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In this chapter, we take a closer look at the high-frequency approximation of the traditional Kirchhoff integral. It provides an integral representation of the seismic-reflection response at a receiver, given the locations of a source-receiver pair, a laterally inhomogeneous velocity model, and a reflector. Use of the Kirchhoff-Helmholtz approximation for the elementary wave after reflection at the reflector results in an approximate forward-modeling integral that we more appropriately call the Kirchhoff-Helmholtz integral (KHI).

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