Voluminous and compositionally diverse, middle Miocene Strawberry Volcanics of NE Oregon: Magmatism cogenetic with flood basalts of the Columbia River Basalt Group
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Arron Steiner, Martin J. Streck, "Voluminous and compositionally diverse, middle Miocene Strawberry Volcanics of NE Oregon: Magmatism cogenetic with flood basalts of the Columbia River Basalt Group", Field Volcanology: A Tribute to the Distinguished Career of Don Swanson, Michael P. Poland, Michael O. Garcia, Victor E. Camp, Anika Grunder
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The mid-Miocene Strawberry volcanic field of northeastern Oregon is an example of intracontinental flood volcanism that produced lavas of both tholeiitic and calc-alkaline compositions derived by open-system processes. Until now, these dominantly calc-alkaline lavas have not been considered to have a petrogenetic origin similar to that of the flood basalts of the Pacific Northwest because of their calc-alkaline composition. These lavas are situated in between and co-erupted with the dominant volcanic field of the Columbia River Basalt Group (CRBG). Due to the timing, location, and diversity of these erupted units, the Strawberry Volcanics may hold valuable information about the role of crustal modification during large magmatic events such as hotspot volcanism. The earliest eruptions of the Strawberry Volcanics began at 16.2 Ma and appear continuous to 15.3 Ma, characterized by low-silica rhyolite. High-silica, A-type rhyolite eruptions followed at 15.3 Ma. The silicic eruptions continued until 14.6 Ma, with an estimated total volume up to ~100 km3. The first eruptions of the intermediate lava flows occurred at 15.6 Ma and continued with both tholeiitic and calc-alkaline, and transitional, lavas until 12.5 Ma. Volume estimates of the intermediate lavas are ~1100 km3. The mafic lavas are sparse (~2% of total volume) and are distributed throughout the upper sequences, and they appear to be near last to arrive at the surface. Herein, we show that the Strawberry Volcanics are not only related in time and space to the Columbia River Basalt, but they also share some chemical traits, specifically to the Steens Basalt. Evidence of this similarity includes: overlapping normalized incompatible trace-element patterns, selected trace-element ratios, and radiogenic isotopes. Furthermore, we compared the Strawberry rhyolites to the other mid-Miocene rhyolites of eastern Oregon associated with the inception of the Yellowstone–Snake River Plain hotspot and found overlapping eruption ages, trace and rare earth element compositions, and “A-type” rhyolite characteristics. This research concludes that the Strawberry Volcanics were part of the regional basalt to rhyolite magmatism of the Yellowstone–Snake River Plain hotspot.