the North Bullion Carlin system, Railroad project, a Nevada Carlin-type gold prospect
: Unpublished M.S. thesis,
Las Vegas, Nevada
,
University of Nevada Las Vegas
.
Nolan
,
T.B.
,
1962
,
The Eureka mining district, Nevada
:
U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 406
 ,
78
p.
Papke
,
K.G.
,
1984
,
Barite in Nevada
:
Nevada Bureau of Mines and Geology Bulletin 98
 ,
Reno, Nevada
,
125
p.
Patterson
,
L.M.
and
Muntean
,
J.L.
,
2011
,
Multielement geochemistry across a Carlin-type gold district: Jerritt Canyon, Nevada
: in
Steininger
,
R.
, and
Pennell
,
B.
, eds.,
Great Basin evolution and metallogeny: 2010 Symposium proceedings
:
Reno, Nevada
,
Geological Society of Nevada
, p.
1119
1151
.
Powell
,
J.L.
,
2015a
,
Long Canyon deposit, Elko County, Nevada
, in
Kizis
,
J.A.
, Jr.
, and
Benchley
,
K.
, eds.,
The Pequop trend, Nevada’s “newest” Carlin trend: Geological Society of Nevada 2015 conference field trip guidebook
,
Reno, Nevada
, p.
135
138
.
Powell
J.
,
2015b
,
Geology and Mineralization of the Long Canyon Gold Deposit, Elko County, Nevada [abs.]
, in
Pennell
,
W.M.
, and
Garside
,
L.J.
, eds.,
New concepts and discoveries, Geological Society of Nevada 2015 Symposium proceedings
:
Reno, Nevada
,
Geological Society of Nevada, DVD
.
Radtke
,
A.S.
,
Rye
,
R.O.
, and
Dickson
,
F.W.
,
1980
,
Geology and stable isotope studies of the Carlin gold deposit, Nevada
:
Economic Geology
 , v.
75
, p.
641
672
.
Reich
,
M.
,
Kesler
,
S.E.
,
Utsunomiya
,
S.
,
Palenik
,
C.S.
,
Chryssoulis
,
S.L.
and
Ewing
,
R.C.
,
2005
,
Solubility of gold in arsenian pyrite
:
Geochimica Cosmochimica Acta
 , v.
69
, p.
2781
2796
.
Ressel
,
M.W.
, and
Henry
,
C.D.
,
2006
,
Igneous geology of the Carlin trend, Nevada: Development of the Eocene plutonic complex and significance for Carlin-type gold deposits
:
Economic Geology
 , v.
101
, p.
347
383
.
Ressel
,
M.W.
,
Noble
,
D.C.
,
Henry
,
C.D.
, and
Trudel
,
W.S.
,
2000
,
Dike-hosted ores of the Beast deposit and the importance of Eocene magmatism in gold mineralization of the Carlin trend, Nevada
:
Economic Geology
 , v.
95
, p.
1417
1444
.
Ressel
,
M.W.
,
Dendas
,
M.
,
Lujan
,
R.
,
Essman
,
J.
, and
Shumway
,
P.J.
,
2015
,
Shallow expressions of Carlin-type hydrothermal systems: An example from the Emigrant mine, Carlin trend, Nevada
, in
Pennell
,
W.M.
, and
Garside
,
L.J.
, eds.,
New concepts and discoveries, Geological Society of Nevada 2015 Symposium proceedings
:
Reno, Nevada
,
Geological Society of Nevada
, p.
409
433
.
Rhys
,
D.
,
Valli
,
F.
,
Burgess
,
R.
,
Heitt
,
D.
,
Griesel
,
G.
, and
Hart
,
K.
,
2015
,
Controls of fault and fold geometry on the distribution of gold mineralization on the Carlin trend
: in
Pennell
,
W.M.
, and
Garside
,
L.J.
, eds.,
New concepts and discoveries, Geological Society of Nevada 2015 Symposium proceedings
:
Reno, Nevada
,
Geological Society of Nevada
, p.
1245
1301
.
Richards
,
J.P.
,
2011
,
High Sr/Y arc magmas and porphyry Cu ± Mo ± Au deposits: Just add water
:
Economic Geology
 , v.
106
, p.
1075
1081
.
Richards
,
J.P.
,
Spell
,
T.
,
Rameh
,
E.
,
Razique
,
A.
, and
Fletcher
,
T.
,
2012
,
High Sr/Y magmas reflect arc maturity, high magmatic water content, and porphyry Cu ± Mo ± Au potential: Examples from the Tethyan arcs of central and eastern Iran and western Pakistan
:
Economic Geology
 , v.
107
, p.
295
332
.
Ricks
,
C.
, and
Schneider
,
D.
,
2015
,
West Pequop Project JV, Elko County, Nevada
, in
Kizis
,
J.A.
, Jr.
, and
Benchley
,
K.
, eds.,
The Pequop trend, Nevada’s “newest” Carlin trend: Geological Society of Nevada 2015 conference field trip guidebook
,
Reno, Nevada
, p.
141
142
.
Roberts
,
R.J.
,
1960
,
Alignment of mining districts in north-central Nevada
:
U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 400-B
 , p.
B17
B19
.
Rodriguez
,
B.D.
,
Grauch
,
V.J.S.
, and
Williams
,
J.M.
,
2005
,
Preliminary deep crustal investigations to locate the Archean/Proterozoic suture zone in the Great Basin, using magnetotellurics
:
Window to the World, Geological Society of Nevada 2005 Symposium
,
Reno, Nevada
, May 14–18,
2005
, Program with Abstracts, p.
81
.
Scott
,
R.J.
,
Meffre
,
S.
,
Woodhead
,
J.
,
Gilbert
,
S.E.
,
Berry
,
R.F.
, and
Emsbo
,
P.
,
2009
,
Development of framboidal pyrite during diagenesis, low-grade regional metamorphism, and hydrothermal alteration
:
Economic Geology
 , v.
104
, p.
1143
1168
.
Sillitoe
,
R.H.
, and
Bonham
,
H.F.
,
1990
,
Sediment-hosted gold deposits: Distal products of magmatic-hydrothermal systems
,
Geology
 , v.
18
, p.
157
161
.
Simon
,
G.
,
Huang
,
H
,
Penner-Hahn
,
J.E.
,
Kesler
,
S.E.
, and
Kao
,
L.S.
,
1999
,
Oxidation state of gold and arsenic in gold-bearing arsenian pyrite
:
American Mineralogist
 , v.
84
, p.
1071
1079
.
Smith
,
M.T.
, and
Cook
,
H.E.
,
2018
,
Carlin on the shelf?
A review of sedimentary rock-hosted gold deposits and their settings in the eastern Great Basin, USA
 :
Reviews in Economic Geology
 , v.
20
, p.
89
120
.
Smith
,
M.T.
,
Lee
,
C.
,
Lepore
,
W.
,
Benchley
,
K.
,
Hannink
,
R.
,
Samuelson
,
K.
,
Shabestari
,
P.
,
Tedrick
,
A.
, and
Wickum
,
J.
,
2011
,
The Long Canyon deposit: Exploration success in new territory
, in
Steininger
,
R.
, and
Pennell
,
B.
, eds.,
Great Basin evolution and metallogeny: 2010 Symposium proceedings
:
Reno, Nevada
,
Geological Society of Nevada
, p.
657
676
.
Smith
,
M.T.
,
Rhys
,
D.
,
Ross
,
K.
,
Lee
,
C.
, and
Gray
,
J.N.
,
2013
,
The Long Canyon deposit: Anatomy of a new off-trend sedimentary rock-hosted gold discovery in northeastern Nevada
:
Economic Geology
 , v.
108
, p.
1119
1145
.
Su
,
W.C.
,
Heinrich
,
C.A.
,
Pettke
,
T.
,
Zhang
,
X.C.
,
Hu
,
R.Z.
, and
Xia
,
B.
,
2009
,
Sediment-hosted gold deposits in Guizhou
,
China: Products of wall-rock sulfidation by deep crustal fluids
 :
Economic Geology
 , v.
104
, p.
73
93
.
Su
,
W.C.
,
Zhang
,
H.T.
,
Hu
,
R.Z.
,
Ge
,
X.
,
Xia
,
B.
,
Chen
,
Y.Y.
, and
Zhu
,
C.
,
2012
,
Mineralogy and geochemistry of gold-bearing arsenian pyrite from the Shuiyindong Carlin-type gold deposit, Guizhou, China: Implications for gold depositional processes
:
Mineralium Deposita
 , v.
47
, p.
653
662
.
Su
,
W.C.
,
Dong
,
W.D.
,
Zhang
,
X.C.
,
Shen
,
N.P.
,
Hu
,
R.Z.
,
Hofstra
,
A.H.
,
Cheng
,
L.Z.
,
Xia
,
Y.
, and
Yang
,
K.Y.
,
2018
,
Carlin-type gold deposits in the Dian-Qian-Gui “Golden Triangle” of southwest China
:
Reviews in Economic Geology
 , v.
20
, p.
157
185
.
Teal
,
L.
, and
Jackson
,
M.
,
1997
,
Geologic overview of the Carlin trend gold deposits and descriptions of recent deep discoveries
:
Society of Economic Geologists Guidebook Series
 , v.
28
, p.
3
37
.
Thompson
,
T.B.
,
2011
,
Origin of fluids associated with Carlin-type ore systems
, in
Steininger
,
R.
, and
Pennell
,
B.
, eds.,
Great Basin evolution and metallogeny: 2010 Symposium proceedings
:
Reno, Nevada
,
Geological Society of Nevada
, p.
201
219
.
Tosdal
,
R.M.
,
Wooden
,
J.L.
, and
Kistler
,
R.W.
,
2000
,
Geometry of the Neo-Proterozoic continental break-up, and implications for location of Nevadan mineral belts
, in
Cluer
,
J.K.
,
Price
,
J.G.
,
Struhsacker
,
E.M.
,
Hardyman
,
R.F.
, and
Morris
,
C.L.
, eds.,
Geology and ore deposits 2000: The Great Basin and beyond Symposium proceedings
:
Reno, Nevada
,
Geological Society of Nevada
, p.
451
466
.
Tucker
,
M.J.
,
Hart
,
C.J.R.
, and
Carne
,
R.C.
,
2013
,
Geology, alteration, and mineralization of the Carlin-type Conrad zone, Yukon
, in
MacFarlane
,
K.E.
,
Nordling
,
M.G.
, and
Sack
,
P.J.
, eds.,
Yukon exploration and geology, 2012: Yukon Geological Survey
 , p.
163
178
.
Tucker
,
M.J.
,
Lane
,
J.C.
, and
Hart
,
C.J.R.
,
2018
,
Overview of Carlin-type prospects of the Nadaleen trend: A Yukon analogue to Carlin-type gold mineralization of the Great Basin
:
Reviews in Economic Geology
 , v.
20
, p.
235
258
.
Vaughan
,
J.R.
,
Hickey
,
K.A.
, and
Barker
,
S.L.L.
,
2016
,
Isotopic, chemical, and textural evidence for pervasive calcite dissolution and precipitation accompanying hydrothermal fluid flow in low-temperature, carbonate-hosted gold systems
:
Economic Geology
 , v.
111
, p.
1127
1157
.
Wells
,
J.D.
, and
Mullins
T.E.
,
1973
,
Gold-bearing arsenian pyrite determined by microprobe analysis, Cortez and Carlin gold mines, Nevada
:
Economic Geology
 , v.
68
, p.
187
201
.
Wilson
,
W.L.
, and
Wilson
,
W.B.
,
1986
,
Geology of the Eureka-Windfall and Rustler gold deposits, Eureka County, Nevada
:
Nevada Bureau of Mines and Geology, Report 40
 , p.
81
84
.
Wones
,
D.R.
,
1989
,
Significance of the assemblage titanite + magnetite + quartz in granitic rocks
:
American Mineralogist
 , v.
74
, no.
7–8
, p.
744
749
.
Xie
,
Z.J.
,
Xia
,
Y.
,
Cline
,
J.S.
,
Koenig
,
A.
,
Wei
,
D.T.
,
Tan
,
Q.P.
, and
Wang
,
Z.P.
,
2018
,
Are there Carlin-type gold deposits in China? A comparison of the Guizhou, China, deposits and Nevada, USA, deposits
:
Reviews in Economic Geology
 , v.
20
, p.
187
233
.
Zhang
,
X.C.
,
Spiro
,
B.
,
Halls
,
C.
,
Stanley
,
C.
, and
Yang
,
K.Y.
,
2003
,
Sediment-hosted disseminated gold deposits in southwest Guizhou, PRC: Their geological setting and origin in relation to mineralogical, fluid inclusion, and stable-isotope characteristics
:
International Geology Review
 , v.
45
, p.
407
470
.

