Chapter 14: Multicomponent Processing of Seismic Data at the Jackfish Heavy-oil Project, Alberta
Karen J. Pengelly, Larry R. Lines, Don C. Lawton, 2010. "Multicomponent Processing of Seismic Data at the Jackfish Heavy-oil Project, Alberta", Heavy Oils: Reservoir Characterization and Production Monitoring, Satinder Chopra, Laurence R. Lines, Douglas R. Schmitt, Michael L. Batzle
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This investigation was undertaken to evaluate the processing flows needed to obtain vertical and radial post-stack-migrated seismic sections from a heavy-oil reservoir in eastern Alberta. Converted-wave seismic processing flows have been previously investigated and documented by Harrison (1992) and Isaac (1996). Of particular importance to converted-wave processing is the analysis of receiver statics. Isaac (1996) and Cary and Eaton (1993) showed that S-wave receiver statics can be extremely large and variable compared to P-wave receiver statics. It is not uncommon to have S-wave receiver statics on the order of ±200 ms, whereas P-wave receiver statics are commonly small, typically less than 20 ms.
Velocity analysis is an integral component of converted-wave processing. There has been extensive research relating to nonhyperbolic moveout, valid for weak anisotropy. In many cases, for short to medium offset P-P data, hyperbolic normal moveout (NMO) is an adequate approximation for moveout used in velocity estimations (Al-Chalabi, 1973; Tsvankin and Thomsen, 1994; Alkhalifah, 1997). For P-S data, the hyperbolic NMO correction is valid only for short offsets (Iverson et al., 1989). Furthermore, Castagna and Chen (2000) found that conventional processing software assumes hyperbolic moveout and may produce false structure and false responses below anisotropic regions because of improper removal of NMO. It has been found that the overlying rock in some heavy-oil areas exhibits high values of anisotropy. Newrick and Lawton (2003) found that at Pikes Peak, Saskatchewan, the Thomsen parameters of anisotropy have values of ϵ=0.12±0.02 and δ=0.30±0.06 , from data using a multioffset vertical seismic profile. If the Jackfish area is similar, there is a need to explore the results based on nonhyperbolic NMO as opposed to the standard hyperbolic NMO calculations.
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Heavy oil is an important global resource with reserves comparable to those of conventional oil. As conventional resources get thinner, attention is being focused on heavy oil and bitumen, which hold the promise of becoming useful fuels. Already more than 1 million barrels of oil are being produced from the oil sands in Canada; heavy oil represents half of California’s crude oil production in the United States and is a major production in Mexico. With demand for global energy soaring, heavy oil will undoubtedly be an important resource to be exploited in a big way in the near future.
The SEG Development and Production Committee held its Heavy Oil Forum in Edmonton, Alberta, in July 2007. This was a joint research forum cosponsored by the Canadian Society of Exploration Geophysicists (CSEG) and SEG and hosted by the University of Alberta. Preceding the forum, a field trip took the participants to the vast Athabasca Oil Sands region where they observed the outcrops, open pit mining, and steam injection operations, followed by a tour of the steam-assisted gravity drainage projects. Topics of the well-attended forum included the definition of heavy oil; where is heavy oil found; how it is produced; heavy-oil reservoir characterization; fluid and rock properties; electrical, tilt, and gravity techniques; borehole, surface seismic measurements; and microseismicity.