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ABSTRACT

The Association for Women Geoscientists (AWG), founded in 1977, is a non-profit organization that encourages women to pursue a career in the geosciences; enhances their professional development and career opportunities; and exchanges educational, technical, and professional information among women scientists. This chapter chronicles the 40-year history of this organization, including its formation, successes, and struggles. In addition, it highlights (1) the evolution of the role of AWG to combat the barriers that women have faced since its formation, and (2) how this role must evolve in the future in hopes of finally achieving gender equality in the geosciences.

INTRODUCTION

The Association for Women Geoscientists (AWG) was founded in 1977 in San Francisco, California, to encourage women who currently had or were pursuing careers in the geosciences. Since its inception, AWG has grown from a single chapter in California to an internationally renowned non-profit association that has accomplished impressive milestones in the pursuit of their three E’s: Encouraging women to become geoscientists; Enhancing professional development and career opportunities; and Exchanging educational, technical, and professional information among women scientists. Indeed, as we write this chapter, we are thrilled to say that 2017 celebrates our 40th year anniversary. This chapter is meant to introduce those of you who are not familiar with AWG, and those of you who are, to the 40-year rise, struggle, and success of AWG. We begin with a history of the formation of this organization and our rapid growth. Next, we discuss some of the most prevalent themes that have persisted for women scientists and our organization since AWG began. We conclude this chapter with a look toward future sustainability of this organization and the milestones we have yet to achieve.

THE ASSOCIATION FOR WOMEN GEOSCIENTISTS—WHERE DID WE COME FROM?

The Women Geoscientists Committee (1973–1982)

The formation of the Association for Women Geoscientists is credited to momentum from the development of the Women Geoscientists Committee (WGC) in 1973. The WGC was a committee of the American Geosciences Institute (AGI) that was initiated after a successful meeting organized by Marcia Greenwald of the United States Geological Survey (USGS) and Theresa Schwarzer of Exxon Corporation at the Geological Society of America (GSA) Annual Meeting in 1972 (Sand and Bunning, 1985). The committee consisted of nine women who served three-year overlapping terms and represented professions in government, industry, and academia. This committee accomplished an impressive number of achievements over a ten-year span. To start, the WGC produced a significant amount of data on the status of women in the geosciences, which provided a desperately needed baseline that pushed administrations to acknowledge the problems associated with unequal treatment of women in the workplace. These data came from statistics gathered by AGI, as well as questionnaires that the members distributed themselves.

These data, and the subsequent publications, revealed baseline trends in employment, education, career status, and salary (Fig. 1) (Sand and Bunning, 1985).

Figure 1.

This figure shows the median salary in 1974 for men and women geoscientists working for the Geological Division of the USGS by years of experience and degree level. The number of individuals in each sample is indicated next to the respective data point (triangles—men; dots—women). These data were collected by the Women Geoscientists Committee and reveal the large gap in pay between men and women. In particular, note that women with a Ph.D. were paid less than a man with a master’s, or that women with a bachelor’s OR master’s degree earned less than men with a bachelor’s degree (after Moody et al., 1976; copyright © The National Association of Geoscience Teachers, https://nagt.org/index.html, reprinted by permission of Taylor & Francis Ltd, http://www.tandfonline.com, on behalf of The National Association of Geoscience Teachers).

Figure 1.

This figure shows the median salary in 1974 for men and women geoscientists working for the Geological Division of the USGS by years of experience and degree level. The number of individuals in each sample is indicated next to the respective data point (triangles—men; dots—women). These data were collected by the Women Geoscientists Committee and reveal the large gap in pay between men and women. In particular, note that women with a Ph.D. were paid less than a man with a master’s, or that women with a bachelor’s OR master’s degree earned less than men with a bachelor’s degree (after Moody et al., 1976; copyright © The National Association of Geoscience Teachers, https://nagt.org/index.html, reprinted by permission of Taylor & Francis Ltd, http://www.tandfonline.com, on behalf of The National Association of Geoscience Teachers).

In addition to gathering data, the committee developed materials to help encourage women in the geosciences. These materials included a career planning slide program, a listserv of female professors who lectured around the country, a career information packet designed for high school and college students, and workshops held at the GSA Annual Meeting on career development for women who were already geoscience professionals. The Women Geoscientists Committee concluded their activities in 1982 with a “Women’s Careers Colloquium” presented at the GSA Annual Meeting in New Orleans. In their concluding remarks, they note that

The past ten years have seen many changes in opportunities, advancement and participation of women in the geosciences. The WGC has been a positive influence in bringing about those changes, but it is up to individuals, other societies, and the passage of time to continue the evolution. With the Colloquium on Women’s Career Status held at the New Orleans GSA, the Committee’s active functions were concluded. Many of its publications and projects will be continued under the auspices of the Association for Women Geoscientists (AWG), or through the existing structure of AGI, which, with the help of extensive corporate support, has funded all WGC activities. (Sand and Bunning, 1985)

The conclusion of this committee led to the creation of what we know today as the Association for Women Geoscientists.

The Formation of the Association for Women Geoscientists

AWG began with the development of the Bay Area chapter in San Francisco, California. They held their first meeting on 2 March 1977 with ~50 women in attendance. In their very first newsletter, they state their reasons for why this group is needed, as well as some of the accomplishments a group like this could achieve (Bay Area Association of Women Geo-scientists, 1977):

The need for a Women’s Geo-Science group varies for each individual. Work and academic experiences play a significant part in shaping attitudes and professional images, and why one would consider putting energy into a women’s geo-science organization. However, let’s face it: Women are a minority in geology and other related geo-sciences. Women have more difficulty in securing permanent positions in geosciences than male counterparts. She receives less pay for equal work and has fewer opportunities for promotion and positions of management. A Women’s Geo-Science group can serve as a network for information and contact. It can encourage the exchange of geologic information developed and researched by women to serve as role models for women contemplating entering the field. The organization can develop an employment file, provide affirmative action information and a registry of women professionals in the area. Another function of the organization would be to offer workshops on professional skills specifically focused to women working in the geo-sciences, such as management and administrative skills, public presentations and communication skills. This Women’s Geo-Science organization could do many things. Its form and function will be defined by what each of you want from the organization and what kind of participation you are willing to give.

AWG intended to broadly encompass the needs of women from all backgrounds of geoscience, and as a result, the organization seemingly grew overnight. The newly developed chapter in San Francisco held four meetings by the end of 1977. In January 1978, Gaea released a “Constitutional Issue,” which contained the proposed constitution and bylaws that were up for vote by the membership. In November of that year, the Bay Area chapter hosted their first “Careers in the Geosciences” conference at Stanford University focused primarily on women. As a first event, this conference was a great success with over 150 people in attendance. Approximately 90% of attendees were women.

In 1979, AWG began sponsoring an awards breakfast at each GSA Annual Meeting, which they still continue, and hosted their second “Careers in the Geosciences” conference. These various events and sponsorships created momentum, and by the end of AWG’s second year, women from other regions of the country began expressing interest in forming local chapters. In 1980, the Denver area announced their own chapter of AWG, led by Vicki Cowart and Carolyn Miller. Soon after, AWG chapters in Houston, Los Angeles, and Tucson formed. In response to the creation of additional chapters, the organization discussed how to develop a national infrastructure that could govern chapters across the nation. They decided to designate the Bay Area chapter as the “central headquarters” for AWG. They enacted a new policy to send all membership dues to the Bay Area, with a portion reimbursed to the individual chapters to aid activities at their local level.

The membership approved the national bylaws and constitution in 1980, and AWG distributed the first election ballot at the end of the year to fill the leadership positions that would govern the new national structure. The first national executive committee was announced in the beginning of 1981:

President: Jessica Donovan, Dames and Moore Inc.

Vice-President: Susan Miller, USGS

Secretary: Leslie Tenzer, student at Stanford University

Treasurer: Ruth Simon, Woodward-Clyde Consultants

Editor: Tamara Nicoloff, USGS Marine Branch.

Following the elections, the officers held the first national meeting on 31 May 1981 in conjunction with the annual national convention co-hosted by the American Association of Petroleum Geologists (AAPG) and Society for Sedimentary Geologists (SEPM). The main points of discussion at this meeting included defining the roles and function of the national board, standardizing membership renewals, and evaluating membership rates. In the end, the officers defined an office structure (with paid office assistant work) in order to keep up with the rapid growth in membership. To keep up with rising costs from administrative duties, the officers also decided to raise membership dues. The development of AWG’s national structure was a major challenge that required an immense amount of volunteer time from AWG leadership at all levels. As such, the AWG national leaders and officers from each chapter reconvened in Lake Tahoe at the end of 1981 to draft recommendations for the structure, composition, and location of AWG’s national board of directors, a budget for the 1982 calendar year, fundraising strategies (including a dues increase), and a recommendation plan for AWG to become incorporated. These recommendations were distributed to the AWG membership in the January–February issue of Gaea in 1982 and were as follows:

  1. Implement a national representative AWG board structure that contains a delegate from each chapter as well as a delegate for the at-large membership.

  2. Sponsor functions at three major geologic conferences (AAPG, GSA, and SEG).

  3. Establish a national student awards program. The Denver chapter initiated a similar program prior to this recommendation.

  4. Provide funds for semi-annual organization-wide meetings.

  5. Provide funds for office staff for the organization.

The decisions from the Lake Tahoe meeting catapulted AWG forward in three ways. First, AWG’s incorporation as a national non-profit organization protected executive officers from liability for AWG debts and opened up new potential for corporate sponsorships. Second, the organization changed their name from “The Association OF Women Geoscientists” to “The Association FOR Women Geoscientists.” While one word may seem trivial, the change better reflects AWG’s mission by allowing for more diversity in the organization, importantly, allowing men (who support women in the geosciences) to participate as well. Third, the official structure of the national board was formed and included five national officers elected by the membership (including a paid salary for the national secretary), the national past-president, and delegates from all chapters and the at-large membership group.

While some of the structural components differ today, the overall structure of AWG still follows the model developed in 1982. AWG was officially incorporated as a Section 501(c)6 non-profit organization in California in 1983, and the members of the 1982–1983 Executive Committee were the first officers of the expanded organization (Fig. 2). Incorporating as a Section 501(c)6 non-profit organization allowed AWG to advance their business area, which was necessary to oversee more newly formed chapters and expand nationwide efforts. Another important milestone in 1983 included the establishment of the AWG Foundation, a Section 501(c)3 non-profit public benefit organization. The establishment of the AWG Foundation was incredibly important because the tax-deductible status of the Foundation, which AWG does not have, allows them to primarily focus on funding high impact programs for women in the geosciences. Lois Ongley served as the first president of the AWG Foundation. Finally, in 1984, the executive committee created the three E’s that describe AWG’s mission and continue to guide the organization today.

Figure 2.

Photo of the officers making up the first executive committee of the newly incorporated AWG (Cowart, 1982).

Figure 2.

Photo of the officers making up the first executive committee of the newly incorporated AWG (Cowart, 1982).

After its official incorporation, AWG continued to grow in membership and professional affiliations with other geoscience organizations. By the end of 1985, AWG had grown to 12 chapters throughout the United States and over 1000 members. Simultaneously, AWG became a member society of AGI. This was a significant step because the American Geological Institute helped drive AWG’s development and served as an important voice for the earth-science community to representatives in Congress. Joining the AGI Federation in 1985 suddenly allowed AWG to support and voice the many issues facing geoscientists in the workforce. To further this reach, in April of 1988, AWG became an associated society of the Geological Society of America. GSA unifies over 70 associated professional societies who work collaboratively on mutual goals to advance the geosciences.

Over the 40 years of AWG’s history, the issues highlighted by the founders persisted and changed, and occasionally, resolved. In the ever-changing landscape of women’s issues, AWG continues to support women and provide them with the necessary skills and information they need to tackle these issues. A history of the most prevalent themes we face are presented to demonstrate our efforts to Encourage, Enhance, and Exchange information to support women’s careers in geoscience.

TO ENCOURAGE THE PARTICIPATION OF WOMEN IN THE GEOSCIENCES

The first E, Encouraging the participation of women in the geosciences, took many forms over AWG’s history, but largely encompasses the efforts to advance equal opportunities for women in the geosciences and to reach out to girls and women to demonstrate the feasibility of a career in geoscience. From its founding, AWG pursued equal opportunities for women in the geosciences, both professionally and educationally. While most people acknowledge that opportunities for women are still unequal today, statistics regarding professional and educational opportunities in 1977 are shocking to read. For example, when AWG formed in 1977, no women served as supervisors within the United States Geological Survey, an organization that was nearly 100 years old at the time! By 1984, female supervisors in the USGS had increased only slightly to 11. In comparison, 300 men had supervisory positions within the USGS at this time (Pecora, 1985). Professional opportunities were no better in academia. The baseline data collected in 1981 by the WGC revealed that the total makeup of faculty only included 7% women (of all ranks). They also showed that by 1981, only 23% of geoscience degrees granted went to women (Sand and Bunning, 1985). AWG, in conjunction with the AGU, distributed a second survey in 1983 that looked at variables affecting women in the geosciences. The majority of respondents worked in either oil and gas industry or government (45% of respondents), while the remaining half was made up of students (24%) and individuals working in “other” positions, such as engineering, environmental sciences, soil scientist, landman, etc. A smaller percentage reported that they were unemployed. The survey showed that more men were employed in oil and gas industry (31% men, 21% women) and federal government positions (34% men, 20% women) (Asher and Webel, 1985b).

Given the unequitable opportunity and representation, AWG focused on promoting educational opportunity by encouraging participation of women in the geosciences and raising awareness of the disparity to catalyze change. For example, AWG’s members consistently work in community outreach, especially to support K–12 education. Fortunately, encouragement and raising awareness through outreach has led to positive results.

In 1980, the Science and Engineering Equal Opportunities Act (SEEOA) was passed, which directly resulted in national policies and programs aimed at increasing the participation of women, minorities, and persons with disabilities in science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) fields. Since implementation of the SEEOA, the National Science Foundation (NSF) initiated several policies to address the opportunity gap for women, minorities, and persons with disabilities. These policies included educational opportunities, program investments, merit review of grant proposals, and STEM workforce opportunities (CEOSE, 2004). We have developed a timeline (Appendix) of initiatives aimed toward broadening opportunities for women in STEM enacted since passing SEEOA, with a particular emphasis on women in earth-science fields.