REFERENCES

Arbonies
,
D.G.
,
Creel
,
K.D.
, and
Jackson
,
M.L.
,
2011
,
Cortez Hills lower zone discovery and geologic update
, in
Steininger
,
R.
, and
Pennell
,
B.
, eds.,
Great Basin evolution and metallogeny: Geological Society of Nevada Symposium volume
:
Reno/Sparks, Nevada
,
Geological Society of Nevada
, p.
447
462
.
Arehart
,
G.B.
,
Ressel
,
M.
,
Carne
,
R.
, and
Muntean
,
J.
,
2013
,
A comparison of Carlin-type deposits in Nevada and Yukon
:
Society of Economic Geologists, Special Publication 17
 , p.
389
401
.
Barker
,
S.L.L.
,
Hickey
,
K.A.
,
Cline
,
J.S.
,
Dipple
,
G.M.
,
Kilburn
,
M.R.
,
Vaughan
,
J.R.
, and
Longo
,
A.A.
,
2009
,
Uncloaking invisible gold: Use of nanoSIMS to evaluate gold, trace elements, and sulfur isotopes in pyrite from Carlin-type gold deposits
:
Economic Geology
 , v.
104
, p.
897
904
.
Barker
,
S.L.L.
,
Dipple
,
G.M.
,
Hickey
,
K.A.
,
Lepore
,
W.A.
, and
Vaughan
,
J.R.
,
2013
,
Applying stable isotopes to mineral exploration: Teaching an old dog new tricks
:
Economic Geology
 , v.
108
, p.
1
9
.
Bedell
,
R.
,
Struhsacker
,
E.
,
Craig
,
L.
,
Miller
,
M.
,
Coolbaugh
,
M.
,
Smith
,
J.
, and
Parratt
,
R.
,
2010
,
The Pequop mining district, Elko County, Nevada: An evolving new gold district
:
Society of Economic Geologists, Special Publication 15
 , p.
29
56
.
Bradley
,
M.A.
, and
Eck
,
N.
,
2015
,
The Goldrush discovery, Cortez district, Nevada—the stratigraphic story
, in
Pennell
,
W.M.
, and
Garside
,
L.J.
, eds.,
New concepts and discoveries: Geological Society of Nevada Symposium proceedings
:
Reno, Nevada
,
Geological Society of Nevada
, p.
435
452
.
Burnham
,
C.W.
,
1979
,
Magmas and hydrothermal fluids
, in
Barnes
,
H.L.
, ed.,
Geochemistry of hydrothermal ore deposits
:
New York
,
Wiley
, p.
71
136
.
Burton
,
B.
,
1997
,
Structural geology and emplacement history of the Harrison Pass pluton, central Ruby Mountains, Elko County, Nevada
: Unpublished Ph.D. thesis,
Laramie, Wyoming
,
University of Wyoming
,
295
p.
Cassinerio
,
M.
, and
Muntean
,
J.
,
2011
,
Patterns of lithology, structure, alteration, and trace elements around high-grade ore zones at the Turquoise Ridge gold deposit, Getchell district, Nevada
, in
Steininger
,
R.
, and
Pennell
,
B.
, eds.,
Great Basin evolution and metallogeny: 2010 Symposium proceedings
:
Reno, Nevada
,
Geological Society of Nevada
, p.
949
977
.
Chambefort
,
I.
,
Dilles
,
J.H.
, and
Longo
,
A.A.
,
2013
,
Amphibole geochemistry of the Yanacocha volcanics, Peru—evidence for diverse sources of magmatic volatiles related to gold ores
:
Journal of Petrology
 , v.
54
, no.
5
, p.
1017
1046
.
Chen
,
M.H.
,
Mao
,
J.W.
,
Bierlein
,
F.P.
,
Norman
,
T.
, and
Uttley
,
P.J.
,
2011
,
Structural features and metallogenesis of the Carlin-type Jinfeng (Lannigou) gold deposit, Guizhou Province, China
:
Ore Geology Reviews
 , v.
43
, p.
217
234
.
Chen
,
M.H.
,
Mao
,
J.W.
,
Li
,
C.
,
Zhang
,
Z.
, and
Dang
,
Y.
,
2015
,
Re-Os isochron ages for arsenopyrite from Carlin-like gold deposits in the Yunnan-Guizhou-Guangxi “Golden Triangle,” southwestern China
:
Ore Geology Reviews
 , v.
64
, p.
316
327
.
Clark
,
L.R.
,
2009
,
Ore and gangue mineral paragenesis of the Cortez Hills Carlin-type gold deposit, Nevada: Evidence for coincident high-grade gold deposition and collapse brecciation
: Unpublished M.S. thesis,
Las Vegas, Nevada
,
University of Nevada, Las Vegas
,
212
p.
Cline
,
J.S.
,
2001
,
Timing of gold and arsenic sulfide mineral deposition at the Getchell Carlin-type gold deposit, north-central Nevada
:
Economic Geology
 , v.
96
, p.
75
90
.
Cline
,
J.S.
, and
Hofstra
,
A.H.
,
2000
,
Ore fluid evolution at the Getchell Carlin-type gold deposit, Nevada, USA
:
European Journal of Mineralogy
 , v.
12
, p.
195
212
.
Cline
,
J.S.
,
Hofstra
,
A.H.
,
Muntean
,
J.L.
,
Tosdal
,
R.M.
, and
Hickey
,
K.A.
,
2005
,
Carlin-type gold deposits in Nevada: Critical geologic characteristics and viable Models
:
Economic Geology 100th Anniversary Volume
 , p.
451
484
.
Cline
,
J.S.
,
Muntean
,
J.L.
,
Gu
,
X.X.
, and
Xia
,
Y.
,
2013
,
A comparison of Carlin-type gold deposits: Guizhou Province, Golden Triangle, southwest China, and northern Nevada, USA
:
Earth Science Frontiers
,
Beijing, China
, v.
20
, p.
1
18
.
Cluer
,
J.K.
,
2012
,
Remobilized geochemical anomalies related to deep gold zones, Carlin Trend, Nevada
:
Economic Geology
 , v.
107
, p.
1343
1349
.
Colgan
,
J.P.
,
Henry
,
C.D.
, and
John
,
D.A.
,
2014
,
Evidence for large-magnitude, post-Eocene extension in the northern Shoshone Range, Nevada, and its implications for the structural setting of Carlin-type gold deposits in the lower plate of the Roberts Mountains allocthon
:
Economic Geology
 , v.
109
, p.
1843
1862
.
Cook
,
H.E.
,
2015
,
The evolution and relationship of the western North American Paleozoic carbonate platform and basin depositional environments to Carlin-type gold deposits in the context of carbonate sequence stratigraphy
, in
Pennell
,
W.M.
, and
Garside
,
L.J.
, eds.,
New concepts and discoveries, Geological Society of Nevada 2015 Symposium proceedings
:
Reno, Nevada
,
Geological Society of Nevada
, p.
1
80
.
Cook
,
H.E.
, and
Corboy
,
J.J.
,
2004
,
Great Basin Paleozoic carbonate platform: Facies, facies transitions, depositional models, platform architecture, sequence stratigraphy, and predictive mineral host models
:
U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2004–1078
 ,
129
p.
Cope
,
E.
,
Hipsley
,
R.
,
Dobak
,
P.
,
Arbonies
,
D.
, and
Brower
,
S.
,
2008
,
South Arturo: A recent gold discovery on the Carlin trend
:
Mining Engineering
 , January, p.
19
25
.
Crafford
,
A.E.J.
, and
Grauch
,
V.J.S.
,
2002
,
Geologic and geophysical evidence for the influence of deep crustal structures on Paleozoic tectonics and the alignment of world-class gold deposits, north central Nevada, USA
:
Ore Geology Reviews
 , v.
21
, p.
157
184
.
Creel
,
K.D.
, and
Bradley
,
M.A.
,
2013
,
Goldrush—lessons learned from the latest giant gold deposit discovered in Nevada
:
Society of Economic Geologists, Special Publication 17
 , p
403
413
.
Davis
,
D.A.
, and
Muntean
,
J.L.
,
2017
,
Metals
:
Nevada Bureau of Mines and Geology, Special Publication MI-2016
 , p.
14
53
.
de Almeida
,
C.M.
,
Olivo
,
G.R.
,
Chouinard
,
A.
,
Weakly
,
C.
, and
Poirier
,
G.
,
2010
,
Mineral paragenesis, alteration, and geochemistry of the two types of gold ore and the host rocks from the Carlin-type deposits in the southern part of the Goldstrike property, northern Nevada: Implications for sources of ore-forming elements, ore genesis, and mineral exploration
:
Economic Geology
 , v.
105
, p.
971
1004
.
Deditius
,
A.P.
,
Reich
,
M.
,
Kesler
,
S.E.
,
Utsunomiya
,
S.
,
Chryssoulis
,
S.L.
,
Walshe
,
J.
, and
Ewing
,
R.C.
,
2014
,
The coupled geochemistry of Au and As in pyrite from hydrothermal ore deposits
:
Geochimica Cosmochimica Acta
 , v.
140
, p.
644
670
.
Di Fiori
,
R.V.
,
Long
,
S.P.
,
Muntean
,
J.L.
, and
Edmondo
,
G.P.
,
2014
,
Preliminary geologic and alteration maps of Lookout Mountain, Ratto Ridge, and Rocky Canyon, southern Eureka mining district, Eureka, Nevada
:
Nevada Bureau of Mines and Geology Open-File Report 2014–08, scale 1:10,000
 .
Di Fiori
,
R.V.
,
Long
,
S.P.
,
Muntean
,
J.L.
, and
Edmondo
,
G.P.
,
2015
,
Structural analysis of gold mineralization in the southern Eureka Mining district, Eureka County, Nevada: A predictive structural setting for Carlin-type mineralization
, in
Pennell
,
W.M.
, and
Garside
,
L.J.
, eds.,
New concepts and discoveries: Geological Society of Nevada 2015 Symposium proceedings
:
Reno, Nevada
,
Geological Society of Nevada
, p.
885
903
.
Dilles
,
J.H.
,
1987
,
Petrology of the Yerington batholith, Nevada; evidence for evolution of porphyry copper ore fluids
:
Economic Geology
 , v.
82
, p.
1750
1789
.
Emsbo
,
P.
, and
Koenig
,
A.E.
,
2007
,
Transport of Au in petroleum: Evidence from the northern Carlin trend, Nevada [abs.]
:
Digging Deeper, Biennial Society of Geology Applied to Mineral Deposits (SGA) Meeting, 9th
,
Dublin
,
2007
, Proceedings, p.
695
698
.
Emsbo
P.
,
Hutchinson
,
R.W.
,
Hofstra
,
A.H.
,
Volk
,
J.A.
,
Bettles
,
K.H.
,
Baschuk
,
G.J.
, and
Johnson
,
C.A.
,
1999
,
Syngenetic Au on the Carlin trend: Implications for Carlin-type deposits
:
Geology
 , v.
27
, p.
59
62
.
Emsbo
,
P.
,
Hofstra
,
A.H.
,
Lauha
,
E.A.
,
Griffin
,
G.L.
, and
Hutchinson
,
R.W.
,
2003
,
Origin of high-grade gold ore, source of ore fluid components, and genesis of the Meikle and neighboring Carlin-type deposits, northern Carlin trend, Nevada
:
Economic Geology
 , v.
98
, p.
1069
1105
.
Emsbo
,
P.
,
Groves
,
D.I.
,
Hofstra
,
A.H.
, and
Bierlein
,
R.P.
,
2006
,
The giant Carlin gold province: A protracted interplay of orogenic, basinal, and hydrothermal processes above a lithospheric boundary
:
Mineralium Deposita
 , v.
41
, p.
517
525
.
Felder
,
R.P.
,
Struhsacker
,
E.M.
, and
Miller
,
M.S.
,
2011
,
The history of exploration and discovery of the Long Canyon gold deposit, Elko County, Nevada, USA
, in
Steininger
,
R.
, and
Pennell
,
B.
, eds.,
Great Basin evolution and metallogeny: 2010 Symposium proceedings
:
Reno, Nevada
,
Geological Society of Nevada
, p.
141
151
.
Gates
,
C.
,
2015
,
A field-based geochemical and petrographic study of the fluids preserved within the Harrison Pass pluton with implications for the fluid origin of Carlin-type gold deposits [abs.]
, in
Pennell
,
W.M.
and
Garside
,
L.J.
eds.,
New concepts and discoveries, Geological Society of Nevada 2015 Symposium proceedings
