Regional petroleum systems and source rocks
Oligocene and Lower Miocene deposits in the Paratethys are important source rocks, but reveal major stratigraphic and regional differences. As a consequence of the first Paratethys isolation, source rocks with very good oil potential accumulated during Early Oligocene time in the Central Paratethys. Coeval source rocks in the Eastern Paratethys are characterized by a lower source potential. With the exception of the Carpathian Basin and the eastern Kura Basin, the source potential of Upper Oligocene and Lower Miocene units is low. In general, this is also valid for rocks formed during the second (Kozakhurian) isolation of the Eastern Paratethys. However, upwelling along a shelf-break canyon caused deposition of prolific diatomaceous source rocks in the western Black Sea.
Overall, Oligocene–Lower Miocene sediments in the Carpathian Basin (Menilite Formation) can generate up to 10 t HC m−2. Its high petroleum potential is a consequence of the interplay of very high productivity of siliceous organisms and excellent preservation in a deep silled basin. In contrast, the petroleum potential of Oligocene–Lower Miocene (Maikopian) sediments in the Eastern Paratethys is surprisingly low (often <2 t HC m−2). It is, therefore, questionable whether these sediments are the only source rocks in the Eastern Paratethys.
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Petroleum Geology of the Black Sea
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The Black Sea remains one of the largest underexplored rift basins in the world. Future success is dependent on a better understanding of a number of geological uncertainties. These include reservoir and source rock presence and quality, and the timing of migration of hydrocarbons relative to trap formation. An appreciation of the geological history of the Black Sea basins and the surrounding orogens is therefore key. The timing of basin formation, uplift of the margins, and of facies distribution remain issues for robust debate. This Special Publication presents the results of 15 studies that relate to the tectono-stratigraphy and petroleum geology of the Black Sea. The methodologies of these studies encompass crustal structure, geodynamic evolution, stratigraphy and its regional correlation, petroleum systems, source to sink, hydrocarbon habitat and play concepts, and reviews of past exploration. They provide insight into the many ongoing controversies concerning Black Sea regional geology and provide a better understanding of the geological risks that must be considered for future hydrocarbon exploration.