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Chapter 2: Historic use

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Published:
January 01, 2012

The subsurface has always been essential to human survival and development since human lineage diverted from that of the chimpanzee some 6 million years ago (Brunet et al. 2002). From a geological point of view humans are a relatively young species on the face of the Earth. The subsurface almost literally played a mother role for humankind, a role that is still acknowledged in certain cultures (Fig. 2.1). Newton compared the Earth with an animal or a vegetable. In his Gaia-theory, Lovelock (2003) states that the Earth behaves as a single, self-regulating system comprising physical, chemical, biological and human components. This concept was initially severely attacked, mostly by biologists, but since the mid 1990s, resistance has diminished (Lovelock 2006).

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Geological Society, London, Special Publications

Sustainable Development and Management of the Shallow Subsurface

E. F. J. de Mulder
E. F. J. de Mulder
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H. R. G. K. Hack
H. R. G. K. Hack
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C. C. D. F. van Ree
C. C. D. F. van Ree
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The Geological Society of London
ISBN electronic:
9781786203984
Publication date:
January 01, 2012

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