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Chapter 30: “Poor Man’s 3D”—A Simple Approach to 3D Seismic Surveying: A Case History

Helga Wiederhold
Helga Wiederhold
Leibniz Institute for Applied Geosciences (GGA-Institut), Stilleweg 2, 30655 Hannover, Germany, E-mail:
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January 01, 2005


Seismic surveys of near-surface structures are mostly restricted to 2D seismic sections. But the structures in this depth range (> 500 m) are often three dimensional, like in hydrocarbon exploration geophysics, where 3D seismic surveys are the norm today. If a three-dimensional structure is investigated with only a 2D section, misinterpretations may occur (e.g., resulting from laterally reflected waves or an unstable 2D migration) if the seismic line is not perpendicular to the geological strike direction. The general 3D seismic method is well developed today, but the costly field surveys and the costly data processing are the reasons that 3D seismic surveying is seldom used for nonexploration applications, e.g., for engineering and environmental or hydrogeologic questions. In this chapter, I want to recall a method earlier called “poor man’s 3D,” which may be a practicable alternative for near-surface geophysics that yields simple solutions for determining dip and strike of plane reflections in good data.

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Investigations in Geophysics

Near-Surface Geophysics

Dwain K. Butler
Dwain K. Butler
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Society of Exploration Geophysicists
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Publication date:
January 01, 2005




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