One of the most rewarding programs that emerged from these policies was the NSF ADVANCE (Increasing the Participation and Advancement of Women in Academic Science and Engineering Careers) program in 2001. The goals of this program are threefold: (1) to develop systemic approaches to increase the representation and advancement of women in academic STEM careers; (2) to develop innovative and sustainable ways to promote gender equity that involve both men and women in STEM; and (3) to contribute to the research knowledge base on gender equity and the intersection of gender and other identities in STEM academic careers (ADVANCE, 2009). NSF has invested more than 270 million US dollars in this program since its inception, with topics including (but not limited to) developing training programs for advancing women into leadership roles, developing mentorship programs for women in STEM, and promoting recognition and advancement of women in STEM. In 2001, AWG members Suzanne O’Connell, Mary Anne Holmes (AWG past-president), and Annabelle Foos received a grant from the National Science Foundation ADVANCE Program to complete a study on women in academia. The goals of the project were to “increase the proportion of women in geoscience tenure track and tenured positions in academia in the United States.” The results of this investigation were disseminated at several GSA and AGU meetings and printed in Geotimes (Holmes et al., 2003). This work also led to more innovative practices to promote women in the geosciences, such as an NSF-funded project to provide a writing retreat for women geoscience faculty (Holmes and O’Connell, 2007; O’Connell and Holmes, 2007). The team recently published a book, Women in the Geosciences: Practical, Positive Practices toward Parity, to share with the geoscience community (Holmes et al., 2015). In 2017, AWG, alongside the Earth Science Women’s Network (ESWN) and AGU, received an NSF ADVANCE Partnership Award. This award will be used to develop bystander intervention training for sexual harassment and assault, which is still a prominent barrier that women and under-represented groups face in STEM today.

While working on the federal policy level, AWG also recognized that serving as examples of women doing science or teaching science to girls provides the best way to encourage future female geoscientists. In 1998, AWG specifically challenged its members to get involved at the local level to encourage and engage in professional development for girls and women. As noted earlier, the WGC led the original charge to recruit women to the geosciences by effectively communicating the wide variety of topics and career paths related to geoscience with their career planning slide show featuring women actively working on site in their geologic subdiscipline. In addition, the WGC created a printed and bound career information packet providing a summary of educational and professional requirements necessary to achieve a career in geoscience and offering examples describing subdisciplines of geology. The WGC packet primarily targeted high school and college students. AAPG later incorporated much information from this packet to create their own pamphlet on careers (Sand and Bunning, 1985). Based on this precedent, AWG redeveloped this resource for use in outreach activities in 2003, when the board approved expenditures for AGI to print new brochures describing geoscience careers.

In addition to the printed materials, AWG provided support for outreach programs that helped members encourage girls to learn about science, and geoscience in particular. Activities and programs included field experiences for urban kids, Geo-tours, Geocamps, and Earth Science Week festivals. For example, AWG encouraged participation and judging for regional and international science fairs. In 1984, the AWG Foundation bestowed awards for the first time at the International Science Fair (ISEF). The organization continues to offer the Student Award for Geoscience Excellence (SAGE) at science fairs with the expectation that it only be awarded to girls excelling in geoscience projects. In 1999, AWG and the AWG Foundation partnered with the National Park Service (NPS) to fund up to three women to work in a National Park for a summer. The geoscientists’ duties included leading geoscience programs and assisting with geoscience research needs in a given park. In 2000, AWG organized the Earth Science Outreach advisory committee to communicate and advise AGI on needs from members of the AWG community to provide feedback and suggestions for Earth Science Week materials and act as liaisons to AGI.

On the local level, AWG chapters play the most significant role in outreach, especially for K–12 students. For example, the Osage chapter in Kansas participates at several events, including Women in Science Day, Expanding Your Horizons, and Girl Scout badges. The Laramide chapter, which serves members in Colorado, Wyoming, New Mexico, and South Dakota, hosts a Rocks and Roles event for Girl Scouts at Dinosaur Ridge every year. The Salt Lake City chapter in Utah participates in science fairs and fundraises for four scholarships that they award every year. The Pacific Northwest chapter, which serves members in Washington, Oregon, and Alaska, hosts speakers throughout the year. They also recently kick-started the GeoGirls program, funded partially by the AWG Foundation. These examples barely scratch the surface of the many outreach activities local AWG chapters accomplished over the past four decades.

Thanks to these (and other) efforts across local and national levels, the number of women graduating with geoscience degrees has increased. From 1975 to 2014, the number of women graduating with undergraduate degrees in the geosciences rose to 38%, and the number of women graduating with graduate degrees in the geosciences rose to 41% (Keane, 2014). Between 2006 and 2016, the number of women geoscientist faculty grew from 14% to 20% (Wilson, 2017). Women now make up 30% of the environmental industry (Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Dept. of Labor, 2016b). The number of women in the oil and gas industry, however, declined compared to the 1980 numbers. In 2015, the percentage of women employed in the oil and natural gas industry was only 17% (Gillula et al., 2016). A report by the World Petroleum Council and the Boston Consulting Group identified several barriers that contributed to this drop. These barriers include a sharp decline in women in the middle-management and senior-leadership career stages, wide gaps in perception between men and women regarding the gender-related challenges that women face, and the failure to develop a critical mass of women across all roles in the oil and gas industry (Rick et al., 2017). While it is heartening to see improvement, particularly in the numbers of women graduating with geoscience degrees, the numbers of women in professional positions remain critically low.

AWG and the AWG Foundation now support nine annual programs at the national level geared toward promoting and encouraging women to pursue geoscience careers. These programs include a Distinguished Lecturer Program, student travel awards to present research at conferences (Sand and Takken awards), awards for excellence (Winifred Goldring Award, Undergraduate Excellence in Paleontology Award, Brunton Award), and financial scholarships for women pursuing degrees in the geosciences (Minority Scholarship, Chrysalis Scholarship, and Maria Luisa Crawford Field Camp Scholarship). On a local level, six AWG chapters provide 13 annual scholarships and awards to women pursuing geoscience degrees in their regions.

To further recognize and support women’s career accomplishments, AWG gives out annual awards to women, nominated by their peers, for their contributions to the field. These contributions are often varied and high in impact. For example, in the last two cycles of recognition, the awardees included a children’s book writer, a lifelong supporter and builder of minority scholarships, a developer of a nationally presented implicit bias seminar, and a connector of professional organizations (Gaea newsletter [Cremeans, 2017b]). Over the 40-year history of the organization, AWG recognized awardees’ outstanding service to geosciences, promotion of women, and efforts to tackle difficult problems, for example, workplace discrimination, sexual assault, and sexual harassment. Other organizations since joined the effort of promoting women and minorities in the geosciences. GSA now recognizes members with the Randolph W. “Bill” and Cecile T. Bromery Award for Minorities and Doris Curtis Outstanding Woman in Science Award, and AGU presents the Inge Lehmann Medal. Advances over the past forty years have greatly improved the number of opportunities available to women who wish to pursue a career in the geosciences during their education. Many barriers still exist, however, that cause rampant problems in equal opportunity for women in STEM, including harassment, equal pay, promotion and tenure biases, and inequalities in work-life-balance. These issues are further addressed throughout this chapter.

TO ENHANCE THE CAREERS OF WOMEN IN THE GEOSCIENCES

The second E, Enhance, covers four broad themes: professional development, career versus family, equal pay, and recognition. Although women actively contributed to the geosciences prior to AWG, the founding of AWG coincided with a strong increase of women in the field. This increase in employed women geoscientists created a need for professional development training in addition to educational support. The lack of female USGS supervisors noted earlier exemplifies why AWG (and other groups, as well) focused on bringing women into geosciences as well as promoting and developing their leadership abilities. Progress was slow and challenging for many reasons.

In the words of the 1984–1985 AWG President, Betty Johnson, “… it was clear that women were not going away, however, we were not always welcomed in our profession, and our male peers and managers often did not know how to form productive, professional relationships with women.” Challenges in the workplace ranged from “inappropriate, but quaint, comments to hostility and outright physical assault” (2017, personal commun.). For example, men very commonly showed bikini-clad women on outcrop photos “for scale.” As an attempt to mitigate these problems and enhance the professional development available to women, AWG developed a nationwide mentorship program. They hosted conferences and workshops with topics directed specifically at the challenges women were facing. Training or discussions addressed responding to male colleagues and management not taking women seriously, dealing with motherhood and a career (industry or academia), being in a dual career couple, hiring and promotion discrimination, sexual harassment, hostile work environments, dressing appropriately, and arranging sleeping quarters in the field and on ships.

One particularly pervasive issue, which remains a problem today, is the wage disparity between men and women of equal rank and job responsibility. In the 1970s, prior to a formalized AWG, the WGC spoke frequently about the issue, investigated the extent of the disparity through questionnaires, and reported their findings in 1977 and 1982 (Sand and Bunning, 1985; AGI WGC, 1982; AGI WGC, 1977). Over its history, AWG also monitored salary trends. Several Gaea newsletters provided statistics for the general population of women in the United States as well as geoscientists. Gaea newsletters frequently supported and encouraged women by reporting the status of women’s salaries in the United States and in geoscience fields to make sure they were aware of the issues, updating members on the status of congressional bills related to the issue, and offering advice on negotiating salaries.

In 1982, then AWG president Jessica Donovan noted that women doctorates earned considerably less than men in every field, in every activity, and at every level of experience. Women on average made 23% less money than men overall. Women in geophysics earned 32% less, hydrology earned 31% less, meteorology earned 26% less, geology 23% less, oceanography 25% less, cartography 20% less, and geodesy 19% less than men. In 1985, an AWG-AGU joint survey confirmed that a pay gap still existed between men and women (Table 1). More than 80% of men earned between US$25,000–US$100,000 each year, but only 52% of women earned these salaries (Neuschatz, 1985). In 1999, the pay gap between men and women widened. In general, women were only making 75 cents for every dollar earned by men. AWG proposed collecting salary data from their members again to compare across the discipline.

TABLE 1.

ANNUAL U.S. INCOMES REPORTED FROM THE AWG-AGU JOINT SURVEY (REPRODUCED FROM NEUSCHATZ, 1985)

Annual incomeWomenMen
Less than $10,00019%6%
$10,000–25,00030%10%
$25,000–50,00043%63%
$50,000–75,0008%17%
$75,000–100,0001%3%
Annual incomeWomenMen
Less than $10,00019%6%
$10,000–25,00030%10%
$25,000–50,00043%63%
$50,000–75,0008%17%
$75,000–100,0001%3%

A report by the U.S. Small Business Administration’s Office of Advocacy summarized inequalities in the women’s and men’s salaries for management positions in 1998 for the general U.S. population. The pay gap still existed between men and women, and the gap was even wider for older women (Glasheen and Crowley, 1999). Additionally, millions of working women received no pension (Schieber, 1997). Women comprised only 2.7% of the top earners in Fortune 500 companies in 1998 (Glasheen and Crowley, 1999). The numbers of women owning their own businesses rose rapidly by 2000. Those businesses owned by women mostly consisted of retail and still mostly earned less than businesses owned by men. Statistics revealed much worse salary inequities for women of color in management positions. Ethnic minorities suffered even greater disparities with African American women earning 65 cents and Hispanic women earning 53 cents for every dollar earned by men (Kluessendorf, 2000). “Most female managers earned less compared with men in 2000 than they did five years earlier, according to a congressional study of 10 industries” (Associated Press, 2002). In the time between 1995–2000, female managers’ salaries dropped from 86 cents to 73 cents for every dollar earned by male managers. In three of the industries in the study (public administration, hospitals and medical services, and educational services), women’s earnings increased compared to men’s. The problem of pay equality in 2000 existed outside the United States, as well. A Swedish study found that women needed to be “2.5 times as productive as men to be paid as well and have similar job security” (Rudnick, 2000).

Similarly, in 2000, the NSF Science and Engineering Indicators Report compiled by the National Science Board indicated that women geoscientists earned 80–90 cents for every dollar earned by their male counterparts (Holmes, 2001). However, women with master’s degrees in geoscience out-earned their male counterparts. In particular, women with master’s degrees and less than five years’ experience earned US$1.03 to men’s US$1.00. Women with master’s degrees and 10–15 years’ experience earned US$1.12 to men’s US$1.00. Although these numbers reflect significant progress for women in the geosciences, unequal pay remains an issue for women in general.

Efforts on the national level for equal pay included work to pass legislation to ensure pay equality for women, starting with the Equal Pay Act of 1963. In the 1970s and 1980s, efforts continued with the push for the Equal Rights Act to ensure equal and fair pay for women (but as noted before, this was not ratified). In 1999, the Paycheck Fairness Act first came to Congress. AWG summarized the Paycheck Fairness Act when it was introduced again in 2002: “To amend the Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938 to provide more effective remedies to victims of discrimination in the payment of wages on the basis of sex, and for other purposes.” In the description of the act:

Congress finds the following: Despite the enactment of the Equal Pay Act of 1963, many women continue to earn significantly lower pay than men for equal work. These pay disparities exist in both the private and governmental sectors. In many instances, the pay disparities can only be due to continued intentional discrimination or the lingering effects of past discrimination.

Though repeatedly introduced between 1997 and 2017, this legislation was never made into law. Despite many efforts over more than 40 years, pay gaps for women still exist in many occupations. The average woman still earns no more than 79 cents for every dollar earned by a man (Sheth and Gould, 2017). Census bureau data from 2015 indicate that women environmental scientists and geoscientists earn 82% and women geological or petroleum technicians earn 95% of men’s salaries in their respective occupations (Adamy and Overberg, 2016; Busso, 2017).

Of course, many other issues confront the enhancement of women geoscience professionals. Work-life balance, another particularly pervasive problem, frequently influences professional women’s decisions regarding career and family (in all fields of the workforce, including geoscience). Mentoring events aimed for women in STEM are becoming much more common, and students commonly ask these questions:

What advice do you have for reaching work-life-balance after starting a career?

What do I do if I have a kid?

When should I have a kid?

The responses vary widely because everyone experiences something different (and children are unpredictable). Even within the past several years, some speakers at networking events targeted to young professionals have almost scolded the students for asking about juggling work and family, telling them answers along the lines of “there is no right answer,” it’s “different for everyone,” or to “figure it out.” Yet, none of these responses ever attempted to address why this goal of “work-life balance” still seems unachievable for professional women pursuing careers in the geosciences. AWG members have addressed work-life balance since the organization formed and continue to discuss it yet today.

Letters from the early issues of Gaea demonstrate how women were led to believe that they could not pursue their passions in geoscience if they wanted to start a family (see examples in Fig. 3). The second response succinctly summarizes why this issue affects women so much more than men. First of all, parenting adversely affected mothers’ careers more than fathers’ because women took on most or all child rearing responsibilities on top of completing their professional duties. Secondly, U.S. workplaces fostered incredibly unsupportive environments for women with families because they rarely provided maternity or paternity leave, rarely guaranteed benefits for part-time positions, and made no accommodations for breastfeeding women. In a survey distributed by AWG and AGU to their members in 1983–1984, only the women who were parents reported giving up their careers at some point to have or to care for children. None of the men who were parents reported giving up their careers at any point for children. The same trends emerged when participants were asked how they envisioned their future work patterns. Only 56% of women envisioned they would be working full-time as opposed to 90% of the men (Asher and Webel, 1985a).

