Chapter 31: Analytical Techniques for Shallow Marine Near-Surface Geotechnical Parameter Estimation
David D. Caulfield, Robert F. Ballard, Rodney L. Leist, 2005. "Analytical Techniques for Shallow Marine Near-Surface Geotechnical Parameter Estimation", Near-Surface Geophysics, Dwain K. Butler
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During the last decade, two major research programs with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (McGee et al., 1995) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (Caulfield and Filkins, 1996, 1999) were carried out to develop analytical techniques for the remote classification of geotechnical parameters in marine near-surface subbottom structures with shallow seismic data. This effort was built on earlier bottom classification work by Breslau (1965), Hamilton (1970), and Shumway (1960), coupled with the theoretical work of Biot (1956), Sheriff (1975), and Panda et al. (1994).
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Near-surface geophysics uses the investigational methods of geophysics to study the nature of the very outermost part of the earth’s crust. Man interacts with this part of the earth’s crust: he walks on it; he drills and excavates into it; he constructs structures on and in it; he utilizes its water and mineral resources; and his wastes are stored on and in it and seep into it. The very outermost part of the Earth’s crust is extremely dynamic-in both technical (physical properties) and nontechnical (political, social, legal) terms-which leads to both technical and nontechnical challenges that are much different than the challenges faced by “traditional” applications of geophysics for regional geologic mapping and for oil and gas exploration (see Chapter 2).