Chapter 22: Analysis of 3D High-Resolution Seismic Reflection and Crosswell Radar Tomography for Aquifer Characterization: A Case Study
Published:January 01, 2005
Ran Bachrach, Tapan Mukerji, 2005. "Analysis of 3D High-Resolution Seismic Reflection and Crosswell Radar Tomography for Aquifer Characterization: A Case Study", Near-Surface Geophysics, Dwain K. Butler
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The ability to reliably characterize the heterogeneous subsurface is the key to finding and predicting the fate of contaminants, designing effective remediation systems, and managing subsurface water resources. The lack of sufficient information to describe subsurface heterogeneity is often considered to be one of the predominant reasons for poor hydrological predictions, and thus, decisions are subjected to more uncertainty (e.g., Rubin et al., 1992; Copty and Rubin, 1995). Even if models and data are perfect, the heterogeneous nature of subsurface properties gives rise to uncertainty in interpretations of geophysical measurements.
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Near-surface geophysics uses the investigational methods of geophysics to study the nature of the very outermost part of the earth’s crust. Man interacts with this part of the earth’s crust: he walks on it; he drills and excavates into it; he constructs structures on and in it; he utilizes its water and mineral resources; and his wastes are stored on and in it and seep into it. The very outermost part of the Earth’s crust is extremely dynamic-in both technical (physical properties) and nontechnical (political, social, legal) terms-which leads to both technical and nontechnical challenges that are much different than the challenges faced by “traditional” applications of geophysics for regional geologic mapping and for oil and gas exploration (see Chapter 2).