:
Reno, Nevada
,
Geological Society of Nevada, DVD
.
Gold Standard Ventures
,
2016
, www.goldstandardv.com/projects/railroad, accessed March 4, 2016.
Halter
,
W.E.
,
Heinrich
,
C.A.
, and
Pettke
,
T.
,
2005
,
Magma evolution and the formation of porphyry Cu-Au ore fluids: Evidence from silicate and sulfide melt inclusions
:
Mineralium Deposita
 , v.
39
, no.
8
, p.
845
863
.
Heitt
,
D.G.
,
Dunbar
,
W.B.
,
Thompson
,
T.B.
, and
Jackson
,
R.G.
,
2003
,
Geology and geochemistry of the Deep Star gold deposit, Carlin trend, Nevada
:
Economic Geology
 , v.
98
, p.
1107
1135
.
Hellbusch
,
C.
,
Abrams
,
M.
, and
Loptien
,
G.
,
2011
,
Gold occurrences at the West Pequop project, Elko County, Nevada
, in
Steininger
,
R.
, and
Pennell
,
B.
, eds.,
Great Basin evolution and metallogeny: 2010 Symposium proceedings
:
Reno, Nevada
,
Geological Society of Nevada
, p.
609
623
.
Henry
,
C.
,
Muntean
,
J.
,
John
,
D.
, and
Colgan
,
J.
,
2012
,
Mesozoic-Cenozoic magmatism and mineralization in the Greater Cortez area: An example of NBMG framework studies [abs.]
:
Reno, Nevada
,
Geological Society of Nevada, University of Nevada
, https://nbmg.wordpress.com/?s=cortez +gold+deposit+henry.
Henry
,
C.D.
, and
Faulds
,
J.E.
,
1999
,
Preliminary geologic map of the Emigrant Pass quadrangle, Nevada
:
Nevada Bureau of Mines and Geology Open-File Report 99–9, scale 1:24,000
 ,
20
p.
Henry
,
C.D.
, and
John
,
D.A.
,
2015
,
The relationship between Cenozoic roll-back magmatism and mineral deposits in the Great Basin, USA [abs.]
, in
Pennell
,
W.M.
, and
Garside
,
L.J.
, eds.,
New concepts and discoveries, Geological Society of Nevada 2015 Symposium proceedings
:
Reno, Nevada
,
Geological Society of Nevada, DVD
.
Henry
,
C.D.
, and
Ressel
,
M.W.
,
2000
,
Eocene magmatism of northeastern Nevada: The smoking gun for Carlin-type gold deposits
, in
Cluer
,
J.K.
,
Price
,
J.G.
,
Struhsacker
,
E.M.
,
Hardyman
,
R.F.
, and
Morris
,
C.L.
,
Geology and ore deposits 2000: The Great Basin and beyond: Symposium proceedings
:
Reno, Nevada
,
Geological Society of Nevada
, p.
365
388
.
Henry
,
C.D.
,
Jackson
,
M.R.
,
Mathewson
,
D.C.
,
Koehler
,
S.R.
, and
Moore
,
S.C.
,
2015
,
Eocene igneous geology and relation to mineralization: Railroad district, southern Carlin trend, Nevada
, in
Pennell
,
W.M.
, and
Garside
,
L.J.
, eds.,
New concepts and discoveries, Geological Society of Nevada 2015 Symposium proceedings
:
Reno, Nevada
,
Geological Society of Nevada
, p.
939
965
.
Hickey
,
K.A.
,
Dipple
,
G.M.
,
Barker
,
S.L.L.
, and
Donelick
,
R.A.
,
2009
,
In the blink of an eye: Thermal constraints on the duration of hydrothermal fluid flow during formation of the Carlin Au deposits, USA
:
Smart Science for Exploration and Mining, Society for Geology Applied to Mineral Deposits (SGA) Biennial Meeting, 10th
,
Townsville, Australia
, August 17–20, 2009, Proceedings, p.
282
284
.
Hickey
,
K.A.
,
Ahmed
,
A.D.
,
Barker
,
S.L.L.
, and
Leonardson
,
R.
,
2014a
,
Fault-controlled lateral fluid flow underneath and into a Carlin-type gold deposit: Isotopic and geochemical footprints
:
Economic Geology
 , v.
109
, p.
1431
1460
.
Hickey
,
K.A.
,
Barker
,
S.L.L.
,
Dipple
,
G.M.
,
Arehart
,
G.B.
, and
Donelick
,
R.A.
,
2014b
,
The brevity of hydrothermal fluid flow revealed by thermal halos around giant gold deposits: Implications for Carlin-type gold systems
:
Economic Geology
 , v.
109
, p.
1461
1487
.
Hoffman
,
P.F.
,
1991
,
Did the breakout of Laurentia turn Gondwanaland inside-out?
:
Science
 , v.
252
, p.
1409
1412
.
Hofstra
,
A.H.
, and
Cline
,
J.S.
,
2000
,
Characteristics and models for Carlin-type gold deposits
:
Reviews in Economic Geology
 , v.
13
, p.
163
220
.
Hofstra
,
A.H.
,
Leventhal
,
J.S.
,
Northrop
,
H.R.
,
Landis
,
G.P.
,
Rye
,
R.O.
,
Birak
,
D.J.
, and
Dahl
,
A.R.
,
1991
,
Genesis of sediment-hosted disseminated gold deposits by fluid mixing and sulfidization: Chemical-reaction-path modeling of ore-depositional processes documented in the Jerritt Canyon district, Nevada
:
Geology
 , v.
19
, p.
36
40
.
Hofstra
,
A.H.
,
Christiansen
,
W.D.
,
Zohar
,
P.B.
, and
Tousignant
,
G.
,
2011
,
Lithogeochemistry of the Devonian Popovich Formation in the northern Carlin trend, Nevada
, in
Steininger
,
R.
, and
Pennell
,
B.
, eds.,
Great Basin evolution and metallogeny: 2010 Symposium proceedings
:
Reno, Nevada
,
Geological Society of Nevada
, p.
63
95
.
Hou
,
L.
,
Peng
,
H.
,
Ding
,
J.
,
Zhang
,
J.
,
Zhu
,
S.
,
Wu
,
S.
,
Wu
,
Y.
, and
Ouyang
,
H.
,
2016
,
Textures and in situ chemical and isotopic analyses of pyrite, Huijiabao trend, Youjiang basin, China: Implications for paragenesis and source of sulfur
:
Economic Geology
 , v.
111
, p.
331
353
.
Hronsky
,
J.M.A.
,
Groves
,
D.I.
,
Loucks
,
R.R.
, and
Begg
,
G.C.
,
2012
,
A unified model for gold mineralization in accretionary orogens and implications for regional-scale exploration targeting methods
:
Mineralium Deposita
 , v.
47
, p.
339
358
.
Hu
,
R.Z.
,
Su
,
W.C.
,
Bi
,
X.W.
,
Tu
,
G.Z.
, and
Hofstra
,
A.H.
,
2002
,
Geology and geochemistry of Carlin-type gold deposits in China
:
Mineralium Deposita
 , v.
37
, p.
378
392
.
Humphreys
,
E.
,
1995
,
Post Laramide removal of the Farallon slab, western United States
:
Geology
 , v.
23
, p.
987
990
.
Jackson
,
M.L.
,
Arbonies
,
D.
, and
Creel
,
K.
,
2011
,
Architecture of the Cortez Hills breccia body
, in
Steininger
,
R.
, and
Pennell
,
B.
, eds.,
Great Basin evolution and metallogeny: 2010 Symposium proceedings
,
Reno, Nevada
,
Geological Society of Nevada
, p.
97
123
.
Jackson
,
M.R.
, and
Koehler
,
S.R.
,
2014
,
Carlin-style gold and polymetallic targets within a large Eocene, magmato-thermal system on the Carlin trend, Nevada [abs.]
:
Mineral Exploration Roundup 2014, Association for Mineral Exploration: Vancouver, British Columbia
 , 2014.
Jackson
,
M.R.
,
Mathewson
,
D.C.
,
Koehler
S.R.
,
Harp
,
M.T.
,
Edie
,
R.J.
,
Whitmer
,
N.E.
,
Norby
,
J.W.
, and
Newton
,
M.N.
,
2015
,
Geology of the North Bullion gold deposit: Eocene extension, intrusion and Carlin-style mineralization, the Railroad district, Carlin trend, Nevada
, in
Pennell
,
W.M.
, and
Garside
,
L.J.
, eds.,
New concepts and discoveries, Geological Society of Nevada 2015 Symposium proceedings
:
Reno, Nevada
,
Geological Society of Nevada
, p.
313
331
.
Johnson
,
C.L.
,
2015
,
Petrology and geochemistry of the Emigrant Pass volcanics, Nevada: Implications for a magmatic-hydrothermal origin of the Carlin gold deposits
: Unpublished M.S. thesis,
Corvallis, Oregon
,
Oregon State University
,
124
p.
Johnson
,
C.L.
,
Dilles
,
J.H.
,
Kent
,
A.J.R.
, and
Farmer
,
L.P.
,
2015
,
Petrology and geochemistry of the Emigrant Pass volcanics, Nevada: Implications for a magmatic-hydrothermal origin of the Carlin gold deposits
, in
Pennell
,
W.M.
, and
Garside
,
L.J.
, eds.,
New concepts and discoveries, Geological Society of Nevada 2015 Symposium proceedings
:
Reno, Nevada
,
Geological Society of Nevada
, p.
391
408
.
Koehler
,
S.R.
,
Edie
,
R.J.
,
Harp
,
M.T.
,
Henry
,
C.
,
Jackson
,
M.R.
,
Mathewson
,
D.C.
,
Norby
,
J.W.
, and
Whitmer
,
N.E.
,
2015
,
Precious and base metal mineralization within a large Eocene, magmato-thermal system, Railroad district, Carlin trend, Nevada
, in
Pennell
,
W.M.
, and
Garside
,
L.J.
, eds.,
New concepts and discoveries, Geological Society of Nevada 2015 Symposium proceedings
:
Reno, Nevada
,
Geological Society of Nevada
, p.
1229
1242
.
Lane
,
J.
,
Phillips
,
R.
, and
Carne
,
R.
,
2015
,
Recent Carlin-type gold discoveries by ATAC Resources Ltd. on the Rackla gold project in central Yukon [abs.]
, in
Pennell
,
W.M.
, and
Garside
,
L.J.
, eds.,
New concepts and discoveries, Geological Society of Nevada 2015 Symposium proceedings
:
Reno, Nevada
,
Geological Society of Nevada, DVD
.
Large
,
R.R.
,
Danyushevsky
,
L.V.
,
Hollit
,
C.
,
Maslennikov
,
V.
,
Meffre
,
S.
,
Gilbert
,
S.
,
Bull
,
S.
,
Scott
,
R.
,
Emsbo
,
P.
,
Thomas
,
H.
,
Singh
,
B.
, and
Foster
,
J.
,
2009
,
Gold and trace element zonation in pyrite using a laser imaging technique: Implications for the timing of gold in orogenic and Carlin-style sediment hosted deposits
:
Economic Geology
 , v.
104
, p.
635
668
.
Large
,
R.R.
,
Bull
,
S.W.
, and
Maslennikov
,
V.V.
,
2011
,
A carbonaceous sedimentary source-rock model for Carlin-type and orogenic gold deposits
:
Economic Geology
 , v.
106
, p.
331
358
.
Large
,
S.J.E.
,
Bakker
,
E.Y.N.
,
Weis
,
P.
, Wä
lle
,
M.
,
Heinrich
,
C.A.
, and
Ressel
,
M.W.
,
2016
,
Trace elements in fluid inclusions in sediment-hosted gold deposits: Indicators for a magmatic-hydrothermal origin for the Carlin and Battle Mountain ore trends
:
Geology
 , v.
44
, p.
1015
1018
.
Leonardson
,
2011
,
Barrick Cortez Gold Acres structure
, in
Steininger
,
R.
, and
Pennell
,
B.
, eds.,
Great Basin Evolution and Metallogeny: 2010 Symposium proceedings
:
Reno, Nevada
,
Geological Society of Nevada
, p.
17
29
.
Long
,
S.P.
,
Henry
,
C.D.
,
Muntean
,
J.L.
,
Edmondo
,
G.P.
, and
Thomas
,
R.D.
,
2014
,
Geologic map of the southern part of the Eureka mining district and surrounding areas of the Fish Creek Range, Mountain Boy Range, and Diamond Mountains, Eureka and White Pine Counties, Nevada
:
Reno, Nevada
,
Nevada Bureau of Mines and Geology
, Map
183
.
Longo
,
A.A.
,
Thompson
,
T.B.
, and
Harlan
,
J.B.
,
2002
,
Geologic overview of the Rain subdistrict: Gold deposits of the Carlin trend
:
Nevada Bureau of Mines and Geology, Bulletin
 