Figure 3.

Forum letters in the 1980 issues of Gaea that discuss the difficulties juggling career and family life.

Figure 3.

Forum letters in the 1980 issues of Gaea that discuss the difficulties juggling career and family life.

Clearly the problem requires something more coherent than leaving individual women to “figure it out.” Women still face these same challenges today. The Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA), passed in 1993, now mandates job-protected maternity leave, and more employers now support paternity leave as well. However, the terms of maternity and paternity leave vary widely, and the FMLA required allowance is constricted to only 12 weeks. While some employers may pay for some time off following medical procedures or the birth of children, FMLA permits that time to be unpaid. Additionally, companies with fewer than 50 employees are not required to follow this law. The United States is the only high-income country that does not offer a paid maternity leave (Heymann and McNeill, 2013). These are not acceptable conditions. Women who earn below the poverty line cannot afford to go 12 weeks without pay, and lack of income frequently forces women to return to work immediately after the birth of their child. Some parents simply aren’t ready to return to work after 12 weeks. Incredibly high childcare costs also limit many families, making it more economical for one parent to stay home because yearly childcare expenses exceed the additional income. Policies and attitudes must change for women to truly receive equal opportunity in the workplace. The argument that it’s just about finding balance isn’t fair when mothers face so many additional stresses and barriers.

AWG’s dedication to the dialogue regarding work-life balance for the past 40 years led to successes in addition to FMLA. Three states (California, Rhode Island, and New Jersey) instituted their own paid family leave acts (Gault et al., 2014). A few other states enacted additional laws to provide more coverage under the Family and Medical Leave Act (NCSL, 2016). But for more progress, we have to move past the “you can do it!” pep talks. Only 13% of workers in private industry had access to paid family leave (maternity and paternity) in 2016 (Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Dept. of Labor, 2016a). As an organization, AWG offers a means to work together to push Congress to ensure that all workplace environments openly support not only working women but working parents as a whole.

In spite of these daunting problems, AWG, and women in general, advanced toward leadership and higher orders of professionalism. The drive by AWG and other women’s rights STEM groups to enhance women’s careers in the geosciences has succeeded in some ways. In 2001, women led five major geoscience societies as presidents (the American Association of Petroleum Geologists, the American Geophysical Union, the Geological Society of America, the Society of Exploration Geophysicists, and the Paleontological Society). Concurrently, the Associate Director of the NSF Geosciences Directorate was also a woman. AWG’s leaders, including previous presidents Allison Anderson Book (executive director, AGI) and Denise Cox (president, AAPG), also went on to be leaders of other geoscience societies. AWG past-presidents Marilyn Suiter (1989–1990) and Marguerite Toscano (1999–2000) are now program directors for the NSF Directorate for Geosciences. Nancy House, a former member of the AWG Board of Directors, currently serves as presidentelect of the Society of Exploration Geophysicists (SEG). And yet, while the prevalence of women in geoscience leadership has increased, AWG’s essential professional development goals remain unchanged because there is still much work left to do.

TO EXCHANGE EDUCATIONAL, TECHNICAL, AND PROFESSIONAL INFORMATION

The third E represents the Exchange of educational, technical, and professional information. Exchange began in this organization with the development of the Gaea newsletter, which remains an important resource for women geoscientists and AWG members. Over time, AWG introduced additional exchange resources including the e-newsletters and the AWG website (www.awg.org) for members, other geoscientists, and the general public. These resources are designed specifically to increase the visibility of women in the geosciences and to display the incredible goals women in our field achieve every day. Gaea frequently issues feature stories about historic women, award winners, and active members. In 2000, Gaea highlighted the lives of several historic female geoscientists in honor of Women’s History month. Also in 2000, each Gaea focused on different professional tracks for geoscientists: industry, business, academia, and student experiences. Those issues included biographies of women in each position—biographies that the AWG features on its website, thus providing information about geoscience career opportunities and telling the stories of specific women in many of those fields. AWG also highlights the accomplishments of geoscience professionals from our membership on the “Member Highlight Blog” posted on the AWG website, which presents rotating profiles of women doing incredible work within the geosciences.

Because AWG was founded as professional women’s issues were finally being addressed in Congress, Gaea newsletters also served as platforms for discussion about how AWG should address political issues. In fact, the organization developed coincident with the Equal Rights Act (ERA) (Appendix); therefore, many heavy discussions in the newsletters debated whether AWG should take political stances. In the late 1970s and early 1980s, many women advocated for the ERA, which was motivated by many factors that concerned AWG members, including the most often cited issue of unequal pay discussed early in this chapter. AWG members strongly supported the notion that AWG should actively promote the ERA. Since that time, AWG continues to directly engage with Congress by sending members to formal Congressional Visit Days, participating in the AGI Federation, and contacting representatives as individual members. Issues on which the AWG lobbies include affirmative action, funding concerns (importance of increased funding for math and science education, maintaining funding to NSF, USGS, NOAA, NASA, and NRC), and dissemination of scientific knowledge to policymakers. Most recently, AWG advocated for both the Women’s March in Washington and the March for Science, where members of the board and local chapters proudly marched in D.C. and at their respective state capitals (Blaesing-Thompson et al., 2017). Though the ERA was never ratified by the necessary 38 states within the seven-year time limit, Nevada ratified the amendment in March 2017, after the Women’s March in January 2017. So, 40 years later, we kicked up the dust on this fight and now require only two more states for ratification. See Figure 4 for a map of states that have ratified the ERA. The controversy surrounding the ERA ultimately resulted in a sixfold increase in female representation in Congress. Even so, women hold only 18% of the seats in the U.S. House and 20% of the seats in the U.S. Senate today, still far from equal.

Figure 4.

Map of the United States highlighting states that have ratified the Equal Rights Act (shaded).

Figure 4.

Map of the United States highlighting states that have ratified the Equal Rights Act (shaded).

AWG’s engagement with policy issues is not limited to federal policies. Rather, it extends to an extensive dialogue and exploration of policy topics within our partner organizations as well as internally. AWG consistently works toward a more inclusive set of organizational policies and professional events. Largely, these policies and events focus on the prevalence of harassment and sexual assault, which particularly affect women and minorities. In the early 1980s, sexual harassment was a well-known issue for women in the workplace, but no infrastructure existed to impose consequences on the harasser. The first reference to sexual harassment in Gaea appears in a “Perspective” column by Susan Zachos in 1983:

My company’s landman set up a luncheon during which he, a geophysicist and myself were to discuss a “deal” with the landman, geologist and geophysicist from a competitor’s oil company. All were men except myself. We arranged to meet at a local private club where, I discovered upon entering, the lunchtime attraction that day was not the prime rib, but a ‘ladies’ lingerie fashion show. I took this in stride and tried to ignore the scantily-clad models who twirled their hips at eye-level, announcing the price of each item as the men drooled in their drinks. Finally, the competitor’s landman turned from a particularly provocative nightie to me and said “I’ll bet your husband would like that! You should buy it.”

Unfortunately, situations similar to this one persist in the experiences of women today. Nonetheless, some progress was made toward limiting harassment in the workplace. Title IX, passed in 1972, prohibits discrimination based on sex in schools and universities, which includes discrimination through sexual harassment and assault. By 1998, nearly all workplaces had policies intended to deal with sexual harassment. While these policies exist today, the level of enforcement is still poor, and support for victims appears negligible, as evidenced by the nearly daily appearance of harassment and assault stories in the news and the emergence of statistics regarding these crimes.

As Susan Zachos illustrated, harassment was far more blatant forty years ago, while today it is often more subtle. This transformation makes the problem more difficult to address because it indicates a level of acceptance (albeit unwillingly by many) in our society as a whole. The recent #MeToo movement also demonstrated to the nation that the level of ongoing harassment in private settings is still high. A recent study of academic fieldwork experiences by Clancy et al. (2014) revealed that 64% of respondents personally experienced sexual harassment. Of this pool, 78% were women. Though some instances of harassment are subtle, blatant attacks on women still commonly occur, as shown by a startling 22% of respondents who reported experiencing sexual assault while in the field. After the publication of the Clancy et al. (2014) study, the outcry in STEM led to increased media coverage. Institutions, private industries, and professional societies began to openly acknowledge the huge impact of harassment and assault on women and minorities in STEM.

In response, AWG initially sponsored chapter events and conferences. For example, “To The Wolves” focused on raising awareness of the types of harassment and assault scenarios women face and how to react to them if you witness them. “To the Wolves” was first held as a workshop at a local chapter. In 2016, AWG President Dr. Blair Schneider and AWG Professional Excellence Award Winner Dr. Gwendolyn Macpherson developed this into a professional workshop at the AGU annual meeting. The workshop was co-sponsored by AGU, AAPG’s Professional Women in the Earth Sciences (PROWESS), ESWN, and the SEG Women’s Network Committee (WNC). AWG further seized this opportunity to enact permanent changes that will help eradicate harassment and assault in the geosciences by partnering with other geoscience societies, namely AGU and ESWN. In September of 2016, AWG, the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS), the American Chemical Society (ACS), AGI, and ESWN cosponsored an NSF-funded workshop titled “Sexual Harassment in the Sciences: A Call to Respond.” More than 60 leaders from government, academia, and professional societies attended this workshop to discuss topics ranging from the sociological context of the problem, understanding the legal landscape, the role of scientific societies and institutions in changing the culture on campuses and in the field, and finally developing guiding principles to stop this problem (St. John et al., 2016). During this workshop, a review of the 51 societies within the AGI federation revealed that only 17 societies had ethics policies or codes of conducts that were publicly available on their websites. Of those 17 societies, only two specifically addressed sexual harassment (Holmes et al., 2017). Reflecting on the fact that AWG had no code of conduct either, AWG board members promptly formed a subcommittee and developed an AWG Code of Conduct, formally stating the organization’s opposition to “harassment and discrimination, in any form” (Cremeans, 2017a). Other geoscience societies did the same. For example, AGI now conducts a review of guidelines for addressing harassment that will serve as a resource for other societies working to implement their own code of conduct.

Another key outcome of the widespread recognition of harassment and assault is an NSF Advance grant awarded to AWG, AGU, and ESWN to investigate the prevalence of this issue in the geosciences. Collaborators on this grant will gather baseline data from women in the earth sciences, including information on the types of harassment or assault they experienced, to evaluate the nature and persistence of these in the discipline. An important goal of this research is to explore the effects of intersectionality of women in the geosciences. Women are underrepresented in the geosciences as a whole; however, certain groups of women are disproportionately underrepresented and, therefore, likely experience more and different kinds of discrimination. At the conclusion of this project, results will be used to develop bystander intervention training that will be publicly available for professional exchange.

While the exchange of professional and technical information is necessary to keep women in geoscience careers, exchanging educational information is important to attract girls and young women to the science. AWG has long supported meaningful earth-science education programs at elementary and high school levels as well as scholarship support for undergraduate and graduate education. After the first 20 years, AWG expanded education programs, spurred by the recognition that communicating earth science to the wider community must begin with elementary education. To achieve this expansion, AWG assisted with teacher workshops and made efforts to communicate science in grade schools and high schools. In particular, AWG worked to encourage and assist the teaching of evolution in schools in the late 1990s and early 2000s. To help develop better evolution lessons, AWG published a position paper about teaching evolution in schools in 1998 that is still accessible on our website. And though as yet unsuccessful, AWG also encouraged the development of Advanced Placement Geology courses in high schools to open opportunities and promote awareness of the geosciences for students (Van Norden, 2002). However, increasing the visibility of science proved challenging. While advancing science awareness was at the forefront of AWG’s educational efforts, school districts or individual states chose to make particular scientific concepts, or science altogether, non-mandatory (Hallock Muller, 2000). Even as events like the devastating Indonesia Ocean Tsunami of 2005 or the advent of induced seismicity in regions of the United States highlight the overall value of geoscience education, AWG, along with many other science organizations, continue to face opposition to scientific education and awareness.

Educational exchange is not limited to the classroom setting for K–12 and college students or policy development. Many AWG efforts also focus on professional exchange between and among our members, educating geoscientists to help women within our ranks succeed. Early in its history, AWG provided educational information about advancement in geoscience careers at conferences for members. Every five years (from its start up to the 30th anniversary), AWG held a convention to celebrate benchmarks, visit field sites, and provide networking and educational opportunities to support women in their geoscience careers. Workshops, presentations, and panel discussions included job-hunting techniques, résumé writing, interviewing, getting ahead at your job, coping with stress, career changes, legal rights, and other topics. Since the 30th anniversary, AWG focused on broadening the scope of the educational opportunities provided to women in geosciences by presenting workshops or short courses at annual meetings hosted by other geoscience societies (e.g., GSA, AGU, AAPG, SEG). The workshops, like the careers pamphlets and the lecturer series, are not new to AWG. The WGC first hosted workshops, most often at GSA Annual Meetings, to support women or to report progress made to achieve equality across the field. WGC workshop topics covered management skills, career development, job hunting, and professional relationships (Sand and Bunning, 1985). In 1999, AWG members wrote and disseminated “A Survival Guide to Field Camp” for women attending summer field courses. In the early 2000s, AWG continued actively hosting workshops at GSA related to job hunting, equality and diversity, tenure and promotion, and getting a job in academia. Most recently, AWG cosponsored professional development workshops, networking receptions, and technical short courses with the ESWN, AAPG’s PROWESS, and SEG’s WNC.

Aside from teaching about workplace dynamics, AWG also provides field opportunities for women. It is widely held that “the best geologists are those who have seen the most rocks,” and therefore, AWG has engaged in several activities to promote positive learning experiences in the field. Board meetings occasionally included trips to nearby geologic features, hosted by the local chapters. At the 2002 GSA Annual Meeting (Denver, Colorado), AWG members led a field trip to the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology site. Since 2005, AWG has consistently offered field trip opportunities to its members, organized by a field trip committee. Field trip locations spanned the United States, but also extended outside the United States to include Baja California, Scandinavia, Iceland, Scotland, Cuba, and Puerto Rico (Fig. 5).

Figure 5.

AWG field trip locations around the world since 1996. Labels apply to filled stars. Inset box zooms in to show label details for additional interior western U.S. locations. CA—California; NV—Nevada; OR—Oregon; WA—Washington.

Printed in the USA

Figure 5.

AWG field trip locations around the world since 1996. Labels apply to filled stars. Inset box zooms in to show label details for additional interior western U.S. locations. CA—California; NV—Nevada; OR—Oregon; WA—Washington.

