Chapter 3: Geomorphological framework: glacial and periglacial sediments, structures and landforms
D. P. Giles, J. S. Griffiths, D. J. A. Evans, J. B. Murton, 2017. "Geomorphological framework: glacial and periglacial sediments, structures and landforms", Engineering Geology and Geomorphology of Glaciated and Periglaciated Terrains: Engineering Group Working Party Report, J. S. Griffiths, C. J. Martin
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The development of the conceptual ground model (CGM) is a critical component of any desk study or ground engineering project planning process. A key task of the engineering geologist is to develop the CGM in order to predict the occurrence of known terrain units, elements and facets within a given landsystem, and to communicate the lateral and vertical variability of engineering rocks and soils found within that system. This chapter details the significant ground components of glacial and periglacial landsystems within a geomorphological framework describing the sediments, structures and landforms that could reasonably be expected to be encountered in these terrains. Examples are provided of both modern and relict glacial and periglacial landforms, their mode of formation and their field recognition. Glaciogenic and periglacial sediments are described both in terms of their sedimentological and formal engineering description. The chapter provides a suggested naming nomenclature for these sediments that can be used within a BS 5930 description. An extensive photoglossary is presented as a field aide memoir, enabling the engineering geologist to identify these features once on site.