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Introduction

Cold production is a nonthermal recovery mechanism in which a progressive cavity pump simultaneously produces oil, water, gas, and sand. This extraction decreases the reservoir pressure to values less than bubble point; therefore, gas comes out of solution and forms a foam-like material called foamy oil. On the other hand, because of sand production, high-porosity and high-permeability channels known as wormholes are created with diameters ranging from 10 cm to as much as 1 m (Tremblay et al., 1999).

It is very important to avoid drilling into the worm-holes; therefore, petroleum engineers need to know the location of wormholes and the extent of depleted zones. Fortunately, the reservoir undergoes significant changes during cold production that we can monitor using seismic information. In this modeling study, we evaluate the influence of changes in porosity and foamy-oil effects caused by cold production on seismic data.

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