Printed in the USA

Finally, AWG exchanges both technical and educational information through a lecture series. Before AWG, the WGC supported a visiting lecturer program, which listed 61 women professors willing to travel and present their research to students in colleges, universities, or geology clubs around the country. Like much of AWG’s work, the WGC aimed to increase the visibility of women in leading positions with this program. AGI discontinued the speaker list coincident with end of the WGC because they felt the program had “served its purposes” (Sand and Bunning, 1985). As AWG evolved, members recognized that all other organizations hosted a distinguished lecturer series, but these series almost exclusively featured men. Therefore, to balance the opportunities for students to engage with professional women geoscientists, AWG resurrected the lecturer program in 1989 with generous support from Phillips Petroleum Company. The AWG Distinguished Lecturer Program was organized specifically to meet all three E’s and feature women speakers from across all geoscience disciplines. These women are also prepared to talk about career paths or discuss challenges faced in their professions. The Distinguished Lecturer Program remains an important part of AWG and is currently sponsored by ConocoPhillips. AWG regularly updates the list of speakers and sends an average of twelve women to present to institutions or organizations each year. The 2016–2017 list featured 43 women presenting on 93 topics related to atmospheric science, climate change, surficial processes, deep earth, natural hazards, geobiology, energy and policy, leadership and education, oceanography, and space science.

CONCLUSION

In the early years, as women first organized and then communicated the issues we faced, the AWG organization dealt with many challenges. In that time, strong, intelligent, hard-working, passionate, and creative women diligently worked to create change guided by the three E’s of AWG’s mission over the past 40 years. As women, and specifically, as women in the geosciences, we have come a long way from the environment of the late 1970s. Though we’ve made great progress, we still have much more work to do.

Sigrid Asher, past editor for AWG, wrote a perspective article in the 1983 Gaea on her experiences working alongside the women of the AWG board at that time. She said,

… in checking out the Superwoman status of the warm and friendly people active in Chapter and National AWG, I found out two things I’d like to pass on to you. All those Superwomen have lives as real as yours and mine. They have some combination of crises, kids, career hassles, crummy bosses, self-doubts, lousy pay, long commutes, and only 24 hours in the day that each of us has. But they have something more; the warm sense of personal connectedness that comes from working with other AWG members on projects that benefit women geoscientists. And that sense of being part of a larger order gives them, and me, the energy to ‘keep on keepin’ on’ even when they feel [in] over their heads. (Asher, 1983)

This perspective is still powerfully true today. AWG’s strong tradition of advocating for women in the geosciences has created a powerful network of support. AWG exists so women do not have to deal with issues in isolation. Even as an organization, AWG faced challenges keeping women working together and communicating, yet the compelling nature of women’s issues have kept us moving forward, nonetheless, toward the goals of enhancing, encouraging, and engaging women geoscientists.

The process of chronicling AWG’s 40-year history has been exhausting and exciting, devastating and uplifting, difficult and inspiring. Between the three authors of this chapter, we have over 22 years of experience with AWG and 34 years of experience in geology, spanning industry, government, and academia, and yet our range of experience does not extend fully to those women who began working for us 40 years ago (and to those who started even earlier). We’d like to offer our thanks and a promise that we will continue doing the hard work of moving forward. Looking to the future, there are new and exciting challenges we will face. Women are a minority in the geosciences, yes, but we have made significant progress. We must use the momentum from the past to continue fighting for equality overall, not just between men and women. We recognize that our future efforts will need to focus on intersectionality and the role it plays in differences of experience. We also recognize that future success will depend on further promoting positive relationships with other women’s organizations and professional societies. In the words of Nancy Banta (1983), “we’re a good herd to grow with,” and we hope that you will continue to grow alongside us as we pursue improved access and opportunity in the geosciences for all.

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,
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, and
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,
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,
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2035
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More women in the driver’s seat
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P.
,
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,
Teaching science now optional in Florida
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Gaea
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23
, no.
5
, p.
12
.
Heymann
,
J.
, and
McNeill
,
K.
,
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,
Children’s Chances: How Countries Can Move from Surviving to Thriving
:
Cambridge, Massachusetts
,
Harvard University Press
,
408
p.
Holmes
,
M.A.
,
2001
,
Status of women in the geosciences: Salaries, jobs
:
Gaea
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24
, no.
3
, p.
6
.
Holmes
,
M.A.
, and
O’Connell
,
S.
,
2007
,
Women geoscientists’ writing retreat
:
AWIS Magazine
 , v.
36
, no.
4
, p.
22
23
.
Holmes
,
M.A.
,
O’Connell
,
S.
,
Frey
,
C.
, and
Ongley
,
L.
,
2003
,
The status of women in the geosciences, 2001
:
Geotimes
 , v.
48
, no.
9
, p.
24
25
.
Holmes
,
M.A.
,
O’Connell
,
S.
, and
Dutt
,
K.
,
2015
, eds.,
Women in the Geosciences: Practical, Positive Practices toward Parity
:
Hoboken, New Jersey
,
John Wiley & Sons
,
192
p., https://doi.org/10.1002/9781119067573.
Holmes
,
M.A.
,
Marin-Spiotta
,
E.
, and
Schneider
,
B.
,
2017
,
Harassment as an ethics issue
:
EGU General Assembly 2017: Geophysical Research Abstracts
 , v.
19
, EGU2017-10067-1.
Keane
,
C.M.
,
2014
,
U.S. female geoscience enrollments level off
:
AGI Geoscience Currents
 , no.
102
, https://www.americangeosciences.org/sites/default/files/currents/Currents-102-GenderEnrollments2014.pdf (last accessed 23 Jan. 2018).
Kluessendorf
,
J.
, ed.,
2000
,
The concrete ceiling
:
Gaea
 , v.
23
, no.
1
, p.
7
8
.
Moody
,
J.B.
,
Ludington
,
S.D.
,
Marvin
,
U.
, and
VanAndel
,
T.
,
1976
,
Professionalism among women and men in the geosciences
:
Journal of Geological Education
 , v.
24
, p.
166
171
, https://doi.org/10.5408/0022-1368-24.5.166.
National Conference of State Legislatures
,
2016
(19 July),
Family and Medical Leave Laws
:
NCSL
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,
S.
,
1985
,
Summary report on 1983–1984 national survey of geoscientists
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Gaea
 , v.
8
, no.
4
, p.
1
2
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O’Connell
,
S.
, and
Holmes
,
M.A.
,
2007
,
Retreating to advance women geoscience faculty
:
EOS (Transactions, American Geophysical Union)
 , v.
88
, no.
47
, p.
505
, https://doi.org/10.1029/2007EO470010.
Pecora
,
P.
,
1985
,
USGS directors talks on future for women geoscientists at agency
:
Gaea
 , v.
8
, no.
2
, p.
1
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Rick
,
K.
,
Marten
,
I.
, and
Von Lonski
,
U.
,
2017
(12 July),
Untapped reserves: Promoting gender balance in oil and gas
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TIMELINE HIGHLIGHTING SIGNIFICANT EVENTS THAT AFFECTED WOMEN IN SCIENCE, AND PARTICULARLY WOMEN IN THE GEOSCIENCES

Bold text represents AWG-specific events; italicized text represents NSF activities or programs; bold italics represents significant strides by other geoscience professional societies; black text represents federal or state laws that affect women working in the geosciences.
Pre-1970s1889Mary Emilee Holmes becomes the first woman Fellow of GSA
1963The Equal Pay Act is passed by Congress
1966The National Organization for Women (NOW) is organized
1970s1971Inge Lehmann becomes the first female AGU medalist at the age of 71
Association for Women in Science forms
1972Title IV passes
Equal Rights Act is passed by Congress, sent to states for ratification
1973Roe v. Wade
1974Women’s Educational Equity Act Program is established
1977Congressional Caucus for Women’s Issues is formed
Association for Women Geoscientists is formed
1978The Pregnancy Discrimination Act is passed
1980s1980Congress passes the Science and Engineering Equal Opportunities Act
1981Women’s History Month is recognized
Sandra Day O’Connor becomes the first woman to sit on the U.S. Supreme Court
1982Equal Rights Act fails to ratify (missing three states)
First NSF publication of statistics on women in Women and Minorities in Science and Engineering
NSF develops the Visiting Professorships for Women in Science and Engineering (this program lasted through 1997)
1983AWG is incorporated as a non-profit mutual-benefit organization
The AWG Foundation is established as a non-profit public-benefit corporation
1984AWG Foundation gives out their first awards at the International Science Fair
AWG begins their annual tradition of the Encourage, Enhance, and Exchange Awards
1986NSF Research Planning Grants and Career Advancement Grants for Women Scientists & Engineers (RPG & CAA) (this program lasted through 1998)
1987U.S. Census Bureau reports that women earn 68 cents for every dollar earned by men
1988The AWG Foundation gives out their first Outstanding Educator Award
1989NSF Task Force on Programs for Women convenes
1990s1990Sylvia Earle is appointed as first female Chief Scientist at the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
NSF Faculty Grants for Women Scientists and Engineers (lasted one year)
1991Doris Curtis becomes the first woman to hold the office of GSA President
1993NSF Program for Women and Girls (PWG) (this program still exists today, but is now called the Research on Gender in Science and Engineering [GSE] program)
Supreme Court rules for the first time that sexual harassment is illegal in the workplace
Family and Medical Leave Act is signed into law
1994Marcia Neugebauer becomes the first woman to hold the office of AGU President
1995AGU awards their first medal recognizing a woman scientist, Inge Lehmann
NSF Women and Science Conference
1996Equal Pay Day is observed for the first time
The AWG Foundation gives out their first Chrysalis Scholarship
1997NSF Professional Opportunities for Women in Research & Education (POWRE) (this program lasted through 2000)
1998AWG awards their first President’s Award
The AWG Foundation awards their first Winifred Goldring Award (in partnership with the Paleontological Society)
Congress establishes the Commission on the Advancement of Women in Science, Engineering, and Technology Development (existed through 2000)
1999GSA begins the annual tradition of the Doris M. Curtis Outstanding Woman in Science Award
2000s2000Sally Zinke becomes the first woman to hold the office of SEG President
2001Robbie Gries becomes the first woman to hold the office of AAPG President
NSF Advance Program is launched (still exists today)
AWG establishes both an Honorary Membership program and a Distinguished Service Award
All major geoscience organizations (AGU, AAPG, GSA, SEG) have female presidents
2002State of California passes their own Paid Family Leave Program
2005The AWG Foundation establishes two new student awards: the Brunton Award and the Minority Scholarships
2007The AWG Foundation awards the first Maria Luisa Crawford Field Camp scholarships (in partnership with NAGT)
2009Marcia McNutt becomes the first woman to lead the USGS since its establishment in 1879
Lily Ledbetter Fair Pay Act is signed into law by President Obama
New Jersey establishes a Family Leave Insurance program
2010s2010The AWG Foundation establishes two new student awards: The Ginny Sand and Suzanne Takken Research Presentation Awards
2013AWG establishes and awards the first Professional Excellence Awards
Rhode Island signs into law the Temporary Caregiver Insurance Program
2016AWG, the AWG Foundation and the Paleontological Society partner up to offer a new student award: Undergraduate Excellence in Paleontology
AWG cosponsors an NSF-funded workshop for leaders across government institutions, academic institutions, and professional societies to address the issue of sexual harassment in the sciences
Marcia McNutt becomes the first woman to lead the U.S. National Academy of Sciences since its founding in 1863
2017Women’s March on Washington
Nevada ratifies the Equal Rights Act after the Women’s March on Washington
March for Science
Bold text represents AWG-specific events; italicized text represents NSF activities or programs; bold italics represents significant strides by other geoscience professional societies; black text represents federal or state laws that affect women working in the geosciences.
Pre-1970s1889Mary Emilee Holmes becomes the first woman Fellow of GSA
1963The Equal Pay Act is passed by Congress
1966The National Organization for Women (NOW) is organized
1970s1971Inge Lehmann becomes the first female AGU medalist at the age of 71
Association for Women in Science forms
1972Title IV passes
Equal Rights Act is passed by Congress, sent to states for ratification
1973Roe v. Wade
1974Women’s Educational Equity Act Program is established
1977Congressional Caucus for Women’s Issues is formed
Association for Women Geoscientists is formed
1978The Pregnancy Discrimination Act is passed
1980s1980Congress passes the Science and Engineering Equal Opportunities Act
1981Women’s History Month is recognized
Sandra Day O’Connor becomes the first woman to sit on the U.S. Supreme Court
1982Equal Rights Act fails to ratify (missing three states)
First NSF publication of statistics on women in Women and Minorities in Science and Engineering
NSF develops the Visiting Professorships for Women in Science and Engineering (this program lasted through 1997)
1983AWG is incorporated as a non-profit mutual-benefit organization
The AWG Foundation is established as a non-profit public-benefit corporation
1984AWG Foundation gives out their first awards at the International Science Fair
AWG begins their annual tradition of the Encourage, Enhance, and Exchange Awards
1986NSF Research Planning Grants and Career Advancement Grants for Women Scientists & Engineers (RPG & CAA) (this program lasted through 1998)
1987U.S. Census Bureau reports that women earn 68 cents for every dollar earned by men
1988The AWG Foundation gives out their first Outstanding Educator Award
1989NSF Task Force on Programs for Women convenes
1990s1990Sylvia Earle is appointed as first female Chief Scientist at the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
NSF Faculty Grants for Women Scientists and Engineers (lasted one year)
1991Doris Curtis becomes the first woman to hold the office of GSA President
1993NSF Program for Women and Girls (PWG) (this program still exists today, but is now called the Research on Gender in Science and Engineering [GSE] program)
Supreme Court rules for the first time that sexual harassment is illegal in the workplace
Family and Medical Leave Act is signed into law
1994Marcia Neugebauer becomes the first woman to hold the office of AGU President
1995AGU awards their first medal recognizing a woman scientist, Inge Lehmann
NSF Women and Science Conference
1996Equal Pay Day is observed for the first time
The AWG Foundation gives out their first Chrysalis Scholarship
1997NSF Professional Opportunities for Women in Research & Education (POWRE) (this program lasted through 2000)
1998AWG awards their first President’s Award
The AWG Foundation awards their first Winifred Goldring Award (in partnership with the Paleontological Society)
Congress establishes the Commission on the Advancement of Women in Science, Engineering, and Technology Development (existed through 2000)
1999GSA begins the annual tradition of the Doris M. Curtis Outstanding Woman in Science Award
2000s2000Sally Zinke becomes the first woman to hold the office of SEG President
2001Robbie Gries becomes the first woman to hold the office of AAPG President
NSF Advance Program is launched (still exists today)
AWG establishes both an Honorary Membership program and a Distinguished Service Award
All major geoscience organizations (AGU, AAPG, GSA, SEG) have female presidents
2002State of California passes their own Paid Family Leave Program
2005The AWG Foundation establishes two new student awards: the Brunton Award and the Minority Scholarships
2007The AWG Foundation awards the first Maria Luisa Crawford Field Camp scholarships (in partnership with NAGT)
2009Marcia McNutt becomes the first woman to lead the USGS since its establishment in 1879
Lily Ledbetter Fair Pay Act is signed into law by President Obama
New Jersey establishes a Family Leave Insurance program
2010s2010The AWG Foundation establishes two new student awards: The Ginny Sand and Suzanne Takken Research Presentation Awards
2013AWG establishes and awards the first Professional Excellence Awards
Rhode Island signs into law the Temporary Caregiver Insurance Program
2016AWG, the AWG Foundation and the Paleontological Society partner up to offer a new student award: Undergraduate Excellence in Paleontology
AWG cosponsors an NSF-funded workshop for leaders across government institutions, academic institutions, and professional societies to address the issue of sexual harassment in the sciences
Marcia McNutt becomes the first woman to lead the U.S. National Academy of Sciences since its founding in 1863
2017Women’s March on Washington
Nevada ratifies the Equal Rights Act after the Women’s March on Washington
March for Science

