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Drilling fluid (DF) is one of the main sources of chemical and biological contamination of deep ice cores and lake water samples in the exploration of Subgalcial Antarctic Lake Environments (SALE). In this study, we investigated the contamination of an ice core that represented the first samples of refrozen lake water obtained 1 year after the unsealing of Lake Vostok in 2012. We show that these samples contain inclusions of the DF with a concentration of at least 16.7 mg l−1 (0.0019% or 19 ppmv). This makes it extremely difficult to obtain reliable data on the real chemical...

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