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Book Chapter

Annual cycle of temperature and snowmelt runoff in Satluj River Basin using in situ data

By
Sarita Tiwari
Sarita Tiwari
1
National Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasting, Noida, India
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Sarat C. Kar
Sarat C. Kar
1
National Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasting, Noida, India
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R. Bhatla
R. Bhatla
2
Department of Geophysics, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, India
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R. Bansal
R. Bansal
3
Department of Irrigation, Government of Haryana, Chandigarh, India
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Published:
January 01, 2018

Abstract

Melting of snow and ice contributes a large amount of water to the streamflow in the Satluj River. During the winter season, there is low base flow in the river as compared to spring and summer. Temperature is one of the key factors which directly impacts snow and ice melting throughout the year. A substantial amount of snowmelt only occurs when all the snow in a pack reaches isothermal condition. It is therefore very important to know the duration of impact of temperature on snowmelt runoff. Since the Himalayas have very few stations observing hydrological as well as meteorological conditions, it is difficult to validate the snowmelt models and examine changes in small-scale features in river basins of the region. The present study examines the annual cycle and interannual variability of runoff in the Satluj Basin in the western Himalayas and documents the impact of temperature on snowmelt runoff of Satluj River using daily in situ data for the period 1982–2005. A multivariate regression model using precipitation and surface temperature has been developed to predict the discharge of Satluj River at a daily scale. It is seen that after every warm phase and cold phase of temperature, the impact persists for around one month and affects the snowmelt runoff during January, February and March at lower- and higher-elevation stations such as Bhakra and Kasol, respectively. The effect of a large fall and rise in temperature is noticed on snowmelt runoff measured at all the discharge stations, while a small temperature change does not affect the observed discharge at all the stations. The remote sensing and reanalysis data are consistent with in situ data in the basin, and there is no major change in peak month of discharge or the amplitude during two different periods at Rampur gauge station.

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Geological Society, London, Special Publications

The Himalayan Cryosphere: Past and Present

N.C. Pant
N.C. Pant
University of Delhi, India
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R. Ravindra
R. Ravindra
National Centre for Antarctic and Ocean Research, India
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D. Srivastava
D. Srivastava
Geological Survey of India, India
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L.G. Thompson
L.G. Thompson
The Ohio State University, USA
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The Geological Society of London
Volume
462
ISBN electronic:
9781786203434
Publication date:
January 01, 2018

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