TIMELINE HIGHLIGHTING SIGNIFICANT EVENTS THAT AFFECTED WOMEN IN SCIENCE, AND PARTICULARLY WOMEN IN THE GEOSCIENCES

Bold text represents AWG-specific events; italicized text represents NSF activities or programs; bold italics represents significant strides by other geoscience professional societies; black text represents federal or state laws that affect women working in the geosciences.
Pre-1970s1889Mary Emilee Holmes becomes the first woman Fellow of GSA
1963The Equal Pay Act is passed by Congress
1966The National Organization for Women (NOW) is organized
1970s1971Inge Lehmann becomes the first female AGU medalist at the age of 71
Association for Women in Science forms
1972Title IV passes
Equal Rights Act is passed by Congress, sent to states for ratification
1973Roe v. Wade
1974Women’s Educational Equity Act Program is established
1977Congressional Caucus for Women’s Issues is formed
Association for Women Geoscientists is formed
1978The Pregnancy Discrimination Act is passed
1980s1980Congress passes the Science and Engineering Equal Opportunities Act
1981Women’s History Month is recognized
Sandra Day O’Connor becomes the first woman to sit on the U.S. Supreme Court
1982Equal Rights Act fails to ratify (missing three states)
First NSF publication of statistics on women in Women and Minorities in Science and Engineering
NSF develops the Visiting Professorships for Women in Science and Engineering (this program lasted through 1997)
1983AWG is incorporated as a non-profit mutual-benefit organization
The AWG Foundation is established as a non-profit public-benefit corporation
1984AWG Foundation gives out their first awards at the International Science Fair
AWG begins their annual tradition of the Encourage, Enhance, and Exchange Awards
1986NSF Research Planning Grants and Career Advancement Grants for Women Scientists & Engineers (RPG & CAA) (this program lasted through 1998)
1987U.S. Census Bureau reports that women earn 68 cents for every dollar earned by men
1988The AWG Foundation gives out their first Outstanding Educator Award
1989NSF Task Force on Programs for Women convenes
1990s1990Sylvia Earle is appointed as first female Chief Scientist at the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
NSF Faculty Grants for Women Scientists and Engineers (lasted one year)
1991Doris Curtis becomes the first woman to hold the office of GSA President
1993NSF Program for Women and Girls (PWG) (this program still exists today, but is now called the Research on Gender in Science and Engineering [GSE] program)
Supreme Court rules for the first time that sexual harassment is illegal in the workplace
Family and Medical Leave Act is signed into law
1994Marcia Neugebauer becomes the first woman to hold the office of AGU President
1995AGU awards their first medal recognizing a woman scientist, Inge Lehmann
NSF Women and Science Conference
1996Equal Pay Day is observed for the first time
The AWG Foundation gives out their first Chrysalis Scholarship
1997NSF Professional Opportunities for Women in Research & Education (POWRE) (this program lasted through 2000)
1998AWG awards their first President’s Award
The AWG Foundation awards their first Winifred Goldring Award (in partnership with the Paleontological Society)
Congress establishes the Commission on the Advancement of Women in Science, Engineering, and Technology Development (existed through 2000)
1999GSA begins the annual tradition of the Doris M. Curtis Outstanding Woman in Science Award
2000s2000Sally Zinke becomes the first woman to hold the office of SEG President
2001Robbie Gries becomes the first woman to hold the office of AAPG President
NSF Advance Program is launched (still exists today)
AWG establishes both an Honorary Membership program and a Distinguished Service Award
All major geoscience organizations (AGU, AAPG, GSA, SEG) have female presidents
2002State of California passes their own Paid Family Leave Program
2005The AWG Foundation establishes two new student awards: the Brunton Award and the Minority Scholarships
2007The AWG Foundation awards the first Maria Luisa Crawford Field Camp scholarships (in partnership with NAGT)
2009Marcia McNutt becomes the first woman to lead the USGS since its establishment in 1879
Lily Ledbetter Fair Pay Act is signed into law by President Obama
New Jersey establishes a Family Leave Insurance program
2010s2010The AWG Foundation establishes two new student awards: The Ginny Sand and Suzanne Takken Research Presentation Awards
2013AWG establishes and awards the first Professional Excellence Awards
Rhode Island signs into law the Temporary Caregiver Insurance Program
2016AWG, the AWG Foundation and the Paleontological Society partner up to offer a new student award: Undergraduate Excellence in Paleontology
AWG cosponsors an NSF-funded workshop for leaders across government institutions, academic institutions, and professional societies to address the issue of sexual harassment in the sciences
Marcia McNutt becomes the first woman to lead the U.S. National Academy of Sciences since its founding in 1863
2017Women’s March on Washington
Nevada ratifies the Equal Rights Act after the Women’s March on Washington
March for Science
Bold text represents AWG-specific events; italicized text represents NSF activities or programs; bold italics represents significant strides by other geoscience professional societies; black text represents federal or state laws that affect women working in the geosciences.
Pre-1970s1889Mary Emilee Holmes becomes the first woman Fellow of GSA
1963The Equal Pay Act is passed by Congress
1966The National Organization for Women (NOW) is organized
1970s1971Inge Lehmann becomes the first female AGU medalist at the age of 71
Association for Women in Science forms
1972Title IV passes
Equal Rights Act is passed by Congress, sent to states for ratification
1973Roe v. Wade
1974Women’s Educational Equity Act Program is established
1977Congressional Caucus for Women’s Issues is formed
Association for Women Geoscientists is formed
1978The Pregnancy Discrimination Act is passed
1980s1980Congress passes the Science and Engineering Equal Opportunities Act
1981Women’s History Month is recognized
Sandra Day O’Connor becomes the first woman to sit on the U.S. Supreme Court
1982Equal Rights Act fails to ratify (missing three states)
First NSF publication of statistics on women in Women and Minorities in Science and Engineering
NSF develops the Visiting Professorships for Women in Science and Engineering (this program lasted through 1997)
1983AWG is incorporated as a non-profit mutual-benefit organization
The AWG Foundation is established as a non-profit public-benefit corporation
1984AWG Foundation gives out their first awards at the International Science Fair
AWG begins their annual tradition of the Encourage, Enhance, and Exchange Awards
1986NSF Research Planning Grants and Career Advancement Grants for Women Scientists & Engineers (RPG & CAA) (this program lasted through 1998)
1987U.S. Census Bureau reports that women earn 68 cents for every dollar earned by men
1988The AWG Foundation gives out their first Outstanding Educator Award
1989NSF Task Force on Programs for Women convenes
1990s1990Sylvia Earle is appointed as first female Chief Scientist at the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
NSF Faculty Grants for Women Scientists and Engineers (lasted one year)
1991Doris Curtis becomes the first woman to hold the office of GSA President
1993NSF Program for Women and Girls (PWG) (this program still exists today, but is now called the Research on Gender in Science and Engineering [GSE] program)
Supreme Court rules for the first time that sexual harassment is illegal in the workplace
Family and Medical Leave Act is signed into law
1994Marcia Neugebauer becomes the first woman to hold the office of AGU President
1995AGU awards their first medal recognizing a woman scientist, Inge Lehmann
NSF Women and Science Conference
1996Equal Pay Day is observed for the first time
The AWG Foundation gives out their first Chrysalis Scholarship
1997NSF Professional Opportunities for Women in Research & Education (POWRE) (this program lasted through 2000)
1998AWG awards their first President’s Award
The AWG Foundation awards their first Winifred Goldring Award (in partnership with the Paleontological Society)
Congress establishes the Commission on the Advancement of Women in Science, Engineering, and Technology Development (existed through 2000)
1999GSA begins the annual tradition of the Doris M. Curtis Outstanding Woman in Science Award
2000s2000Sally Zinke becomes the first woman to hold the office of SEG President
2001Robbie Gries becomes the first woman to hold the office of AAPG President
NSF Advance Program is launched (still exists today)
AWG establishes both an Honorary Membership program and a Distinguished Service Award
All major geoscience organizations (AGU, AAPG, GSA, SEG) have female presidents
2002State of California passes their own Paid Family Leave Program
2005The AWG Foundation establishes two new student awards: the Brunton Award and the Minority Scholarships
2007The AWG Foundation awards the first Maria Luisa Crawford Field Camp scholarships (in partnership with NAGT)
2009Marcia McNutt becomes the first woman to lead the USGS since its establishment in 1879
Lily Ledbetter Fair Pay Act is signed into law by President Obama
New Jersey establishes a Family Leave Insurance program
2010s2010The AWG Foundation establishes two new student awards: The Ginny Sand and Suzanne Takken Research Presentation Awards
2013AWG establishes and awards the first Professional Excellence Awards
Rhode Island signs into law the Temporary Caregiver Insurance Program
2016AWG, the AWG Foundation and the Paleontological Society partner up to offer a new student award: Undergraduate Excellence in Paleontology
AWG cosponsors an NSF-funded workshop for leaders across government institutions, academic institutions, and professional societies to address the issue of sexual harassment in the sciences
Marcia McNutt becomes the first woman to lead the U.S. National Academy of Sciences since its founding in 1863
2017Women’s March on Washington
Nevada ratifies the Equal Rights Act after the Women’s March on Washington
March for Science

