Chapter 11: Ground-Penetrating Radar
Introduction Ground-penetrating radar (GPR) is a relatively young geophysical technique. First uses appeared in the 1960s with radio echo sounding of glaciers and ice sheets (Bailey et al., 1964) followed by permafrost analysis (Annan and Davis, 1976). Applications spread with major changes commencing in the 1990s. The history of GPR is intertwined with the diverse applications of the technique. GPR has the most extensive set of applications of any geophysical technique leading to a wide range of spatial scales and concomitant diversity of instrument configurations. A chronological history can be found in Annan (2002). The accompanying references provide further insight into the technology evolution.
Figures & Tables
Near-surface geophysics uses the investigational methods of geophysics to study the nature of the very outermost part of the earth’s crust. Man interacts with this part of the earth’s crust: he walks on it; he drills and excavates into it; he constructs structures on and in it; he utilizes its water and mineral resources; and his wastes are stored on and in it and seep into it. The very outermost part of the Earth’s crust is extremely dynamic-in both technical (physical properties) and nontechnical (political, social, legal) terms-which leads to both technical and nontechnical challenges that are much different than the challenges faced by “traditional” applications of geophysics for regional geologic mapping and for oil and gas exploration (see Chapter 2).