111
, p.
168
189
.
Longo
,
A.A.
,
Cline
,
J.S.
, and
Muntean
,
J.
,
2009a
,
Detecting ore fluid pathways in Carlin-type gold deposits using pyrite chemistry
:
Smart Science for Exploration and Mining, Society for Geology Applied to Mineral Deposits (SGA) Biennial Meeting, 10th
,
Townsville, Australia
, August 17–20, 2009, Proceedings, v.
1
, p.
242
244
.
Longo
,
A.A.
,
Cline
,
J.S.
, and
Muntean
,
J.
,
2009b
,
Using pyrite to track evolving fluid pathways and chemistry in Carlin-type deposits
:
Geological Society of Nevada, Special Publication 49
 , p.
63
65
.
Longo
,
A.A.
,
Dilles
,
J.H.
,
Grunder
,
A.L.
, and
Duncan
,
R.
,
2010
,
Evolution of calc-alkaline volcanism and associated hydrothermal gold deposits at Yanacocha, Peru
:
Economic Geology
 , v.
105
, p.
1191
1241
.
Loucks
,
R.R.
,
2014
,
Distinctive composition of copper-ore-forming arc magmas
:
Australian Journal of Earth Sciences
 , v.
61
, p.
5
16
.
Lubben
,
J.D.
,
Cline
,
J.S.
, and
Barker
,
S.L.L.
,
2012
,
Silicification across the Betze-Post Carlin-type Au deposit: Clues to ore fluid properties and sources, northern Carlin trend, Nevada
:
Economic Geology
 , v.
107
, p.
1351
1385
.
Maroun
,
L.R.C.
,
Cline
,
J.S.
,
Simon
,
A.
,
Anderson
,
P.
, and
Muntean
J.
,
2017
,
High-grade gold deposition and collapse brecciation, Cortez Hills Carlin-type gold deposit, Nevada, USA
:
Economic Geology
 , v.
112
, p.
707
740
.
Mateer
,
M.A.
,
2010
,
Ammonium illite at the Jerritt Canyon district and Goldstrike property, Nevada: Its spatial distribution and significance in the exploration of Carlin-type deposits
: Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation,
Laramie, Wyoming
,
University of Wyoming
,
214
p.
Micklethwaite
,
2011
,
Fault-induced damage controlling the formation of Carlin-type ore deposits
, in
Steininger
,
R.
, and
Pennell
,
B.
, eds.,
Great Basin evolution and metallogeny: 2010 Symposium proceedings
:
Reno, Nevada
,
Geological Society of Nevada
, p.
221
231
.
Milliard
,
A.K.
,
Ressel
,
M.W.
,
Henry
,
C.D.
,
Ricks
,
C.
, and
Loptien
,
G.
,
2015
,
Age, distribution, and composition of igneous rocks of the Pequop Mountains, northeast Nevada: Association with Carlin-type gold deposits
, in
Kizis
,
J.A.
, Jr.
, and
Benchley
,
K.
, eds.,
The Pequop trend, Nevada’s “newest” Carlin trend: Geological Society of Nevada 2015 conference field trip guidebook
,
Reno, Nevada
, p.
161
189
.
Muntean
,
J.L.
, and
Henry
,
C.D.
,
2007
,
Preliminary geologic map of the Jerritt Canyon mining district, Elko County, Nevada
:
Nevada Bureau of Mines and Geology, Open-File Report 07–3
 , 1 sheet with cross section.
Muntean
,
J.L.
, and
Taufen
,
P.
,
2011
,
Geochemical exploration for gold through transported alluvial cover in Nevada: Examples from the Cortez mine
:
Economic Geology
 , v.
106
, p.
809
833
.
Muntean
,
J.L.
,
Coward
,
M.P.
, and
Tarnocai
,
C.A.
,
2007
,
Paleozoic normal faults in north-central Nevada: Deep crustal conduits for Carlin-type gold deposits
:
Geological Society of London, Special Publication 272
 , p.
571
587
.
Muntean
,
J.L
,
Cassinerio
,
M.
,
Cline
,
J.S.
,
Arehart
,
G.
, and
Longo
,
A.A.
,
2009a
,
Fluid pathways at the Turquoise Ridge Carlin-type gold deposit, Getchell district, Nevada
:
Smart Science for Exploration and Mining, Society for Geology Applied to Mineral Deposits (SGA) Biennial Meeting, 10th
,
Townsville, Australia
, August 17–20,
2009
, Proceedings, p.
251
253
.
Muntean
,
J.L.
,
Cassinerio
,
M.D.
,
Arehart
,
G.B.
Cline
,
J.S.
, and
Longo
,
A.A.
,
2009b
,
Fluid pathways at the Turquoise Ridge Carlin-type gold deposit, Getchell district, Nevada
:
Geological Society of Nevada, Special Publication 49
 , p.
67
69
.
Muntean
,
J.L.
,
Cline
,
J.S.
,
Simon
,
A.
, and
Longo
,
A.A.
,
2011
,
Origin of Carlin-type gold deposits
:
Nature Geoscience
 , v.
4
, no.
2
, p.
122
127
, www.nature.com/articles/ngeo1064.
Musekamp
,
C.O.J.
,
2012
,
Field, fluid inclusion and isotope chemistry evidence of fluids circulating around the Harrison Pass pluton during intrusion: A fluid model for Carlin-type deposits
: Unpublished M.S. thesis, Fort
Collins, Colorado
,
Colorado State University
,
195
p.
Newton
,
M.N.
,
2015
,
Characterization of gold and related mineralization at the North Bullion Carlin system, Railroad project, a Nevada Carlin-type gold prospect
: Unpublished M.S. thesis,
Las Vegas, Nevada
,
University of Nevada Las Vegas
.
Nolan
,
T.B.
,
1962
,
The Eureka mining district, Nevada
:
U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 406
 ,
78
p.
Papke
,
K.G.
,
1984
,
Barite in Nevada
:
Nevada Bureau of Mines and Geology Bulletin 98
 ,
Reno, Nevada
,
125
p.
Patterson
,
L.M.
and
Muntean
,
J.L.
,
2011
,
Multielement geochemistry across a Carlin-type gold district: Jerritt Canyon, Nevada
: in
Steininger
,
R.
, and
Pennell
,
B.
, eds.,
Great Basin evolution and metallogeny: 2010 Symposium proceedings
:
Reno, Nevada
,
Geological Society of Nevada
, p.
1119
1151
.
Powell
,
J.L.
,
2015a
,
Long Canyon deposit, Elko County, Nevada
, in
Kizis
,
J.A.
, Jr.
, and
Benchley
,
K.
, eds.,
The Pequop trend, Nevada’s “newest” Carlin trend: Geological Society of Nevada 2015 conference field trip guidebook
,
Reno, Nevada
, p.
135
138
.
Powell
J.
,
2015b
,
Geology and Mineralization of the Long Canyon Gold Deposit, Elko County, Nevada [abs.]
, in
Pennell
,
W.M.
, and
Garside
,
L.J.
, eds.,
New concepts and discoveries, Geological Society of Nevada 2015 Symposium proceedings
:
Reno, Nevada
,
Geological Society of Nevada, DVD
.
Radtke
,
A.S.
,
Rye
,
R.O.
, and
Dickson
,
F.W.
,
1980
,
Geology and stable isotope studies of the Carlin gold deposit, Nevada
:
Economic Geology
 , v.
75
, p.
641
672
.
Reich
,
M.
,
Kesler
,
S.E.
,
Utsunomiya
,
S.
,
Palenik
,
C.S.
,
Chryssoulis
,
S.L.
and
Ewing
,
R.C.
,
2005
,
Solubility of gold in arsenian pyrite
:
Geochimica Cosmochimica Acta
 , v.
69
, p.
2781
2796
.
Ressel
,
M.W.
, and
Henry
,
C.D.
,
2006
,
Igneous geology of the Carlin trend, Nevada: Development of the Eocene plutonic complex and significance for Carlin-type gold deposits
:
Economic Geology
 , v.
101
, p.
347
383
.
Ressel
,
M.W.
,
Noble
,
D.C.
,
Henry
,
C.D.
, and
Trudel
,
W.S.
,
2000
,
Dike-hosted ores of the Beast deposit and the importance of Eocene magmatism in gold mineralization of the Carlin trend, Nevada
:
Economic Geology
 , v.
95
, p.
1417
1444
.
Ressel
,
M.W.
,
Dendas
,
M.
,
Lujan
,
R.
,
Essman
,
J.
, and
Shumway
,
P.J.
,
2015
,
Shallow expressions of Carlin-type hydrothermal systems: An example from the Emigrant mine, Carlin trend, Nevada
, in
Pennell
,
W.M.
, and
Garside
,
L.J.
, eds.,
New concepts and discoveries, Geological Society of Nevada 2015 Symposium proceedings
:
Reno, Nevada
,
Geological Society of Nevada
, p.
409
433
.
Rhys
,
D.
,
Valli
,
F.
,
Burgess
,
R.
,
Heitt
,
D.
,
Griesel
,
G.
, and
Hart
,
K.
,
2015
,
Controls of fault and fold geometry on the distribution of gold mineralization on the Carlin trend
: in
Pennell
,
W.M.
, and
Garside
,
L.J.
, eds.,
New concepts and discoveries, Geological Society of Nevada 2015 Symposium proceedings
:
Reno, Nevada
,
Geological Society of Nevada
, p.
1245
1301
.
Richards
,
J.P.
,
2011
,
High Sr/Y arc magmas and porphyry Cu ± Mo ± Au deposits: Just add water
:
Economic Geology
 , v.
106
, p.
1075
1081
.
Richards
,
J.P.
,
Spell
,
T.
,
Rameh
,
E.
,
Razique
,
A.
, and
Fletcher
,
T.
,
2012
,
High Sr/Y magmas reflect arc maturity, high magmatic water content, and porphyry Cu ± Mo ± Au potential: Examples from the Tethyan arcs of central and eastern Iran and western Pakistan
:
Economic Geology
 , v.
107
, p.
295
332
.
Ricks
,
C.
, and
Schneider
,
D.
,
2015
,
West Pequop Project JV, Elko County, Nevada
, in
Kizis
,
J.A.
, Jr.
, and
Benchley
,
K.
, eds.,
The Pequop trend, Nevada’s “newest” Carlin trend: Geological Society of Nevada 2015 conference field trip guidebook
,
Reno, Nevada
, p.
141
142
.
Roberts
,
R.J.
,
1960
,
Alignment of mining districts in north-central Nevada
:
U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 400-B
 , p.
B17
B19
.
Rodriguez
,
B.D.
,
Grauch
,
V.J.S.
, and
Williams
,
J.M.
,
2005
,
Preliminary deep crustal investigations to locate the Archean/Proterozoic suture zone in the Great Basin, using magnetotellurics
:
Window to the World, Geological Society of Nevada 2005 Symposium
,
Reno, Nevada
, May 14–18,
2005
, Program with Abstracts, p.
81
.
Scott
,
R.J.
,
Meffre
,
S.
,
Woodhead
,
J.
,
Gilbert
,
S.E.
,
Berry
,
R.F.
, and
Emsbo
,
P.
,
2009
,
Development of framboidal pyrite during diagenesis, low-grade regional metamorphism, and hydrothermal alteration
:
Economic Geology
 , v.
104
, p.
1143
1168
.
Sillitoe
,
R.H.
, and
Bonham
,
H.F.
,
1990
,
Sediment-hosted gold deposits: Distal products of magmatic-hydrothermal systems
,
Geology
 , v.
18
, p.
157
161
.
Simon
,
G.
,
Huang
,
H
,
Penner-Hahn
,
J.E.
,
Kesler
,
S.E.
, and
Kao
,
L.S.
,
1999
,
Oxidation state of gold and arsenic in gold-bearing arsenian pyrite
:
American Mineralogist
 , v.
84
, p.
1071
1079
.
Smith
,
M.T.
, and
Cook
,
H.E.
,
2018
,
Carlin on the shelf?
A review of sedimentary rock-hosted gold deposits and their settings in the eastern Great Basin, USA
 :
Reviews in Economic Geology
 , v.
20
, p.
89
120
.
Smith
,
M.T.
,
Lee
,
C.
,
Lepore
,
W.
,
Benchley
,
K.
,
Hannink
,
R.
,
Samuelson
,
K.
,
Shabestari
,
P.
,
Tedrick
,
A.
, and
Wickum
,
J.
,
2011
,
The Long Canyon deposit: Exploration success in new territory
, in
Steininger
,
R.
, and
Pennell
,
B.
, eds.,
Great Basin evolution and metallogeny: 2010 Symposium proceedings
:
Reno, Nevada
,
Geological Society of Nevada
, p.
657
676
.
Smith
,
M.T.
,
Rhys
,
D.
,
Ross
,
K.
,
Lee
,
C.
, and
Gray
,
J.N.
,
2013
,
The Long Canyon deposit: Anatomy of a new off-trend sedimentary rock-hosted gold discovery in northeastern Nevada
:
Economic Geology
 , v.
108
, p.
1119
1145
.
Su
,
W.C.
,
Heinrich
,
C.A.
,
Pettke
,
T.
,
Zhang
,
X.C.
,
Hu
,
R.Z.
, and
Xia
,
B.
,
2009
,
Sediment-hosted gold deposits in Guizhou
,
China: Products of wall-rock sulfidation by deep crustal fluids
 :
Economic Geology
 , v.
104
, p.
73
93
.
Su
,
W.C.
,
Zhang
,
H.T.
,
Hu
,
R.Z.
,
Ge
,
X.
,
Xia
,
B.
,
Chen
,
Y.Y.
, and
Zhu
,
C.
,
2012
,
Mineralogy and geochemistry of gold-bearing arsenian pyrite from the Shuiyindong Carlin-type gold deposit, Guizhou, China: Implications for gold depositional processes
:
Mineralium Deposita
 , v.
47
, p.
653
662
.
Su
,
W.C.
,
Dong
,
W.D.
,
Zhang
,
X.C.
,
Shen
,
N.P.
,
Hu
,
R.Z.
,
Hofstra
,
A.H.
,
Cheng
,
L.Z.
,
Xia
,
Y.
, and
Yang
,
K.Y.
,
2018
,
Carlin-type gold deposits in the Dian-Qian-Gui “Golden Triangle” of southwest China
:
Reviews in Economic Geology
 , v.
20
, p.
157
185
.
Teal
,
L.
, and
Jackson
,
M.
,
1997
,
Geologic overview of the Carlin trend gold deposits and descriptions of recent deep discoveries
:
Society of Economic Geologists Guidebook Series
 , v.
28
, p.
3
37
.
Thompson
,
T.B.
,
2011
,
Origin of fluids associated with Carlin-type ore systems
, in
Steininger
,
R.
, and
Pennell
,
B.
, eds.,
Great Basin evolution and metallogeny: 2010 Symposium proceedings
:
Reno, Nevada
,
Geological Society of Nevada
, p.
201
219
.
Tosdal
,
R.M.
,
Wooden
,
J.L.
, and
Kistler
,
R.W.
,
2000
,
Geometry of the Neo-Proterozoic continental break-up, and implications for location of Nevadan mineral belts
, in
Cluer
,
J.K.
,
Price
,
J.G.
,
Struhsacker
,
E.M.
,
Hardyman
,
R.F.
, and
Morris
,
C.L.
, eds.,
Geology and ore deposits 2000: The Great Basin and beyond Symposium proceedings
:
Reno, Nevada
,
Geological Society of Nevada
, p.
451
466
.
Tucker
,
M.J.
,
Hart
,
C.J.R.
, and
Carne
,
R.C.
,
2013
,
Geology, alteration, and mineralization of the Carlin-type Conrad zone, Yukon
, in
MacFarlane
,
K.E.
,
Nordling
,
M.G.
, and
Sack
,
P.J.
, eds.,
Yukon exploration and geology, 2012: Yukon Geological Survey
 , p.
163
178
.
Tucker
,
M.J.
,
Lane
,
J.C.
, and
Hart
,
C.J.R.
,
2018
,
Overview of Carlin-type prospects of the Nadaleen trend: A Yukon analogue to Carlin-type gold mineralization of the Great Basin
:
Reviews in Economic Geology
 , v.
20
, p.
235
258
.
Vaughan
,
J.R.
,
Hickey
,
K.A.
, and
Barker
,
S.L.L.
,
2016
,
Isotopic, chemical, and textural evidence for pervasive calcite dissolution and precipitation accompanying hydrothermal fluid flow in low-temperature, carbonate-hosted gold systems
:
Economic Geology
 , v.
111
, p.
1127
1157
.
Wells
,
J.D.
, and
Mullins
T.E.
,
1973
,
Gold-bearing arsenian pyrite determined by microprobe analysis, Cortez and Carlin gold mines, Nevada
:
Economic Geology
 , v.
68
, p.
187
201
.
Wilson
,
W.L.
, and
Wilson
,
W.B.
,
1986
,
Geology of the Eureka-Windfall and Rustler gold deposits, Eureka County, Nevada
:
Nevada Bureau of Mines and Geology, Report 40
 , p.
81
84
.
Wones
,
D.R.
,
1989
,
Significance of the assemblage titanite + magnetite + quartz in granitic rocks
:
American Mineralogist
 , v.
74
, no.
7–8
, p.
744
749
.
Xie
,
Z.J.
,
Xia
,
Y.
,
Cline
,
J.S.
,
Koenig
,
A.
,
Wei
,
D.T.
,
Tan
,
Q.P.
, and
Wang
,
Z.P.
,
2018
,
Are there Carlin-type gold deposits in China? A comparison of the Guizhou, China, deposits and Nevada, USA, deposits
:
Reviews in Economic Geology
 , v.
20
, p.
187
233
.
Zhang
,
X.C.
,
Spiro
,
B.
,
Halls
,
C.
,
Stanley
,
C.
, and
Yang
,
K.Y.
,
2003
,
Sediment-hosted disseminated gold deposits in southwest Guizhou, PRC: Their geological setting and origin in relation to mineralogical, fluid inclusion, and stable-isotope characteristics
:
International Geology Review
 , v.
45
, p.
407
470
.