TIMELINE HIGHLIGHTING SIGNIFICANT EVENTS THAT AFFECTED WOMEN IN SCIENCE, AND PARTICULARLY WOMEN IN THE GEOSCIENCES

Bold text represents AWG-specific events; italicized text represents NSF activities or programs; bold italics represents significant strides by other geoscience professional societies; black text represents federal or state laws that affect women working in the geosciences.
Pre-1970s1889Mary Emilee Holmes becomes the first woman Fellow of GSA
1963The Equal Pay Act is passed by Congress
1966The National Organization for Women (NOW) is organized
1970s1971Inge Lehmann becomes the first female AGU medalist at the age of 71
Association for Women in Science forms
1972Title IV passes
Equal Rights Act is passed by Congress, sent to states for ratification
1973Roe v. Wade
1974Women’s Educational Equity Act Program is established
1977Congressional Caucus for Women’s Issues is formed
Association for Women Geoscientists is formed
1978The Pregnancy Discrimination Act is passed
1980s1980Congress passes the Science and Engineering Equal Opportunities Act
1981Women’s History Month is recognized
Sandra Day O’Connor becomes the first woman to sit on the U.S. Supreme Court
1982Equal Rights Act fails to ratify (missing three states)
First NSF publication of statistics on women in Women and Minorities in Science and Engineering
NSF develops the Visiting Professorships for Women in Science and Engineering (this program lasted through 1997)
1983AWG is incorporated as a non-profit mutual-benefit organization
The AWG Foundation is established as a non-profit public-benefit corporation
1984AWG Foundation gives out their first awards at the International Science Fair
AWG begins their annual tradition of the Encourage, Enhance, and Exchange Awards
1986NSF Research Planning Grants and Career Advancement Grants for Women Scientists & Engineers (RPG & CAA) (this program lasted through 1998)
1987U.S. Census Bureau reports that women earn 68 cents for every dollar earned by men
1988The AWG Foundation gives out their first Outstanding Educator Award
1989NSF Task Force on Programs for Women convenes
1990s1990Sylvia Earle is appointed as first female Chief Scientist at the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
NSF Faculty Grants for Women Scientists and Engineers (lasted one year)
1991Doris Curtis becomes the first woman to hold the office of GSA President
1993NSF Program for Women and Girls (PWG) (this program still exists today, but is now called the Research on Gender in Science and Engineering [GSE] program)
Supreme Court rules for the first time that sexual harassment is illegal in the workplace
Family and Medical Leave Act is signed into law
1994Marcia Neugebauer becomes the first woman to hold the office of AGU President
1995AGU awards their first medal recognizing a woman scientist, Inge Lehmann
NSF Women and Science Conference
1996Equal Pay Day is observed for the first time
The AWG Foundation gives out their first Chrysalis Scholarship
1997NSF Professional Opportunities for Women in Research & Education (POWRE) (this program lasted through 2000)
1998AWG awards their first President’s Award
The AWG Foundation awards their first Winifred Goldring Award (in partnership with the Paleontological Society)
Congress establishes the Commission on the Advancement of Women in Science, Engineering, and Technology Development (existed through 2000)
1999GSA begins the annual tradition of the Doris M. Curtis Outstanding Woman in Science Award
2000s2000Sally Zinke becomes the first woman to hold the office of SEG President
2001Robbie Gries becomes the first woman to hold the office of AAPG President
NSF Advance Program is launched (still exists today)
AWG establishes both an Honorary Membership program and a Distinguished Service Award
All major geoscience organizations (AGU, AAPG, GSA, SEG) have female presidents
2002State of California passes their own Paid Family Leave Program
2005The AWG Foundation establishes two new student awards: the Brunton Award and the Minority Scholarships
2007The AWG Foundation awards the first Maria Luisa Crawford Field Camp scholarships (in partnership with NAGT)
2009Marcia McNutt becomes the first woman to lead the USGS since its establishment in 1879
Lily Ledbetter Fair Pay Act is signed into law by President Obama
New Jersey establishes a Family Leave Insurance program
2010s2010The AWG Foundation establishes two new student awards: The Ginny Sand and Suzanne Takken Research Presentation Awards
2013AWG establishes and awards the first Professional Excellence Awards
Rhode Island signs into law the Temporary Caregiver Insurance Program
2016AWG, the AWG Foundation and the Paleontological Society partner up to offer a new student award: Undergraduate Excellence in Paleontology
AWG cosponsors an NSF-funded workshop for leaders across government institutions, academic institutions, and professional societies to address the issue of sexual harassment in the sciences
Marcia McNutt becomes the first woman to lead the U.S. National Academy of Sciences since its founding in 1863
2017Women’s March on Washington
Nevada ratifies the Equal Rights Act after the Women’s March on Washington
March for Science
Bold text represents AWG-specific events; italicized text represents NSF activities or programs; bold italics represents significant strides by other geoscience professional societies; black text represents federal or state laws that affect women working in the geosciences.
Pre-1970s1889Mary Emilee Holmes becomes the first woman Fellow of GSA
1963The Equal Pay Act is passed by Congress
1966The National Organization for Women (NOW) is organized
1970s1971Inge Lehmann becomes the first female AGU medalist at the age of 71
Association for Women in Science forms
1972Title IV passes
Equal Rights Act is passed by Congress, sent to states for ratification
1973Roe v. Wade
1974Women’s Educational Equity Act Program is established
1977Congressional Caucus for Women’s Issues is formed
Association for Women Geoscientists is formed
1978The Pregnancy Discrimination Act is passed
1980s1980Congress passes the Science and Engineering Equal Opportunities Act
1981Women’s History Month is recognized
Sandra Day O’Connor becomes the first woman to sit on the U.S. Supreme Court
1982Equal Rights Act fails to ratify (missing three states)
First NSF publication of statistics on women in Women and Minorities in Science and Engineering
NSF develops the Visiting Professorships for Women in Science and Engineering (this program lasted through 1997)
1983AWG is incorporated as a non-profit mutual-benefit organization
The AWG Foundation is established as a non-profit public-benefit corporation
1984AWG Foundation gives out their first awards at the International Science Fair
AWG begins their annual tradition of the Encourage, Enhance, and Exchange Awards
1986NSF Research Planning Grants and Career Advancement Grants for Women Scientists & Engineers (RPG & CAA) (this program lasted through 1998)
1987U.S. Census Bureau reports that women earn 68 cents for every dollar earned by men
1988The AWG Foundation gives out their first Outstanding Educator Award
1989NSF Task Force on Programs for Women convenes
1990s1990Sylvia Earle is appointed as first female Chief Scientist at the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
NSF Faculty Grants for Women Scientists and Engineers (lasted one year)
1991Doris Curtis becomes the first woman to hold the office of GSA President
1993NSF Program for Women and Girls (PWG) (this program still exists today, but is now called the Research on Gender in Science and Engineering [GSE] program)
Supreme Court rules for the first time that sexual harassment is illegal in the workplace
Family and Medical Leave Act is signed into law
1994Marcia Neugebauer becomes the first woman to hold the office of AGU President
1995AGU awards their first medal recognizing a woman scientist, Inge Lehmann
NSF Women and Science Conference
1996Equal Pay Day is observed for the first time
The AWG Foundation gives out their first Chrysalis Scholarship
1997NSF Professional Opportunities for Women in Research & Education (POWRE) (this program lasted through 2000)
1998AWG awards their first President’s Award
The AWG Foundation awards their first Winifred Goldring Award (in partnership with the Paleontological Society)
Congress establishes the Commission on the Advancement of Women in Science, Engineering, and Technology Development (existed through 2000)
1999GSA begins the annual tradition of the Doris M. Curtis Outstanding Woman in Science Award
2000s2000Sally Zinke becomes the first woman to hold the office of SEG President
2001Robbie Gries becomes the first woman to hold the office of AAPG President
NSF Advance Program is launched (still exists today)
AWG establishes both an Honorary Membership program and a Distinguished Service Award
All major geoscience organizations (AGU, AAPG, GSA, SEG) have female presidents
2002State of California passes their own Paid Family Leave Program
2005The AWG Foundation establishes two new student awards: the Brunton Award and the Minority Scholarships
2007The AWG Foundation awards the first Maria Luisa Crawford Field Camp scholarships (in partnership with NAGT)
2009Marcia McNutt becomes the first woman to lead the USGS since its establishment in 1879
Lily Ledbetter Fair Pay Act is signed into law by President Obama
New Jersey establishes a Family Leave Insurance program
2010s2010The AWG Foundation establishes two new student awards: The Ginny Sand and Suzanne Takken Research Presentation Awards
2013AWG establishes and awards the first Professional Excellence Awards
Rhode Island signs into law the Temporary Caregiver Insurance Program
2016AWG, the AWG Foundation and the Paleontological Society partner up to offer a new student award: Undergraduate Excellence in Paleontology
AWG cosponsors an NSF-funded workshop for leaders across government institutions, academic institutions, and professional societies to address the issue of sexual harassment in the sciences
Marcia McNutt becomes the first woman to lead the U.S. National Academy of Sciences since its founding in 1863
2017Women’s March on Washington
Nevada ratifies the Equal Rights Act after the Women’s March on Washington
March for Science

TIMELINE HIGHLIGHTING SIGNIFICANT EVENTS THAT AFFECTED WOMEN IN SCIENCE, AND PARTICULARLY WOMEN IN THE GEOSCIENCES

Bold text represents AWG-specific events; italicized text represents NSF activities or programs; bold italics represents significant strides by other geoscience professional societies; black text represents federal or state laws that affect women working in the geosciences.
Pre-1970s1889Mary Emilee Holmes becomes the first woman Fellow of GSA
1963The Equal Pay Act is passed by Congress
1966The National Organization for Women (NOW) is organized
1970s1971Inge Lehmann becomes the first female AGU medalist at the age of 71
Association for Women in Science forms
1972Title IV passes
Equal Rights Act is passed by Congress, sent to states for ratification
1973Roe v. Wade
1974Women’s Educational Equity Act Program is established
1977Congressional Caucus for Women’s Issues is formed
Association for Women Geoscientists is formed
1978The Pregnancy Discrimination Act is passed
1980s1980Congress passes the Science and Engineering Equal Opportunities Act
1981Women’s History Month is recognized
Sandra Day O’Connor becomes the first woman to sit on the U.S. Supreme Court
1982Equal Rights Act fails to ratify (missing three states)
First NSF publication of statistics on women in Women and Minorities in Science and Engineering
NSF develops the Visiting Professorships for Women in Science and Engineering (this program lasted through 1997)
1983AWG is incorporated as a non-profit mutual-benefit organization
The AWG Foundation is established as a non-profit public-benefit corporation
1984AWG Foundation gives out their first awards at the International Science Fair
AWG begins their annual tradition of the Encourage, Enhance, and Exchange Awards
1986NSF Research Planning Grants and Career Advancement Grants for Women Scientists & Engineers (RPG & CAA) (this program lasted through 1998)
1987U.S. Census Bureau reports that women earn 68 cents for every dollar earned by men
1988The AWG Foundation gives out their first Outstanding Educator Award
1989NSF Task Force on Programs for Women convenes
1990s1990Sylvia Earle is appointed as first female Chief Scientist at the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
NSF Faculty Grants for Women Scientists and Engineers (lasted one year)
1991Doris Curtis becomes the first woman to hold the office of GSA President
1993NSF Program for Women and Girls (PWG) (this program still exists today, but is now called the Research on Gender in Science and Engineering [GSE] program)
Supreme Court rules for the first time that sexual harassment is illegal in the workplace
Family and Medical Leave Act is signed into law
1994Marcia Neugebauer becomes the first woman to hold the office of AGU President
1995AGU awards their first medal recognizing a woman scientist, Inge Lehmann
NSF Women and Science Conference
1996Equal Pay Day is observed for the first time
The AWG Foundation gives out their first Chrysalis Scholarship
1997NSF Professional Opportunities for Women in Research & Education (POWRE) (this program lasted through 2000)
1998AWG awards their first President’s Award
The AWG Foundation awards their first Winifred Goldring Award (in partnership with the Paleontological Society)
Congress establishes the Commission on the Advancement of Women in Science, Engineering, and Technology Development (existed through 2000)
1999GSA begins the annual tradition of the Doris M. Curtis Outstanding Woman in Science Award
2000s2000Sally Zinke becomes the first woman to hold the office of SEG President
2001Robbie Gries becomes the first woman to hold the office of AAPG President
NSF Advance Program is launched (still exists today)
AWG establishes both an Honorary Membership program and a Distinguished Service Award
All major geoscience organizations (AGU, AAPG, GSA, SEG) have female presidents
2002State of California passes their own Paid Family Leave Program
2005The AWG Foundation establishes two new student awards: the Brunton Award and the Minority Scholarships
2007The AWG Foundation awards the first Maria Luisa Crawford Field Camp scholarships (in partnership with NAGT)
2009Marcia McNutt becomes the first woman to lead the USGS since its establishment in 1879
Lily Ledbetter Fair Pay Act is signed into law by President Obama
New Jersey establishes a Family Leave Insurance program
2010s2010The AWG Foundation establishes two new student awards: The Ginny Sand and Suzanne Takken Research Presentation Awards
2013AWG establishes and awards the first Professional Excellence Awards
Rhode Island signs into law the Temporary Caregiver Insurance Program
2016AWG, the AWG Foundation and the Paleontological Society partner up to offer a new student award: Undergraduate Excellence in Paleontology
AWG cosponsors an NSF-funded workshop for leaders across government institutions, academic institutions, and professional societies to address the issue of sexual harassment in the sciences
Marcia McNutt becomes the first woman to lead the U.S. National Academy of Sciences since its founding in 1863
2017Women’s March on Washington
Nevada ratifies the Equal Rights Act after the Women’s March on Washington
March for Science
Bold text represents AWG-specific events; italicized text represents NSF activities or programs; bold italics represents significant strides by other geoscience professional societies; black text represents federal or state laws that affect women working in the geosciences.
Pre-1970s1889Mary Emilee Holmes becomes the first woman Fellow of GSA
1963The Equal Pay Act is passed by Congress
1966The National Organization for Women (NOW) is organized
1970s1971Inge Lehmann becomes the first female AGU medalist at the age of 71
Association for Women in Science forms
1972Title IV passes
Equal Rights Act is passed by Congress, sent to states for ratification
1973Roe v. Wade
1974Women’s Educational Equity Act Program is established
1977Congressional Caucus for Women’s Issues is formed
Association for Women Geoscientists is formed
1978The Pregnancy Discrimination Act is passed
1980s1980Congress passes the Science and Engineering Equal Opportunities Act
1981Women’s History Month is recognized
Sandra Day O’Connor becomes the first woman to sit on the U.S. Supreme Court
1982Equal Rights Act fails to ratify (missing three states)
First NSF publication of statistics on women in Women and Minorities in Science and Engineering
NSF develops the Visiting Professorships for Women in Science and Engineering (this program lasted through 1997)
1983AWG is incorporated as a non-profit mutual-benefit organization
The AWG Foundation is established as a non-profit public-benefit corporation
1984AWG Foundation gives out their first awards at the International Science Fair
AWG begins their annual tradition of the Encourage, Enhance, and Exchange Awards
1986NSF Research Planning Grants and Career Advancement Grants for Women Scientists & Engineers (RPG & CAA) (this program lasted through 1998)
1987U.S. Census Bureau reports that women earn 68 cents for every dollar earned by men
1988The AWG Foundation gives out their first Outstanding Educator Award
1989NSF Task Force on Programs for Women convenes
1990s1990Sylvia Earle is appointed as first female Chief Scientist at the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
NSF Faculty Grants for Women Scientists and Engineers (lasted one year)
1991Doris Curtis becomes the first woman to hold the office of GSA President
1993NSF Program for Women and Girls (PWG) (this program still exists today, but is now called the Research on Gender in Science and Engineering [GSE] program)
Supreme Court rules for the first time that sexual harassment is illegal in the workplace
Family and Medical Leave Act is signed into law
1994Marcia Neugebauer becomes the first woman to hold the office of AGU President
1995AGU awards their first medal recognizing a woman scientist, Inge Lehmann
NSF Women and Science Conference
1996Equal Pay Day is observed for the first time
The AWG Foundation gives out their first Chrysalis Scholarship
1997NSF Professional Opportunities for Women in Research & Education (POWRE) (this program lasted through 2000)
1998AWG awards their first President’s Award
The AWG Foundation awards their first Winifred Goldring Award (in partnership with the Paleontological Society)
Congress establishes the Commission on the Advancement of Women in Science, Engineering, and Technology Development (existed through 2000)
1999GSA begins the annual tradition of the Doris M. Curtis Outstanding Woman in Science Award
2000s2000Sally Zinke becomes the first woman to hold the office of SEG President
2001Robbie Gries becomes the first woman to hold the office of AAPG President
NSF Advance Program is launched (still exists today)
AWG establishes both an Honorary Membership program and a Distinguished Service Award
All major geoscience organizations (AGU, AAPG, GSA, SEG) have female presidents
2002State of California passes their own Paid Family Leave Program
2005The AWG Foundation establishes two new student awards: the Brunton Award and the Minority Scholarships
2007The AWG Foundation awards the first Maria Luisa Crawford Field Camp scholarships (in partnership with NAGT)
2009Marcia McNutt becomes the first woman to lead the USGS since its establishment in 1879
Lily Ledbetter Fair Pay Act is signed into law by President Obama
New Jersey establishes a Family Leave Insurance program
2010s2010The AWG Foundation establishes two new student awards: The Ginny Sand and Suzanne Takken Research Presentation Awards
2013AWG establishes and awards the first Professional Excellence Awards
Rhode Island signs into law the Temporary Caregiver Insurance Program
2016AWG, the AWG Foundation and the Paleontological Society partner up to offer a new student award: Undergraduate Excellence in Paleontology
AWG cosponsors an NSF-funded workshop for leaders across government institutions, academic institutions, and professional societies to address the issue of sexual harassment in the sciences
Marcia McNutt becomes the first woman to lead the U.S. National Academy of Sciences since its founding in 1863
2017Women’s March on Washington
Nevada ratifies the Equal Rights Act after the Women’s March on Washington
March for Science

Figures & Tables

Figure 1.

This figure shows the median salary in 1974 for men and women geoscientists working for the Geological Division of the USGS by years of experience and degree level. The number of individuals in each sample is indicated next to the respective data point (triangles—men; dots—women). These data were collected by the Women Geoscientists Committee and reveal the large gap in pay between men and women. In particular, note that women with a Ph.D. were paid less than a man with a master’s, or that women with a bachelor’s OR master’s degree earned less than men with a bachelor’s degree (after Moody et al., 1976; copyright © The National Association of Geoscience Teachers, https://nagt.org/index.html, reprinted by permission of Taylor & Francis Ltd, http://www.tandfonline.com, on behalf of The National Association of Geoscience Teachers).

Figure 1.

