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The ability to reliably characterize the heterogeneous subsurface is the key to finding and predicting the fate of contaminants, designing effective remediation systems, and managing subsurface water resources. The lack of sufficient information to describe subsurface heterogeneity is often considered to be one of the predominant reasons for poor hydrological predictions, and thus, decisions are subjected to more uncertainty (e.g., Rubin et al., 1992; Copty and Rubin, 1995). Even if models and data are perfect, the heterogeneous nature of subsurface properties gives rise to uncertainty in interpretations of geophysical measurements.

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