Figures & Tables

Fig. 1.

West to east cross section from Cook (2015) that incorporates time (vertical scale) showing “Pre-Antler depositional facies profile: Lower Cambrian-Upper Devonian total stratigraphic thickness about 15,000 –20,000 feet thick (4575–6100 meters). Lower-Upper Cambrian about 8,000 feet thick (2,450 meters).… Relative thicknesses of stratigraphic units have been altered for diagrammatic purposes” (from Cook, 2015, p. 7). Not to scale; true distance is about 130 to 145 km.

Fig. 1.

West to east cross section from Cook (2015) that incorporates time (vertical scale) showing “Pre-Antler depositional facies profile: Lower Cambrian-Upper Devonian total stratigraphic thickness about 15,000 –20,000 feet thick (4575–6100 meters). Lower-Upper Cambrian about 8,000 feet thick (2,450 meters).… Relative thicknesses of stratigraphic units have been altered for diagrammatic purposes” (from Cook, 2015, p. 7). Not to scale; true distance is about 130 to 145 km.

Fig. 2.

“Schematic … cross section of interpreted Eocene plutons beneath the northern and central Carlin trend. The cross section runs approximately north to south…. Geologic and aeromagnetic data suggest that plutons in the north lie at greater depths than plutons in the south. Dikes of the Carlin trend are apophyses from these plutons” (from Ressel and Henry, 2006, p. 377).

Fig. 2.

“Schematic … cross section of interpreted Eocene plutons beneath the northern and central Carlin trend. The cross section runs approximately north to south…. Geologic and aeromagnetic data suggest that plutons in the north lie at greater depths than plutons in the south. Dikes of the Carlin trend are apophyses from these plutons” (from Ressel and Henry, 2006, p. 377).

Fig. 3.

Cross section showing development of structures formed by inversion of an originally normal structure during compression (from Muntean et al., 2007).

Fig. 3.

Cross section showing development of structures formed by inversion of an originally normal structure during compression (from Muntean et al., 2007).

Fig. 4.

“Schematic cross section looking north through the northern Carlin trend, incorporating generalized mineralization and lithostructural patterns which occur between the Post and Meikle mine areas. The diagram illustrate(s) relationships between structural features, stratigraphic units, and mineralization” (from Rhys et al., 2015, p. 1290).

Fig. 4.

“Schematic cross section looking north through the northern Carlin trend, incorporating generalized mineralization and lithostructural patterns which occur between the Post and Meikle mine areas. The diagram illustrate(s) relationships between structural features, stratigraphic units, and mineralization” (from Rhys et al., 2015, p. 1290).

Fig. 5.

Fluid flow was focused laterally along the preexisting low-angle Abyss thrust fault underneath the main ore zone and then up into the reactive Devonian Wenban Formation. A. Geology of the Pipeline orebody interpreted from drill hole logs and from maps and sections presented by Leonardson (2011) and Hickey et al. (2014a). B. Interpreted fluid flow based on δ18O and δ13C signatures and the low concentrations of trace elements in the rocks immediately beneath the main ore zone at Pipeline (Hickey et al., 2014a). Abbreviations: Dhc = Devonian Horse Canyon formation, Dw = Devonian Wenban Formation, ff = fracture flow, Ohc = Ordovician Hanson Creek Formation, Pzl = undifferentiated Ordovician-Devonian Horse Canyon, Wenban, Roberts Mountain, and Hanson Creek Formations, Pzu = undifferentiated Ordovician-Devonian Slaven, Elder, and Valmy Formations, RMT = Roberts Mountain thrust, Srm = Silurian Roberts Mountain Formation, TQa = Miocene-Quaternary volcaniclastic, fluvial, lacustrine, and alluvial sediments.