This figure shows the median salary in 1974 for men and women geoscientists working for the Geological Division of the USGS by years of experience and degree level. The number of individuals in each sample is indicated next to the respective data point (triangles—men; dots—women). These data were collected by the Women Geoscientists Committee and reveal the large gap in pay between men and women. In particular, note that women with a Ph.D. were paid less than a man with a master’s, or that women with a bachelor’s OR master’s degree earned less than men with a bachelor’s degree (after Moody et al., 1976; copyright © The National Association of Geoscience Teachers, https://nagt.org/index.html, reprinted by permission of Taylor & Francis Ltd, http://www.tandfonline.com, on behalf of The National Association of Geoscience Teachers).

Figure 2.

Photo of the officers making up the first executive committee of the newly incorporated AWG (Cowart, 1982).

Figure 2.

Photo of the officers making up the first executive committee of the newly incorporated AWG (Cowart, 1982).

Figure 3.

Forum letters in the 1980 issues of Gaea that discuss the difficulties juggling career and family life.

Figure 3.

Forum letters in the 1980 issues of Gaea that discuss the difficulties juggling career and family life.

Figure 4.

Map of the United States highlighting states that have ratified the Equal Rights Act (shaded).

Figure 4.

Map of the United States highlighting states that have ratified the Equal Rights Act (shaded).

Figure 5.

AWG field trip locations around the world since 1996. Labels apply to filled stars. Inset box zooms in to show label details for additional interior western U.S. locations. CA—California; NV—Nevada; OR—Oregon; WA—Washington.

Printed in the USA

Figure 5.

AWG field trip locations around the world since 1996. Labels apply to filled stars. Inset box zooms in to show label details for additional interior western U.S. locations. CA—California; NV—Nevada; OR—Oregon; WA—Washington.

Printed in the USA

TABLE 1.

ANNUAL U.S. INCOMES REPORTED FROM THE AWG-AGU JOINT SURVEY (REPRODUCED FROM NEUSCHATZ, 1985)

Annual incomeWomenMen
Less than $10,00019%6%
$10,000–25,00030%10%
$25,000–50,00043%63%
$50,000–75,0008%17%
$75,000–100,0001%3%
Annual incomeWomenMen
Less than $10,00019%6%
$10,000–25,00030%10%
$25,000–50,00043%63%
$50,000–75,0008%17%
$75,000–100,0001%3%

TIMELINE HIGHLIGHTING SIGNIFICANT EVENTS THAT AFFECTED WOMEN IN SCIENCE, AND PARTICULARLY WOMEN IN THE GEOSCIENCES

Bold text represents AWG-specific events; italicized text represents NSF activities or programs; bold italics represents significant strides by other geoscience professional societies; black text represents federal or state laws that affect women working in the geosciences.
Pre-1970s1889Mary Emilee Holmes becomes the first woman Fellow of GSA
1963The Equal Pay Act is passed by Congress
1966The National Organization for Women (NOW) is organized
1970s1971Inge Lehmann becomes the first female AGU medalist at the age of 71
Association for Women in Science forms
1972Title IV passes
Equal Rights Act is passed by Congress, sent to states for ratification
1973Roe v. Wade
1974Women’s Educational Equity Act Program is established
1977Congressional Caucus for Women’s Issues is formed
Association for Women Geoscientists is formed
1978The Pregnancy Discrimination Act is passed
1980s1980Congress passes the Science and Engineering Equal Opportunities Act
1981Women’s History Month is recognized
Sandra Day O’Connor becomes the first woman to sit on the U.S. Supreme Court
1982Equal Rights Act fails to ratify (missing three states)
First NSF publication of statistics on women in Women and Minorities in Science and Engineering
NSF develops the Visiting Professorships for Women in Science and Engineering (this program lasted through 1997)
1983AWG is incorporated as a non-profit mutual-benefit organization
The AWG Foundation is established as a non-profit public-benefit corporation
1984AWG Foundation gives out their first awards at the International Science Fair
AWG begins their annual tradition of the Encourage, Enhance, and Exchange Awards
1986NSF Research Planning Grants and Career Advancement Grants for Women Scientists & Engineers (RPG & CAA) (this program lasted through 1998)
1987U.S. Census Bureau reports that women earn 68 cents for every dollar earned by men
1988The AWG Foundation gives out their first Outstanding Educator Award
1989NSF Task Force on Programs for Women convenes
1990s1990Sylvia Earle is appointed as first female Chief Scientist at the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
NSF Faculty Grants for Women Scientists and Engineers (lasted one year)
1991Doris Curtis becomes the first woman to hold the office of GSA President
1993NSF Program for Women and Girls (PWG) (this program still exists today, but is now called the Research on Gender in Science and Engineering [GSE] program)
Supreme Court rules for the first time that sexual harassment is illegal in the workplace
Family and Medical Leave Act is signed into law
1994Marcia Neugebauer becomes the first woman to hold the office of AGU President
1995AGU awards their first medal recognizing a woman scientist, Inge Lehmann
NSF Women and Science Conference
1996Equal Pay Day is observed for the first time
The AWG Foundation gives out their first Chrysalis Scholarship
1997NSF Professional Opportunities for Women in Research & Education (POWRE) (this program lasted through 2000)
1998AWG awards their first President’s Award
The AWG Foundation awards their first Winifred Goldring Award (in partnership with the Paleontological Society)
Congress establishes the Commission on the Advancement of Women in Science, Engineering, and Technology Development (existed through 2000)
1999GSA begins the annual tradition of the Doris M. Curtis Outstanding Woman in Science Award
2000s2000Sally Zinke becomes the first woman to hold the office of SEG President
2001Robbie Gries becomes the first woman to hold the office of AAPG President
NSF Advance Program is launched (still exists today)
AWG establishes both an Honorary Membership program and a Distinguished Service Award
All major geoscience organizations (AGU, AAPG, GSA, SEG) have female presidents
2002State of California passes their own Paid Family Leave Program
2005The AWG Foundation establishes two new student awards: the Brunton Award and the Minority Scholarships
2007The AWG Foundation awards the first Maria Luisa Crawford Field Camp scholarships (in partnership with NAGT)
2009Marcia McNutt becomes the first woman to lead the USGS since its establishment in 1879
Lily Ledbetter Fair Pay Act is signed into law by President Obama
New Jersey establishes a Family Leave Insurance program
2010s2010The AWG Foundation establishes two new student awards: The Ginny Sand and Suzanne Takken Research Presentation Awards
2013AWG establishes and awards the first Professional Excellence Awards
Rhode Island signs into law the Temporary Caregiver Insurance Program
2016AWG, the AWG Foundation and the Paleontological Society partner up to offer a new student award: Undergraduate Excellence in Paleontology
AWG cosponsors an NSF-funded workshop for leaders across government institutions, academic institutions, and professional societies to address the issue of sexual harassment in the sciences
Marcia McNutt becomes the first woman to lead the U.S. National Academy of Sciences since its founding in 1863
2017Women’s March on Washington
Nevada ratifies the Equal Rights Act after the Women’s March on Washington
March for Science
Bold text represents AWG-specific events; italicized text represents NSF activities or programs; bold italics represents significant strides by other geoscience professional societies; black text represents federal or state laws that affect women working in the geosciences.
Pre-1970s1889Mary Emilee Holmes becomes the first woman Fellow of GSA
1963The Equal Pay Act is passed by Congress
1966The National Organization for Women (NOW) is organized
1970s1971Inge Lehmann becomes the first female AGU medalist at the age of 71
Association for Women in Science forms
1972Title IV passes
Equal Rights Act is passed by Congress, sent to states for ratification
1973Roe v. Wade
1974Women’s Educational Equity Act Program is established
1977Congressional Caucus for Women’s Issues is formed
Association for Women Geoscientists is formed
1978The Pregnancy Discrimination Act is passed
1980s1980Congress passes the Science and Engineering Equal Opportunities Act
1981Women’s History Month is recognized
Sandra Day O’Connor becomes the first woman to sit on the U.S. Supreme Court
1982Equal Rights Act fails to ratify (missing three states)
First NSF publication of statistics on women in Women and Minorities in Science and Engineering
NSF develops the Visiting Professorships for Women in Science and Engineering (this program lasted through 1997)
1983AWG is incorporated as a non-profit mutual-benefit organization
The AWG Foundation is established as a non-profit public-benefit corporation
1984AWG Foundation gives out their first awards at the International Science Fair
AWG begins their annual tradition of the Encourage, Enhance, and Exchange Awards
1986NSF Research Planning Grants and Career Advancement Grants for Women Scientists & Engineers (RPG & CAA) (this program lasted through 1998)
1987U.S. Census Bureau reports that women earn 68 cents for every dollar earned by men
1988The AWG Foundation gives out their first Outstanding Educator Award
1989NSF Task Force on Programs for Women convenes
1990s1990Sylvia Earle is appointed as first female Chief Scientist at the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
NSF Faculty Grants for Women Scientists and Engineers (lasted one year)
1991Doris Curtis becomes the first woman to hold the office of GSA President
1993NSF Program for Women and Girls (PWG) (this program still exists today, but is now called the Research on Gender in Science and Engineering [GSE] program)
Supreme Court rules for the first time that sexual harassment is illegal in the workplace
Family and Medical Leave Act is signed into law
1994Marcia Neugebauer becomes the first woman to hold the office of AGU President
1995AGU awards their first medal recognizing a woman scientist, Inge Lehmann
NSF Women and Science Conference
1996Equal Pay Day is observed for the first time
The AWG Foundation gives out their first Chrysalis Scholarship
1997NSF Professional Opportunities for Women in Research & Education (POWRE) (this program lasted through 2000)
1998AWG awards their first President’s Award
The AWG Foundation awards their first Winifred Goldring Award (in partnership with the Paleontological Society)
Congress establishes the Commission on the Advancement of Women in Science, Engineering, and Technology Development (existed through 2000)
1999GSA begins the annual tradition of the Doris M. Curtis Outstanding Woman in Science Award
2000s2000Sally Zinke becomes the first woman to hold the office of SEG President
2001Robbie Gries becomes the first woman to hold the office of AAPG President
NSF Advance Program is launched (still exists today)
AWG establishes both an Honorary Membership program and a Distinguished Service Award
All major geoscience organizations (AGU, AAPG, GSA, SEG) have female presidents
2002State of California passes their own Paid Family Leave Program
2005The AWG Foundation establishes two new student awards: the Brunton Award and the Minority Scholarships
2007The AWG Foundation awards the first Maria Luisa Crawford Field Camp scholarships (in partnership with NAGT)
2009Marcia McNutt becomes the first woman to lead the USGS since its establishment in 1879
Lily Ledbetter Fair Pay Act is signed into law by President Obama
New Jersey establishes a Family Leave Insurance program
2010s2010The AWG Foundation establishes two new student awards: The Ginny Sand and Suzanne Takken Research Presentation Awards
2013AWG establishes and awards the first Professional Excellence Awards
Rhode Island signs into law the Temporary Caregiver Insurance Program
2016AWG, the AWG Foundation and the Paleontological Society partner up to offer a new student award: Undergraduate Excellence in Paleontology
AWG cosponsors an NSF-funded workshop for leaders across government institutions, academic institutions, and professional societies to address the issue of sexual harassment in the sciences
Marcia McNutt becomes the first woman to lead the U.S. National Academy of Sciences since its founding in 1863
2017Women’s March on Washington
Nevada ratifies the Equal Rights Act after the Women’s March on Washington
March for Science

