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The ca. 570 Ma Catoctin volcanics, exposed in the Blue Ridge of northern Virginia, include metamorphosed rift-related basalts extruded during breakup of the supercontinent Rodinia. Field relationships, petrography, and geochemistry are used to decipher the stratigraphy for two areas of the volcanics, one at the base of the formation, and the other near its top. Geochemical characteristics of sequential flows can be explained by fractional crystallization of minerals commonly occurring in basalts. Intervening flows with slightly different geochemical features that cannot be explained by fractional crystallization from magma corresponding to an underlying flow, or by crustal contamination, most likely represent new pulses of magma. Positive Pb and negative Nb anomalies, coupled with εNd values of +1.5 to +4.5 and model ages that exceed crystallization ages by over 500 m.y., suggest that an enriched component was added to the mantle prior to melting. This component resulted from devolatilization of subducting sediments prior to assembly of Rodinia, likely during Grenville orogenic events. Stratigraphic control shows that lower lavas in the sequence contain more of the enriched component than upper flows.

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