Fig. 5.

Fluid flow was focused laterally along the preexisting low-angle Abyss thrust fault underneath the main ore zone and then up into the reactive Devonian Wenban Formation. A. Geology of the Pipeline orebody interpreted from drill hole logs and from maps and sections presented by Leonardson (2011) and Hickey et al. (2014a). B. Interpreted fluid flow based on δ18O and δ13C signatures and the low concentrations of trace elements in the rocks immediately beneath the main ore zone at Pipeline (Hickey et al., 2014a). Abbreviations: Dhc = Devonian Horse Canyon formation, Dw = Devonian Wenban Formation, ff = fracture flow, Ohc = Ordovician Hanson Creek Formation, Pzl = undifferentiated Ordovician-Devonian Horse Canyon, Wenban, Roberts Mountain, and Hanson Creek Formations, Pzu = undifferentiated Ordovician-Devonian Slaven, Elder, and Valmy Formations, RMT = Roberts Mountain thrust, Srm = Silurian Roberts Mountain Formation, TQa = Miocene-Quaternary volcaniclastic, fluvial, lacustrine, and alluvial sediments.

Fig. 6.

Analyses identified gold in framboidal pyrite that formed under hydrothermal conditions and was overgrown by hydrothermal marcasite. Thus, the presence of gold in framboids does not require that gold mineralization occurred during diagenesis (from Scott et al., 2009).

Fig. 6.

Analyses identified gold in framboidal pyrite that formed under hydrothermal conditions and was overgrown by hydrothermal marcasite. Thus, the presence of gold in framboids does not require that gold mineralization occurred during diagenesis (from Scott et al., 2009).

Fig. 7.

“Trace element maps from Turquoise Ridge pyrite section (936 881), showing the distribution of Cu (as 32S63Cu), As (as 32S75As), Te (as 130Te), and Au (as 197Au). Different growth stages are separated by red lines in each trace element map and are labeled as growth stages 1, 2, 3a, 3b, and 3c in the Au map. Stages 3a, b, and c represent the Carlin Au event. Shown at the bottom are relative intensity profiles of Au (black line), As (red line), Te (purple line), and Cu (green line) along white line shown in the 32S75As map. Separate growth stages are labeled on the line profile” (Barker et al., 2009, p. 901).

Fig. 7.

“Trace element maps from Turquoise Ridge pyrite section (936 881), showing the distribution of Cu (as 32S63Cu), As (as 32S75As), Te (as 130Te), and Au (as 197Au). Different growth stages are separated by red lines in each trace element map and are labeled as growth stages 1, 2, 3a, 3b, and 3c in the Au map. Stages 3a, b, and c represent the Carlin Au event. Shown at the bottom are relative intensity profiles of Au (black line), As (red line), Te (purple line), and Cu (green line) along white line shown in the 32S75As map. Separate growth stages are labeled on the line profile” (Barker et al., 2009, p. 901).

Fig. 8.

“NanoSIMS maps showing distribution of (A) 32S (denoting the distribution of pyrite), (B) 197Au in ore-stage pyrite sample 664 211 from Turquoise Ridge, (C) 197Au for the area inside the red square shown in (A) and (B). (D). Sulfur isotope ratio (34S/32S) over almost exactly the same area as the map of 197Au shown in (C), with the dashed white line in (D) representing the boundary between gold-poor and gold-rich pyrite. Note the strong correlation between distribution of gold in (C) and change in sulfur isotope ratios in (D)” (Barker et al., 2009, p. 902).

Fig. 8.

“NanoSIMS maps showing distribution of (A) 32S (denoting the distribution of pyrite), (B) 197Au in ore-stage pyrite sample 664 211 from Turquoise Ridge, (C) 197Au for the area inside the red square shown in (A) and (B). (D). Sulfur isotope ratio (34S/32S) over almost exactly the same area as the map of 197Au shown in (C), with the dashed white line in (D) representing the boundary between gold-poor and gold-rich pyrite. Note the strong correlation between distribution of gold in (C) and change in sulfur isotope ratios in (D)” (Barker et al., 2009, p. 902).

Fig. 9.

East-west cross section through the Better Be There (BBT), High Grade Bullion (HGB), and 148 ore zones at the Turquoise Ridge deposit. Patterns highlight locations of chemically distinct zones in ore pyrite rims and show that, over time, fluid flow shifted from the 148 zone to the HGB zone and finally to the BBT. System collapse, indicated by the presence of late ore-stage realgar, is centered on the BBT. From Longo et al., 2009a.

Fig. 9.

East-west cross section through the Better Be There (BBT), High Grade Bullion (HGB), and 148 ore zones at the Turquoise Ridge deposit. Patterns highlight locations of chemically distinct zones in ore pyrite rims and show that, over time, fluid flow shifted from the 148 zone to the HGB zone and finally to the BBT. System collapse, indicated by the presence of late ore-stage realgar, is centered on the BBT. From Longo et al., 2009a.

Fig. 10.

Long section of south half of the Emigrant deposit, southern Carlin trend, showing the location of low-grade gold mineralization. Blue lines are drill holes projected ±150 m (500 ft) into section (from Ressel et al., 2015). Abbreviations: Dg = Devonian Guillmette limestone, Mim = Mississippian Island Mountain Formation, Mp = Mississippian Pilot Shale, Mw = Mississipian Web Formation, Tcgl = Tertiary conglomerate, Te = Eocene/Tertiary Elko Formation, Th = Tertiary/Mid-Miocene Humboldt Formation, Tiw = Oligocene-Eocene Indian Well Formation.

Fig. 10.

Long section of south half of the Emigrant deposit, southern Carlin trend, showing the location of low-grade gold mineralization. Blue lines are drill holes projected ±150 m (500 ft) into section (from Ressel et al., 2015). Abbreviations: Dg = Devonian Guillmette limestone, Mim = Mississippian Island Mountain Formation, Mp = Mississippian Pilot Shale, Mw = Mississipian Web Formation, Tcgl = Tertiary conglomerate, Te = Eocene/Tertiary Elko Formation, Th = Tertiary/Mid-Miocene Humboldt Formation, Tiw = Oligocene-Eocene Indian Well Formation.

Fig. 11.

(A-D) Hand samples (left), thin sections (center) and photomicrographs under crossed polarized transmitted light (right) of four samples selected along an ~5-m drill hole transect from low to high grade in the Cortez Hills deposit. The samples increase in Au concentration, porosity, and ore pyrite, illite, and jasperoid abundances from rock A to D (from Clark, 2009; Maroun et al., 2017). Abbreviations: cc = calcite, jsp = jasperoid.

Fig. 11.

(A-D) Hand samples (left), thin sections (center) and photomicrographs under crossed polarized transmitted light (right) of four samples selected along an ~5-m drill hole transect from low to high grade in the Cortez Hills deposit. The samples increase in Au concentration, porosity, and ore pyrite, illite, and jasperoid abundances from rock A to D (from Clark, 2009; Maroun et al., 2017). Abbreviations: cc = calcite, jsp = jasperoid.

Fig. 12.

(A-D) Cross sections of the Turquoise Ridge High Grade Bullion ore zone showing alteration, late-stage mineralization, gold grade, and rock quality designation (RQD) halos. RQD values provide the widest halo in this fracture-controlled system. Tick marks indicate depths of 2,000 ft (610 m) and 3,000 ft (915 m) (from Cassinerio and Muntean, 2011).

Fig. 12.

(A-D) Cross sections of the Turquoise Ridge High Grade Bullion ore zone showing alteration, late-stage mineralization, gold grade, and rock quality designation (RQD) halos. RQD values provide the widest halo in this fracture-controlled system. Tick marks indicate depths of 2,000 ft (610 m) and 3,000 ft (915 m) (from Cassinerio and Muntean, 2011).

Fig. 13.

Conceptual model depicting a mechanism for deposition of NH4+ illite in a hydrothermal system. NPI is normal-potassic illite (from Mateer, 2010).

Fig. 13.

Conceptual model depicting a mechanism for deposition of NH4+ illite in a hydrothermal system. NPI is normal-potassic illite (from Mateer, 2010).

Fig. 14.

Conceptual geologic section through the Ren 24 zone gold deposit, north Carlin trend, showing main stratotectonic units and faults and hypothesized fracture system that connects deep gold zones to remobilized geochemical anomalies in mapped Carlin Formation fractures (from Cluer, 2012).

Fig. 14.

Conceptual geologic section through the Ren 24 zone gold deposit, north Carlin trend, showing main stratotectonic units and faults and hypothesized fracture system that connects deep gold zones to remobilized geochemical anomalies in mapped Carlin Formation fractures (from Cluer, 2012).

Fig. 15.

(A-F) In situ secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) oxygen isotope ratios of preore quartz (PREq), ore-stage jasperoid (OSjsp), late ore vein and drusy quartz (LOvq, LOdq), and postore drusy quartz (POdq) at North Betze, northern Carlin trend. The open squares indicate locations of analyses. Image A is a combined cathodoluminescence (CL) (15%) and backscattered electron (85%) image; B, C, and D are CL images; E is a photomicrograph; and F is a backscattered electron image. From Lubben et al., 2012.

Fig. 15.

(A-F) In situ secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) oxygen isotope ratios of preore quartz (PREq), ore-stage jasperoid (OSjsp), late ore vein and drusy quartz (LOvq, LOdq), and postore drusy quartz (POdq) at North Betze, northern Carlin trend. The open squares indicate locations of analyses. Image A is a combined cathodoluminescence (CL) (15%) and backscattered electron (85%) image; B, C, and D are CL images; E is a photomicrograph; and F is a backscattered electron image. From Lubben et al., 2012.

Fig. 16.

“Locations of the four main clusters of Carlin-type gold deposits and their estimated age of mineralization (Min) and associated magmatism (Mag)…. the margin of the underlying Precambrian craton (based on Sr isotopes), Mid-Tertiary magmatic fronts…. locations of old reactivated fault systems, and the easternmost extent of the Roberts Mountain thrust fault” (from Muntean et al., 2011, p. 122).

Fig. 16.

“Locations of the four main clusters of Carlin-type gold deposits and their estimated age of mineralization (Min) and associated magmatism (Mag)…. the margin of the underlying Precambrian craton (based on Sr isotopes), Mid-Tertiary magmatic fronts…. locations of old reactivated fault systems, and the easternmost extent of the Roberts Mountain thrust fault” (from Muntean et al., 2011, p. 122).

Fig. 17.

Pequops trends. Great Basin isostatic gravity map; warmer colors represent higher density. Yellow barite vein trends are from Papke (1984), dashed black and brown lead isotope boundaries are from Tosdal et al. (2000), and magnetotelluric (MT) shear zone is from Rodriguez et al. (2005). Modified from Bedell et al., 2010.

Fig. 17.

Pequops trends. Great Basin isostatic gravity map; warmer colors represent higher density. Yellow barite vein trends are from Papke (1984), dashed black and brown lead isotope boundaries are from Tosdal et al. (2000), and magnetotelluric (MT) shear zone is from Rodriguez et al. (2005). Modified from Bedell et al., 2010.

Fig. 18.

Northwest to southeast long section of the Goldrush deposit displaying lateral extent and continuity of alteration and mineralization in the Wenban Formation (from Bradley and Eck, 2015).

Fig. 18.

Northwest to southeast long section of the Goldrush deposit displaying lateral extent and continuity of alteration and mineralization in the Wenban Formation (from Bradley and Eck, 2015).

Fig. 19.

The North Bullion deposit is centered on the fourth and southernmost dome on the Carlin trend in a horst in the footwall of the major N-striking, steeply E-dipping North Bullion fault zone (from Gold Standard Ventures, 2016). Abbreviations: Ki = Cretaceous intrusion, Ti = Tertiary intrusion.

Fig. 19.

The North Bullion deposit is centered on the fourth and southernmost dome on the Carlin trend in a horst in the footwall of the major N-striking, steeply E-dipping North Bullion fault zone (from Gold Standard Ventures, 2016). Abbreviations: Ki = Cretaceous intrusion, Ti = Tertiary intrusion.

