Comparing clay mineral diagenesis in interbedded sandstones and mudstones, Vienna Basin, Austria
Susanne Gier, Richard H. Worden, Peter Krois, 2018. "Comparing clay mineral diagenesis in interbedded sandstones and mudstones, Vienna Basin, Austria", Reservoir Quality of Clastic and Carbonate Rocks: Analysis, Modelling and Prediction, P. J. Armitage, A. R. Butcher, J.M. Churchill, A.E. Csoma, C. Hollis, R. H. Lander, J. E. Omma, R. H. Worden
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There is no consensus about the rate and style of clay mineral diagenesis in progressively buried sandstones v. interbedded mudstones. The diagenetic evolution of interbedded Miocene sandstones and mudstones from the Vienna Basin (Austria) has therefore been compared using core-based studies, petrography, X-ray diffraction and X-ray fluorescence. There was a common provenance for the coarse- and fine-grained sediments, and the primary depositional environment of the host sediment had no direct effect on illitization. The sandstones are mostly lithic arkoses dominated by framework grains of quartz, altered feldspars and carbonate rock fragments. Sandstone porosity has been reduced by quartz overgrowths and calcite cement; their pore-filling authigenic clay minerals consist of mixed-layer illite–smectite, illite, kaolinite and chlorite. In sandstones, smectite illitization progresses with depth; at 2150 m there is a transition from randomly interstratified to regular interstratified illite–smectite. The overall mineralogy of mudstones is surprisingly similar to the sandstones. However, for a given depth, feldspars are more altered to kaolinite, and smectite illitization is more advanced in sandstones than in mudstones. The higher permeability of sandstones allowed faster movement of material and pore fluid necessary for illitization and feldspar alteration than in mudstones. The significance of this work is that it has shown that open-system diagenesis is important for some clay mineral diagenetic reactions in sandstones, while closed-system diagenesis seems to operate for clay mineral diagenesis in mudstones.