Chapter 26: Multifrequency Airborne EM Surveys—A Tool for Aquifer Vulnerability Mapping
Bernd Röttger, Reinhard Kirsch, Rud Friborg, Wolfgang Scheer, Steen Thomsen, Wolfgang Voss, 2005. "Multifrequency Airborne EM Surveys—A Tool for Aquifer Vulnerability Mapping", Near-Surface Geophysics, Dwain K. Butler
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Introduction: Vulnerability Maps Based on Electrical Conductivity Concepts for vulnerability maps
The vulnerability of an aquifer can be defined by “How severe are the likely consequences of pollution loading?” (Lobo-Ferreira, 1997). The lateral distribution of the vulnerability, as shown in vulnerability maps, is an important parameter for groundwater management and planning. To ensure the water supply for coming generations, vulnerability mapping should not be restricted to areas with aquifers actually in use. This is the message of the new groundwater regulations of the European Community Commission which require wide mapping of aquifers, water quality, and vulnerability.
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Near-surface geophysics uses the investigational methods of geophysics to study the nature of the very outermost part of the earth’s crust. Man interacts with this part of the earth’s crust: he walks on it; he drills and excavates into it; he constructs structures on and in it; he utilizes its water and mineral resources; and his wastes are stored on and in it and seep into it. The very outermost part of the Earth’s crust is extremely dynamic-in both technical (physical properties) and nontechnical (political, social, legal) terms-which leads to both technical and nontechnical challenges that are much different than the challenges faced by “traditional” applications of geophysics for regional geologic mapping and for oil and gas exploration (see Chapter 2).