Chapter 4: A Survey of Elastic and Electromagnetic Properties of Near-Surface Soils
J. Carlos Santamarina, Victor A. Rinaldi, Dante Fratta, Katherine A. Klein, Yu-Hsing Wang, Gye Chun Cho, Giovanni Cascante, 2005. "A Survey of Elastic and Electromagnetic Properties of Near-Surface Soils", Near-Surface Geophysics, Dwain K. Butler
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The near-surface is covered with soil in most onshore and offshore locations. Soil characterization by sampling and in-situ testing techniques (e.g., cone penetration and pressure meters) faces unavoidable perturbation effects. On the other hand, low-power geophysical techniques cause no appreciable perturbation and provide an effective alternative for site assessment. In particular, near-surface site characterization using elastic and electromagnetic perturbations yields important information related to the soil mass, including the spatial distribution of materials, small-strain elastic properties and electromagnetic characteristics. In turn, geophysical measurements can be associated with soil parameters relevant to geotechnical engineering analysis and design.
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Near-surface geophysics uses the investigational methods of geophysics to study the nature of the very outermost part of the earth’s crust. Man interacts with this part of the earth’s crust: he walks on it; he drills and excavates into it; he constructs structures on and in it; he utilizes its water and mineral resources; and his wastes are stored on and in it and seep into it. The very outermost part of the Earth’s crust is extremely dynamic-in both technical (physical properties) and nontechnical (political, social, legal) terms-which leads to both technical and nontechnical challenges that are much different than the challenges faced by “traditional” applications of geophysics for regional geologic mapping and for oil and gas exploration (see Chapter 2).