Fig. 20.

A model for the “Rodinian supercontinent just prior to breakup at ~700 Ma showing the location of the future Great Basin and Yukon along the rifted margin of the continent.” From Arehart et al. (2013, p. 390); redrawn from Hoffman (1991).

Fig. 20.

A model for the “Rodinian supercontinent just prior to breakup at ~700 Ma showing the location of the future Great Basin and Yukon along the rifted margin of the continent.” From Arehart et al. (2013, p. 390); redrawn from Hoffman (1991).

Fig. 21.

The Golden Triangle, Guizhou Province, southern China, showing the distribution of the Chinese Carlin-type deposits in late Paleozoic carbonate platform rocks (yellow), Triassic basin turbidites (pink), and Triassic platform carbonates (gray). From Xie et al. (2018); modified from Chen et al. (2011). Inset shows location in China.

Fig. 21.

The Golden Triangle, Guizhou Province, southern China, showing the distribution of the Chinese Carlin-type deposits in late Paleozoic carbonate platform rocks (yellow), Triassic basin turbidites (pink), and Triassic platform carbonates (gray). From Xie et al. (2018); modified from Chen et al. (2011). Inset shows location in China.

Fig. 22.

Model for shallow basin formation of Carlin-type gold deposit. Gold and arsenic enriched in host rocks during sedimentation were removed and transported laterally by meteoric fluids by initial compression followed by extension and/or by metamorphism and Tertiary intrusions. Metals were deposited in secondary rims on previously formed diagenetic pyrite (from Large et al., 2011).

Fig. 22.

Model for shallow basin formation of Carlin-type gold deposit. Gold and arsenic enriched in host rocks during sedimentation were removed and transported laterally by meteoric fluids by initial compression followed by extension and/or by metamorphism and Tertiary intrusions. Metals were deposited in secondary rims on previously formed diagenetic pyrite (from Large et al., 2011).

Fig. 23.

Schematic cross section showing magmatic model in which magmas generated at depth transported gold and other metals and passed them off to exsolving hydrothermal fluids near the ductile/brittle transition. These ore fluids rose through the crust and sulfidized iron-bearing calcareous rocks, forming gold-bearing pyrite (from Muntean et al., 2011). SCLM = subcontinental lithospheric mantle, SOLM = suboceanic lithospheric mantle.

Fig. 23.

Schematic cross section showing magmatic model in which magmas generated at depth transported gold and other metals and passed them off to exsolving hydrothermal fluids near the ductile/brittle transition. These ore fluids rose through the crust and sulfidized iron-bearing calcareous rocks, forming gold-bearing pyrite (from Muntean et al., 2011). SCLM = subcontinental lithospheric mantle, SOLM = suboceanic lithospheric mantle.

Fig. 24.

“Schematic north-south cross section through the EPV [Emigrant Pass Volcanics] and southernmost Carlin-type Au deposits (Carlin, West Leeville, Turf) of the northern Carlin trend. This schematic illustrates the close proximity of the EPV to inferred plutons of Welches Canyon and the Carlin Au district. ……. The projection of the base of the EPV illustrates the rough location of the Eocene paleosurface and supports the hypothesis that Carlin-type Au deposits likely formed at shallow depths (Cline et al., 2005; Ressel and Henry, 2006)” (from Johnson, 2015, p. 406). Abbreviations: Bt = biotite, Hbl = hornblende, Jg = Jurassic granite, Kg = Cretaceous granite, Pl/Plag/Plg = plagioclase, Qtz = quartz, RMT = Roberts Mountains thrust, San = sanidine.

Fig. 24.

“Schematic north-south cross section through the EPV [Emigrant Pass Volcanics] and southernmost Carlin-type Au deposits (Carlin, West Leeville, Turf) of the northern Carlin trend. This schematic illustrates the close proximity of the EPV to inferred plutons of Welches Canyon and the Carlin Au district. ……. The projection of the base of the EPV illustrates the rough location of the Eocene paleosurface and supports the hypothesis that Carlin-type Au deposits likely formed at shallow depths (Cline et al., 2005; Ressel and Henry, 2006)” (from Johnson, 2015, p. 406). Abbreviations: Bt = biotite, Hbl = hornblende, Jg = Jurassic granite, Kg = Cretaceous granite, Pl/Plag/Plg = plagioclase, Qtz = quartz, RMT = Roberts Mountains thrust, San = sanidine.

Fig. 25.

“A model for the source of fluids responsible for transporting gold in the Carlin trend after Muntean et al., 2011” (Musekamp, 2012). “Within” refers to within the interior of the Harrison Pass pluton, “on” refers to within 5 to 10 m of the Harrison Pass pluton-metasedimentary wall rock contact, and “away” refers to ~10 m to 2 km from the pluton–wall-rock contact (from Musekamp, 2012, p. 149). Abbreviations: P = primary fluid inclusions, S = secondary fluid inclusions, WR = wall rock.

Fig. 25.

“A model for the source of fluids responsible for transporting gold in the Carlin trend after Muntean et al., 2011” (Musekamp, 2012). “Within” refers to within the interior of the Harrison Pass pluton, “on” refers to within 5 to 10 m of the Harrison Pass pluton-metasedimentary wall rock contact, and “away” refers to ~10 m to 2 km from the pluton–wall-rock contact (from Musekamp, 2012, p. 149). Abbreviations: P = primary fluid inclusions, S = secondary fluid inclusions, WR = wall rock.

Fig. 26.

Map showing the three essential factors of the unified model, including translithospheric structures represented by the deposit trends, the prefertilized source region in the Archean Grouse Creek block, and a favorable transient remobilization event indicated by the locations of magmatic fronts at 40, 36, and 25 Ma (from Hronsky et al., 2012).

Fig. 26.

Map showing the three essential factors of the unified model, including translithospheric structures represented by the deposit trends, the prefertilized source region in the Archean Grouse Creek block, and a favorable transient remobilization event indicated by the locations of magmatic fronts at 40, 36, and 25 Ma (from Hronsky et al., 2012).

