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Book Chapter

8: Earth Imaging in Depth

January 01, 2001


Strong lateral velocity variations associated with complex overburden structures require earth imaging in depth. Examples of complex overburden include diapiric structures formed by salt tectonics, imbricate structures formed by overthrust tectonics and irregular water-bottom topography. All three are characterized as structure-dependent lateral velocity variations. There also exist structure-independent lateral velocity variations, often associated with facies changes; for instance, changes in lithology from shale to sandstone to carbonate induce lateral changes in acoustic impedance.

Figure 8.0-1a shows a field data example of a diapiric structure associated with salt tectonics. Note how the base-salt (event B) and subsalt reflections at about 2 s are pulled up in the middle of the section. Time migration yields an inaccurate image of the base-salt (Figure 8.0-1b).

Figure 8.0-2a is a field data example of an imbricate structure associated with overthrust tectonics. Time migration is adequate for imaging a target within the imbricate structure itself, but would not yield a correct image of a target below it (Figure 8.0-2b).

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Investigations in Geophysics

Seismic Data Analysis: Processing, Inversion, and Interpretation of Seismic Data

Öz Yilmaz
Öz Yilmaz
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Society of Exploration Geophysicists
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Publication date:
January 01, 2001




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