Mosaics and microfossils
Alison Tasker, Ian P. Wilkinson, Mark Williams, 2017. "Mosaics and microfossils", The Archaeological and Forensic Applications of Microfossils: A Deeper Understanding of Human History, M. Williams, T. Hill, I. Boomer, I. P. Wilkinson
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Thin-section analysis of chalk tesserae obtained from two Roman mosaics in Caerleon (South Wales) identifies foraminifera of a Late Cretaceous (Campanian) biostratigraphic age. The mosaics from which the tesserae originated were laid either in or close to the legionary fortress built at Caerleon by the Romans in AD 74–75. The Backhall Street mosaic formed part of the Baths complex of the fortress and is dated to the AD 80s; the August Villa Garden tesserae were found close to Barrack Buildings IX and X of the fortress and may have been laid about AD 200. Chalk Group outcrops are not found close to Caerleon, so the chalk used in both instances must have been transported to the site. The foraminiferal analyses suggest a possible source in the Dorset area. A transport route from Dorset to the legionary fortress at Caerleon via ports at either Crandon Bridge or Sea Mills on the Severn estuary is suggested.