Contents

References

REFERENCES

Arbonies
,
D.G.
,
Creel
,
K.D.
, and
Jackson
,
M.L.
,
2011
,
Cortez Hills lower zone discovery and geologic update
, in
Steininger
,
R.
, and
Pennell
,
B.
, eds.,
Great Basin evolution and metallogeny: Geological Society of Nevada Symposium volume
:
Reno/Sparks, Nevada
,
Geological Society of Nevada
, p.
447
462
.
Arehart
,
G.B.
,
Ressel
,
M.
,
Carne
,
R.
, and
Muntean
,
J.
,
2013
,
A comparison of Carlin-type deposits in Nevada and Yukon
:
Society of Economic Geologists, Special Publication 17
 , p.
389
401
.
Barker
,
S.L.L.
,
Hickey
,
K.A.
,
Cline
,
J.S.
,
Dipple
,
G.M.
,
Kilburn
,
M.R.
,
Vaughan
,
J.R.
, and
Longo
,
A.A.
,
2009
,
Uncloaking invisible gold: Use of nanoSIMS to evaluate gold, trace elements, and sulfur isotopes in pyrite from Carlin-type gold deposits
:
Economic Geology
 , v.
104
, p.
897
904
.
Barker
,
S.L.L.
,
Dipple
,
G.M.
,
Hickey
,
K.A.
,
Lepore
,
W.A.
, and
Vaughan
,
J.R.
,
2013
,
Applying stable isotopes to mineral exploration: Teaching an old dog new tricks
:
Economic Geology
 , v.
108
, p.
1
9
.
Bedell
,
R.
,
Struhsacker
,
E.
,
Craig
,
L.
,
Miller
,
M.
,
Coolbaugh
,
M.
,
Smith
,
J.
, and
Parratt
,
R.
,
2010
,
The Pequop mining district, Elko County, Nevada: An evolving new gold district
:
Society of Economic Geologists, Special Publication 15
 , p.
29
56
.
Bradley
,
M.A.
, and
Eck
,
N.
,
2015
,
The Goldrush discovery, Cortez district, Nevada—the stratigraphic story
, in
Pennell
,
W.M.
, and
Garside
,
L.J.
, eds.,
New concepts and discoveries: Geological Society of Nevada Symposium proceedings
:
Reno, Nevada
,
Geological Society of Nevada
, p.
435
452
.
Burnham
,
C.W.
,
1979
,
Magmas and hydrothermal fluids
, in
Barnes
,
H.L.
, ed.,
Geochemistry of hydrothermal ore deposits
:
New York
,
Wiley
, p.
71
136
.
Burton
,
B.
,
1997
,
Structural geology and emplacement history of the Harrison Pass pluton, central Ruby Mountains, Elko County, Nevada
: Unpublished Ph.D. thesis,
Laramie, Wyoming
,
University of Wyoming
,
295
p.
Cassinerio
,
M.
, and
Muntean
,
J.
,
2011
,
Patterns of lithology, structure, alteration, and trace elements around high-grade ore zones at the Turquoise Ridge gold deposit, Getchell district, Nevada
, in
Steininger
,
R.
, and
Pennell
,
B.
, eds.,
Great Basin evolution and metallogeny: 2010 Symposium proceedings
:
Reno, Nevada
,
Geological Society of Nevada
, p.
949
977
.
Chambefort
,
I.
,
Dilles
,
J.H.
, and
Longo
,
A.A.
,
2013
,
Amphibole geochemistry of the Yanacocha volcanics, Peru—evidence for diverse sources of magmatic volatiles related to gold ores
:
Journal of Petrology
 , v.
54
, no.
5
, p.
1017
1046
.
Chen
,
M.H.
,
Mao
,
J.W.
,
Bierlein
,
F.P.
,
Norman
,
T.
, and
Uttley
,
P.J.
,
2011
,
Structural features and metallogenesis of the Carlin-type Jinfeng (Lannigou) gold deposit, Guizhou Province, China
:
Ore Geology Reviews
 , v.
43
, p.
217
234
.
Chen
,
M.H.
,
Mao
,
J.W.
,
Li
,
C.
,
Zhang
,
Z.
, and
Dang
,
Y.
,
2015
,
Re-Os isochron ages for arsenopyrite from Carlin-like gold deposits in the Yunnan-Guizhou-Guangxi “Golden Triangle,” southwestern China
:
Ore Geology Reviews
 , v.
64
, p.
316
327
.
Clark
,
L.R.
,
2009
,
Ore and gangue mineral paragenesis of the Cortez Hills Carlin-type gold deposit, Nevada: Evidence for coincident high-grade gold deposition and collapse brecciation
: Unpublished M.S. thesis,
Las Vegas, Nevada
,
University of Nevada, Las Vegas
,
212
p.
Cline
,
J.S.
,
2001
,
Timing of gold and arsenic sulfide mineral deposition at the Getchell Carlin-type gold deposit, north-central Nevada
:
Economic Geology
 , v.
96
, p.
75
90
.
Cline
,
J.S.
, and
Hofstra
,
A.H.
,
2000
,
Ore fluid evolution at the Getchell Carlin-type gold deposit, Nevada, USA
:
European Journal of Mineralogy
 , v.
12
, p.
195
212
.
Cline
,
J.S.
,
Hofstra
,
A.H.
,
Muntean
,
J.L.
,
Tosdal
,
R.M.
, and
Hickey
,
K.A.
,
2005
,
Carlin-type gold deposits in Nevada: Critical geologic characteristics and viable Models
:
Economic Geology 100th Anniversary Volume
 , p.
451
484
.
Cline
,
J.S.
,
Muntean
,
J.L.
,
Gu
,
X.X.
, and
Xia
,
Y.
,
2013
,
A comparison of Carlin-type gold deposits: Guizhou Province, Golden Triangle, southwest China, and northern Nevada, USA
:
Earth Science Frontiers
,
Beijing, China
, v.
20
, p.
1
18
.
Cluer
,
J.K.
,
2012
,
Remobilized geochemical anomalies related to deep gold zones, Carlin Trend, Nevada
:
Economic Geology
 , v.
107
, p.
1343
1349
.
Colgan
,
J.P.
,
Henry
,
C.D.
, and
John
,
D.A.
,
2014
,
Evidence for large-magnitude, post-Eocene extension in the northern Shoshone Range, Nevada, and its implications for the structural setting of Carlin-type gold deposits in the lower plate of the Roberts Mountains allocthon
:
Economic Geology
 , v.
109
, p.
1843
1862
.
Cook
,
H.E.
,
2015
,
The evolution and relationship of the western North American Paleozoic carbonate platform and basin depositional environments to Carlin-type gold deposits in the context of carbonate sequence stratigraphy
, in
Pennell
,
W.M.
, and
Garside
,
L.J.
, eds.,
New concepts and discoveries, Geological Society of Nevada 2015 Symposium proceedings
:
Reno, Nevada
,
Geological Society of Nevada
, p.
1
80
.
Cook
,
H.E.
, and
Corboy
,
J.J.
,
2004
,
Great Basin Paleozoic carbonate platform: Facies, facies transitions, depositional models, platform architecture, sequence stratigraphy, and predictive mineral host models
:
U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2004–1078
 ,
129
p.
Cope
,
E.
,
Hipsley
,
R.
,
Dobak
,
P.
,
Arbonies
,
D.
, and
Brower
,
S.
,
2008
,
South Arturo: A recent gold discovery on the Carlin trend
:
Mining Engineering
 , January, p.
19
25
.
Crafford
,
A.E.J.
, and
Grauch
,
V.J.S.
,
2002
,
Geologic and geophysical evidence for the influence of deep crustal structures on Paleozoic tectonics and the alignment of world-class gold deposits, north central Nevada, USA
:
Ore Geology Reviews
 , v.
21
, p.
157
184
.
Creel
,
K.D.
, and
Bradley
,
M.A.
,
2013
,
Goldrush—lessons learned from the latest giant gold deposit discovered in Nevada
:
Society of Economic Geologists, Special Publication 17
 , p
403
413
.
Davis
,
D.A.
, and
Muntean
,
J.L.
,
2017
,
Metals
:
Nevada Bureau of Mines and Geology, Special Publication MI-2016
 , p.
14
53
.
de Almeida
,
C.M.
,
Olivo
,
G.R.
,
Chouinard
,
A.
,
Weakly
,
C.
, and
Poirier
,
G.
,
2010
,
Mineral paragenesis, alteration, and geochemistry of the two types of gold ore and the host rocks from the Carlin-type deposits in the southern part of the Goldstrike property, northern Nevada: Implications for sources of ore-forming elements, ore genesis, and mineral exploration
:
Economic Geology
 , v.
105
, p.
971
1004
.
Deditius
,
A.P.
,
Reich
,
M.
,
Kesler
,
S.E.
,
Utsunomiya
,
S.
,
Chryssoulis
,
S.L.
,
Walshe
,
J.
, and
Ewing
,
R.C.
,
2014
,
The coupled geochemistry of Au and As in pyrite from hydrothermal ore deposits
:
Geochimica Cosmochimica Acta
 , v.
140
, p.
644
670
.
Di Fiori
,
R.V.
,
Long
,
S.P.
,
Muntean
,
J.L.
, and
Edmondo
,
G.P.
,
2014
,
Preliminary geologic and alteration maps of Lookout Mountain, Ratto Ridge, and Rocky Canyon, southern Eureka mining district, Eureka, Nevada
:
Nevada Bureau of Mines and Geology Open-File Report 2014–08, scale 1:10,000
 .
Di Fiori
,
R.V.
,
Long
,
S.P.
,
Muntean
,
J.L.
, and
Edmondo
,
G.P.
,
2015
,
Structural analysis of gold mineralization in the southern Eureka Mining district, Eureka County, Nevada: A predictive structural setting for Carlin-type mineralization
, in
Pennell
,
W.M.
, and
Garside
,
L.J.
, eds.,
New concepts and discoveries: Geological Society of Nevada 2015 Symposium proceedings
:
Reno, Nevada
,
Geological Society of Nevada
, p.
885
903
.
Dilles
,
J.H.
,
1987
,
Petrology of the Yerington batholith, Nevada; evidence for evolution of porphyry copper ore fluids
:
Economic Geology
 , v.
82
, p.
1750
1789
.
Emsbo
,
P.
, and
Koenig
,
A.E.
,
2007
,
Transport of Au in petroleum: Evidence from the northern Carlin trend, Nevada [abs.]
:
Digging Deeper, Biennial Society of Geology Applied to Mineral Deposits (SGA) Meeting, 9th
,
Dublin
,
2007
, Proceedings, p.
695
698
.
Emsbo
P.
,
Hutchinson
,
R.W.
,
Hofstra
,
A.H.
,
Volk
,
J.A.
,
Bettles
,
K.H.
,
Baschuk
,
G.J.
, and
Johnson
,
C.A.
,
1999
,
Syngenetic Au on the Carlin trend: Implications for Carlin-type deposits
:
Geology
 , v.
27
, p.
59
62
.
Emsbo
,
P.
,
Hofstra
,
A.H.
,
Lauha
,
E.A.
,
Griffin
,
G.L.
, and
Hutchinson
,
R.W.
,
2003
,
Origin of high-grade gold ore, source of ore fluid components, and genesis of the Meikle and neighboring Carlin-type deposits, northern Carlin trend, Nevada
:
Economic Geology
 , v.
98
, p.
1069
1105
.
Emsbo
,
P.
,
Groves
,
D.I.
,
Hofstra
,
A.H.
, and
Bierlein
,
R.P.
,
2006
,
The giant Carlin gold province: A protracted interplay of orogenic, basinal, and hydrothermal processes above a lithospheric boundary
:
Mineralium Deposita
 , v.
41
, p.
517
525
.
Felder
,
R.P.
,
Struhsacker
,
E.M.
, and
Miller
,
M.S.
,
2011
,
The history of exploration and discovery of the Long Canyon gold deposit, Elko County, Nevada, USA
, in
Steininger
,
R.
, and
Pennell
,
B.
, eds.,
Great Basin evolution and metallogeny: 2010 Symposium proceedings
:
Reno, Nevada
,
Geological Society of Nevada
, p.
141
151
.
Gates
,
C.
,
2015
,
A field-based geochemical and petrographic study of the fluids preserved within the Harrison Pass pluton with implications for the fluid origin of Carlin-type gold deposits [abs.]
, in
Pennell
,
W.M.
and
Garside
,
L.J.
eds.,
New concepts and discoveries, Geological Society of Nevada 2015 Symposium proceedings
:
Reno, Nevada
,
Geological Society of Nevada, DVD
.
Gold Standard Ventures
,
2016
, www.goldstandardv.com/projects/railroad, accessed March 4, 2016.
Halter
,
W.E.
,
Heinrich
,
C.A.
, and
Pettke
,
T.
,
2005
,
Magma evolution and the formation of porphyry Cu-Au ore fluids: Evidence from silicate and sulfide melt inclusions
:
Mineralium Deposita
 , v.
39
, no.
8
, p.
845
863
.
Heitt
,
D.G.
,
Dunbar
,
W.B.
,
Thompson
,
T.B.
, and
Jackson
,
R.G.
,
2003
,
Geology and geochemistry of the Deep Star gold deposit, Carlin trend, Nevada
:
Economic Geology
 , v.
98
, p.
1107
1135
.
Hellbusch
,
C.
,
Abrams
,
M.
, and
Loptien
,
G.
,
2011
,
Gold occurrences at the West Pequop project, Elko County, Nevada
, in
Steininger
,
R.
, and
Pennell
,
B.
, eds.,
Great Basin evolution and metallogeny: 2010 Symposium proceedings
:
Reno, Nevada
,
Geological Society of Nevada
, p.
609
623
.
Henry
,
C.
,
Muntean
,
J.
,
John
,
D.
, and
Colgan
,
J.
,
2012
,
Mesozoic-Cenozoic magmatism and mineralization in the Greater Cortez area: An example of NBMG framework studies [abs.]
:
Reno, Nevada
,
Geological Society of Nevada, University of Nevada
, https://nbmg.wordpress.com/?s=cortez +gold+deposit+henry.
Henry
,
C.D.
, and
Faulds
,
J.E.
,
1999
,
Preliminary geologic map of the Emigrant Pass quadrangle, Nevada
:
Nevada Bureau of Mines and Geology Open-File Report 99–9, scale 1:24,000
 ,
20
p.
Henry
,
C.D.
, and
John
,
D.A.
,
2015
,
The relationship between Cenozoic roll-back magmatism and mineral deposits in the Great Basin, USA [abs.]
, in
Pennell
,
W.M.
, and
Garside
,
L.J.
, eds.,
New concepts and discoveries, Geological Society of Nevada 2015 Symposium proceedings
:
Reno, Nevada
,
Geological Society of Nevada, DVD
.
Henry
,
C.D.
, and
Ressel
,
M.W.
,
2000
,
Eocene magmatism of northeastern Nevada: The smoking gun for Carlin-type gold deposits
, in
Cluer
,
J.K.
,
Price
,
J.G.
,
Struhsacker
,
E.M.
,
Hardyman
,
R.F.
, and
Morris
,
C.L.
,
Geology and ore deposits 2000: The Great Basin and beyond: Symposium proceedings
:
Reno, Nevada
,
Geological Society of Nevada
, p.
365
388
.
Henry
,
C.D.
,
Jackson
,
M.R.
,
Mathewson
,
D.C.
,
Koehler
,
S.R.
, and
Moore
,
S.C.
,
2015
,
Eocene igneous geology and relation to mineralization: Railroad district, southern Carlin trend, Nevada
, in
Pennell
,
W.M.
, and
Garside
,
L.J.
, eds.,
New concepts and discoveries, Geological Society of Nevada 2015 Symposium proceedings
:
Reno, Nevada
,
Geological Society of Nevada
, p.
939
965
.
Hickey
,
K.A.
,
Dipple
,
G.M.
,
Barker
,
S.L.L.
, and
Donelick
,
R.A.
,
2009
,
In the blink of an eye: Thermal constraints on the duration of hydrothermal fluid flow during formation of the Carlin Au deposits, USA
:
Smart Science for Exploration and Mining, Society for Geology Applied to Mineral Deposits (SGA) Biennial Meeting, 10th
,
Townsville, Australia
, August 17–20, 2009, Proceedings, p.
282
284
.
Hickey
,
K.A.
,
Ahmed
,
A.D.
,
Barker
,
S.L.L.
, and
Leonardson
,
R.
,
2014a
,
Fault-controlled lateral fluid flow underneath and into a Carlin-type gold deposit: Isotopic and geochemical footprints
:
Economic Geology
 , v.
109
, p.
1431
1460
.
Hickey
,
K.A.
,
Barker
,
S.L.L.
,
Dipple
,
G.M.
,
Arehart
,
G.B.
, and
Donelick
,
R.A.
,
2014b
,
The brevity of hydrothermal fluid flow revealed by thermal halos around giant gold deposits: Implications for Carlin-type gold systems
:
Economic Geology
 , v.
109
, p.
1461
1487
.
Hoffman
,
P.F.
,
1991
,
Did the breakout of Laurentia turn Gondwanaland inside-out?
:
Science
 , v.
252
, p.
1409
1412
.
Hofstra
,
A.H.
, and
Cline
,
J.S.
,
2000
,
Characteristics and models for Carlin-type gold deposits
:
Reviews in Economic Geology
 , v.
13
, p.
163
220
.
Hofstra
,
A.H.
,
Leventhal
,
J.S.
,
Northrop
,
H.R.
,
Landis
,
G.P.
,
Rye
,
R.O.
,
Birak
,
D.J.
, and
Dahl
,
A.R.
,
1991
,
Genesis of sediment-hosted disseminated gold deposits by fluid mixing and sulfidization: Chemical-reaction-path modeling of ore-depositional processes documented in the Jerritt Canyon district, Nevada
:
Geology
 , v.
19
, p.
36
40
.