Chapter 21: An Integrated Approach for Hydrogeophysical Investigations: New Technologies and a Case History
Kurt I. S∅rensen, Esben Auken, Niels B. Christensen, Louise Pellerin, 2005. "An Integrated Approach for Hydrogeophysical Investigations: New Technologies and a Case History", Near-Surface Geophysics, Dwain K. Butler
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The use of geophysical methods for hydrogeological investigations has, during the last two decades, attracted much attention. The goal of a hydrogeological investigation is to construct hydraulic models of the areas of interest. The models need to be calibrated against traditional hydrogeological data such as hydraulic head, precipitation, infiltration, base flow, hydraulic conductivities inferred from pumping tests, and geological conditions estimated from drillhole information. The models can provide predictions of groundwater movement under specified natural variations and human extraction rates. An obstacle to information on geological conditions is that drillhole information is spatially sparse. This, combined with the high degree of equivalence in inverse hydraulic modeling, makes it necessary to find alternative methods for reducing the number of possible solutions. One way is to make use of improved geological models derived from hydrogeophysical investigations.
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Near-surface geophysics uses the investigational methods of geophysics to study the nature of the very outermost part of the earth’s crust. Man interacts with this part of the earth’s crust: he walks on it; he drills and excavates into it; he constructs structures on and in it; he utilizes its water and mineral resources; and his wastes are stored on and in it and seep into it. The very outermost part of the Earth’s crust is extremely dynamic-in both technical (physical properties) and nontechnical (political, social, legal) terms-which leads to both technical and nontechnical challenges that are much different than the challenges faced by “traditional” applications of geophysics for regional geologic mapping and for oil and gas exploration (see Chapter 2).