TIMELINE HIGHLIGHTING SIGNIFICANT EVENTS THAT AFFECTED WOMEN IN SCIENCE, AND PARTICULARLY WOMEN IN THE GEOSCIENCES

Bold text represents AWG-specific events; italicized text represents NSF activities or programs; bold italics represents significant strides by other geoscience professional societies; black text represents federal or state laws that affect women working in the geosciences.
Pre-1970s1889Mary Emilee Holmes becomes the first woman Fellow of GSA
1963The Equal Pay Act is passed by Congress
1966The National Organization for Women (NOW) is organized
1970s1971Inge Lehmann becomes the first female AGU medalist at the age of 71
Association for Women in Science forms
1972Title IV passes
Equal Rights Act is passed by Congress, sent to states for ratification
1973Roe v. Wade
1974Women’s Educational Equity Act Program is established
1977Congressional Caucus for Women’s Issues is formed
Association for Women Geoscientists is formed
1978The Pregnancy Discrimination Act is passed
1980s1980Congress passes the Science and Engineering Equal Opportunities Act
1981Women’s History Month is recognized
Sandra Day O’Connor becomes the first woman to sit on the U.S. Supreme Court
1982Equal Rights Act fails to ratify (missing three states)
First NSF publication of statistics on women in Women and Minorities in Science and Engineering
NSF develops the Visiting Professorships for Women in Science and Engineering (this program lasted through 1997)
1983AWG is incorporated as a non-profit mutual-benefit organization
The AWG Foundation is established as a non-profit public-benefit corporation
1984AWG Foundation gives out their first awards at the International Science Fair
AWG begins their annual tradition of the Encourage, Enhance, and Exchange Awards
1986NSF Research Planning Grants and Career Advancement Grants for Women Scientists & Engineers (RPG & CAA) (this program lasted through 1998)
1987U.S. Census Bureau reports that women earn 68 cents for every dollar earned by men
1988The AWG Foundation gives out their first Outstanding Educator Award
1989NSF Task Force on Programs for Women convenes
1990s1990Sylvia Earle is appointed as first female Chief Scientist at the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
NSF Faculty Grants for Women Scientists and Engineers (lasted one year)
1991Doris Curtis becomes the first woman to hold the office of GSA President
1993NSF Program for Women and Girls (PWG) (this program still exists today, but is now called the Research on Gender in Science and Engineering [GSE] program)
Supreme Court rules for the first time that sexual harassment is illegal in the workplace
Family and Medical Leave Act is signed into law
1994Marcia Neugebauer becomes the first woman to hold the office of AGU President
1995AGU awards their first medal recognizing a woman scientist, Inge Lehmann
NSF Women and Science Conference
1996Equal Pay Day is observed for the first time
The AWG Foundation gives out their first Chrysalis Scholarship
1997NSF Professional Opportunities for Women in Research & Education (POWRE) (this program lasted through 2000)
1998AWG awards their first President’s Award
The AWG Foundation awards their first Winifred Goldring Award (in partnership with the Paleontological Society)
Congress establishes the Commission on the Advancement of Women in Science, Engineering, and Technology Development (existed through 2000)
1999GSA begins the annual tradition of the Doris M. Curtis Outstanding Woman in Science Award
2000s2000Sally Zinke becomes the first woman to hold the office of SEG President
2001Robbie Gries becomes the first woman to hold the office of AAPG President
NSF Advance Program is launched (still exists today)
AWG establishes both an Honorary Membership program and a Distinguished Service Award
All major geoscience organizations (AGU, AAPG, GSA, SEG) have female presidents
2002State of California passes their own Paid Family Leave Program
2005The AWG Foundation establishes two new student awards: the Brunton Award and the Minority Scholarships
2007The AWG Foundation awards the first Maria Luisa Crawford Field Camp scholarships (in partnership with NAGT)
2009Marcia McNutt becomes the first woman to lead the USGS since its establishment in 1879
Lily Ledbetter Fair Pay Act is signed into law by President Obama
New Jersey establishes a Family Leave Insurance program
2010s2010The AWG Foundation establishes two new student awards: The Ginny Sand and Suzanne Takken Research Presentation Awards
2013AWG establishes and awards the first Professional Excellence Awards
Rhode Island signs into law the Temporary Caregiver Insurance Program
2016AWG, the AWG Foundation and the Paleontological Society partner up to offer a new student award: Undergraduate Excellence in Paleontology
AWG cosponsors an NSF-funded workshop for leaders across government institutions, academic institutions, and professional societies to address the issue of sexual harassment in the sciences
Marcia McNutt becomes the first woman to lead the U.S. National Academy of Sciences since its founding in 1863
2017Women’s March on Washington
Nevada ratifies the Equal Rights Act after the Women’s March on Washington
March for Science
Bold text represents AWG-specific events; italicized text represents NSF activities or programs; bold italics represents significant strides by other geoscience professional societies; black text represents federal or state laws that affect women working in the geosciences.
Pre-1970s1889Mary Emilee Holmes becomes the first woman Fellow of GSA
1963The Equal Pay Act is passed by Congress
1966The National Organization for Women (NOW) is organized
1970s1971Inge Lehmann becomes the first female AGU medalist at the age of 71
Association for Women in Science forms
1972Title IV passes
Equal Rights Act is passed by Congress, sent to states for ratification
1973Roe v. Wade
1974Women’s Educational Equity Act Program is established
1977Congressional Caucus for Women’s Issues is formed
Association for Women Geoscientists is formed
1978The Pregnancy Discrimination Act is passed
1980s1980Congress passes the Science and Engineering Equal Opportunities Act
1981Women’s History Month is recognized
Sandra Day O’Connor becomes the first woman to sit on the U.S. Supreme Court
1982Equal Rights Act fails to ratify (missing three states)
First NSF publication of statistics on women in Women and Minorities in Science and Engineering
NSF develops the Visiting Professorships for Women in Science and Engineering (this program lasted through 1997)
1983AWG is incorporated as a non-profit mutual-benefit organization
The AWG Foundation is established as a non-profit public-benefit corporation
1984AWG Foundation gives out their first awards at the International Science Fair
AWG begins their annual tradition of the Encourage, Enhance, and Exchange Awards
1986NSF Research Planning Grants and Career Advancement Grants for Women Scientists & Engineers (RPG & CAA) (this program lasted through 1998)
1987U.S. Census Bureau reports that women earn 68 cents for every dollar earned by men
1988The AWG Foundation gives out their first Outstanding Educator Award
1989NSF Task Force on Programs for Women convenes
1990s1990Sylvia Earle is appointed as first female Chief Scientist at the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
NSF Faculty Grants for Women Scientists and Engineers (lasted one year)
1991Doris Curtis becomes the first woman to hold the office of GSA President
1993NSF Program for Women and Girls (PWG) (this program still exists today, but is now called the Research on Gender in Science and Engineering [GSE] program)
Supreme Court rules for the first time that sexual harassment is illegal in the workplace
Family and Medical Leave Act is signed into law
1994Marcia Neugebauer becomes the first woman to hold the office of AGU President
1995AGU awards their first medal recognizing a woman scientist, Inge Lehmann
NSF Women and Science Conference
1996Equal Pay Day is observed for the first time
The AWG Foundation gives out their first Chrysalis Scholarship
1997NSF Professional Opportunities for Women in Research & Education (POWRE) (this program lasted through 2000)
1998AWG awards their first President’s Award
The AWG Foundation awards their first Winifred Goldring Award (in partnership with the Paleontological Society)
Congress establishes the Commission on the Advancement of Women in Science, Engineering, and Technology Development (existed through 2000)
1999GSA begins the annual tradition of the Doris M. Curtis Outstanding Woman in Science Award
2000s2000Sally Zinke becomes the first woman to hold the office of SEG President
2001Robbie Gries becomes the first woman to hold the office of AAPG President
NSF Advance Program is launched (still exists today)
AWG establishes both an Honorary Membership program and a Distinguished Service Award
All major geoscience organizations (AGU, AAPG, GSA, SEG) have female presidents
2002State of California passes their own Paid Family Leave Program
2005The AWG Foundation establishes two new student awards: the Brunton Award and the Minority Scholarships
2007The AWG Foundation awards the first Maria Luisa Crawford Field Camp scholarships (in partnership with NAGT)
2009Marcia McNutt becomes the first woman to lead the USGS since its establishment in 1879
Lily Ledbetter Fair Pay Act is signed into law by President Obama
New Jersey establishes a Family Leave Insurance program
2010s2010The AWG Foundation establishes two new student awards: The Ginny Sand and Suzanne Takken Research Presentation Awards
2013AWG establishes and awards the first Professional Excellence Awards
Rhode Island signs into law the Temporary Caregiver Insurance Program
2016AWG, the AWG Foundation and the Paleontological Society partner up to offer a new student award: Undergraduate Excellence in Paleontology
AWG cosponsors an NSF-funded workshop for leaders across government institutions, academic institutions, and professional societies to address the issue of sexual harassment in the sciences
Marcia McNutt becomes the first woman to lead the U.S. National Academy of Sciences since its founding in 1863
2017Women’s March on Washington
Nevada ratifies the Equal Rights Act after the Women’s March on Washington
March for Science

TIMELINE HIGHLIGHTING SIGNIFICANT EVENTS THAT AFFECTED WOMEN IN SCIENCE, AND PARTICULARLY WOMEN IN THE GEOSCIENCES

Bold text represents AWG-specific events; italicized text represents NSF activities or programs; bold italics represents significant strides by other geoscience professional societies; black text represents federal or state laws that affect women working in the geosciences.
Pre-1970s1889Mary Emilee Holmes becomes the first woman Fellow of GSA
1963The Equal Pay Act is passed by Congress
1966The National Organization for Women (NOW) is organized
1970s1971Inge Lehmann becomes the first female AGU medalist at the age of 71
Association for Women in Science forms
1972Title IV passes
Equal Rights Act is passed by Congress, sent to states for ratification
1973Roe v. Wade
1974Women’s Educational Equity Act Program is established
1977Congressional Caucus for Women’s Issues is formed
Association for Women Geoscientists is formed
1978The Pregnancy Discrimination Act is passed
1980s1980Congress passes the Science and Engineering Equal Opportunities Act
1981Women’s History Month is recognized
Sandra Day O’Connor becomes the first woman to sit on the U.S. Supreme Court
1982Equal Rights Act fails to ratify (missing three states)
First NSF publication of statistics on women in Women and Minorities in Science and Engineering
NSF develops the Visiting Professorships for Women in Science and Engineering (this program lasted through 1997)
1983AWG is incorporated as a non-profit mutual-benefit organization
The AWG Foundation is established as a non-profit public-benefit corporation
1984AWG Foundation gives out their first awards at the International Science Fair
AWG begins their annual tradition of the Encourage, Enhance, and Exchange Awards
1986NSF Research Planning Grants and Career Advancement Grants for Women Scientists & Engineers (RPG & CAA) (this program lasted through 1998)
1987U.S. Census Bureau reports that women earn 68 cents for every dollar earned by men
1988The AWG Foundation gives out their first Outstanding Educator Award
1989NSF Task Force on Programs for Women convenes
1990s1990Sylvia Earle is appointed as first female Chief Scientist at the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
NSF Faculty Grants for Women Scientists and Engineers (lasted one year)
1991Doris Curtis becomes the first woman to hold the office of GSA President
1993NSF Program for Women and Girls (PWG) (this program still exists today, but is now called the Research on Gender in Science and Engineering [GSE] program)
Supreme Court rules for the first time that sexual harassment is illegal in the workplace
Family and Medical Leave Act is signed into law
1994Marcia Neugebauer becomes the first woman to hold the office of AGU President
1995AGU awards their first medal recognizing a woman scientist, Inge Lehmann
NSF Women and Science Conference
1996Equal Pay Day is observed for the first time
The AWG Foundation gives out their first Chrysalis Scholarship
1997NSF Professional Opportunities for Women in Research & Education (POWRE) (this program lasted through 2000)
1998AWG awards their first President’s Award
The AWG Foundation awards their first Winifred Goldring Award (in partnership with the Paleontological Society)
Congress establishes the Commission on the Advancement of Women in Science, Engineering, and Technology Development (existed through 2000)
1999GSA begins the annual tradition of the Doris M. Curtis Outstanding Woman in Science Award
2000s2000Sally Zinke becomes the first woman to hold the office of SEG President
2001Robbie Gries becomes the first woman to hold the office of AAPG President
NSF Advance Program is launched (still exists today)
AWG establishes both an Honorary Membership program and a Distinguished Service Award
All major geoscience organizations (AGU, AAPG, GSA, SEG) have female presidents
2002State of California passes their own Paid Family Leave Program
2005The AWG Foundation establishes two new student awards: the Brunton Award and the Minority Scholarships
2007The AWG Foundation awards the first Maria Luisa Crawford Field Camp scholarships (in partnership with NAGT)
2009Marcia McNutt becomes the first woman to lead the USGS since its establishment in 1879
Lily Ledbetter Fair Pay Act is signed into law by President Obama
New Jersey establishes a Family Leave Insurance program
2010s2010The AWG Foundation establishes two new student awards: The Ginny Sand and Suzanne Takken Research Presentation Awards
2013AWG establishes and awards the first Professional Excellence Awards
Rhode Island signs into law the Temporary Caregiver Insurance Program
2016AWG, the AWG Foundation and the Paleontological Society partner up to offer a new student award: Undergraduate Excellence in Paleontology
AWG cosponsors an NSF-funded workshop for leaders across government institutions, academic institutions, and professional societies to address the issue of sexual harassment in the sciences
Marcia McNutt becomes the first woman to lead the U.S. National Academy of Sciences since its founding in 1863
2017Women’s March on Washington
Nevada ratifies the Equal Rights Act after the Women’s March on Washington
March for Science
Bold text represents AWG-specific events; italicized text represents NSF activities or programs; bold italics represents significant strides by other geoscience professional societies; black text represents federal or state laws that affect women working in the geosciences.
Pre-1970s1889Mary Emilee Holmes becomes the first woman Fellow of GSA
1963The Equal Pay Act is passed by Congress
1966The National Organization for Women (NOW) is organized
1970s1971Inge Lehmann becomes the first female AGU medalist at the age of 71
Association for Women in Science forms
1972Title IV passes
Equal Rights Act is passed by Congress, sent to states for ratification
1973Roe v. Wade
1974Women’s Educational Equity Act Program is established
1977Congressional Caucus for Women’s Issues is formed
Association for Women Geoscientists is formed
1978The Pregnancy Discrimination Act is passed
1980s1980Congress passes the Science and Engineering Equal Opportunities Act
1981Women’s History Month is recognized
Sandra Day O’Connor becomes the first woman to sit on the U.S. Supreme Court
1982Equal Rights Act fails to ratify (missing three states)
First NSF publication of statistics on women in Women and Minorities in Science and Engineering
NSF develops the Visiting Professorships for Women in Science and Engineering (this program lasted through 1997)
1983AWG is incorporated as a non-profit mutual-benefit organization
The AWG Foundation is established as a non-profit public-benefit corporation
1984AWG Foundation gives out their first awards at the International Science Fair
AWG begins their annual tradition of the Encourage, Enhance, and Exchange Awards
1986NSF Research Planning Grants and Career Advancement Grants for Women Scientists & Engineers (RPG & CAA) (this program lasted through 1998)
1987U.S. Census Bureau reports that women earn 68 cents for every dollar earned by men
1988The AWG Foundation gives out their first Outstanding Educator Award
1989NSF Task Force on Programs for Women convenes
1990s1990Sylvia Earle is appointed as first female Chief Scientist at the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
NSF Faculty Grants for Women Scientists and Engineers (lasted one year)
1991Doris Curtis becomes the first woman to hold the office of GSA President
1993NSF Program for Women and Girls (PWG) (this program still exists today, but is now called the Research on Gender in Science and Engineering [GSE] program)
Supreme Court rules for the first time that sexual harassment is illegal in the workplace
Family and Medical Leave Act is signed into law
1994Marcia Neugebauer becomes the first woman to hold the office of AGU President
1995AGU awards their first medal recognizing a woman scientist, Inge Lehmann
NSF Women and Science Conference
1996Equal Pay Day is observed for the first time
The AWG Foundation gives out their first Chrysalis Scholarship
1997NSF Professional Opportunities for Women in Research & Education (POWRE) (this program lasted through 2000)
1998AWG awards their first President’s Award
The AWG Foundation awards their first Winifred Goldring Award (in partnership with the Paleontological Society)
Congress establishes the Commission on the Advancement of Women in Science, Engineering, and Technology Development (existed through 2000)
1999GSA begins the annual tradition of the Doris M. Curtis Outstanding Woman in Science Award
2000s2000Sally Zinke becomes the first woman to hold the office of SEG President
2001Robbie Gries becomes the first woman to hold the office of AAPG President
NSF Advance Program is launched (still exists today)
AWG establishes both an Honorary Membership program and a Distinguished Service Award
All major geoscience organizations (AGU, AAPG, GSA, SEG) have female presidents
2002State of California passes their own Paid Family Leave Program
2005The AWG Foundation establishes two new student awards: the Brunton Award and the Minority Scholarships
2007The AWG Foundation awards the first Maria Luisa Crawford Field Camp scholarships (in partnership with NAGT)
2009Marcia McNutt becomes the first woman to lead the USGS since its establishment in 1879
Lily Ledbetter Fair Pay Act is signed into law by President Obama
New Jersey establishes a Family Leave Insurance program
2010s2010The AWG Foundation establishes two new student awards: The Ginny Sand and Suzanne Takken Research Presentation Awards
2013AWG establishes and awards the first Professional Excellence Awards
Rhode Island signs into law the Temporary Caregiver Insurance Program
2016AWG, the AWG Foundation and the Paleontological Society partner up to offer a new student award: Undergraduate Excellence in Paleontology
AWG cosponsors an NSF-funded workshop for leaders across government institutions, academic institutions, and professional societies to address the issue of sexual harassment in the sciences
Marcia McNutt becomes the first woman to lead the U.S. National Academy of Sciences since its founding in 1863
2017Women’s March on Washington
Nevada ratifies the Equal Rights Act after the Women’s March on Washington
March for Science

TIMELINE HIGHLIGHTING SIGNIFICANT EVENTS THAT AFFECTED WOMEN IN SCIENCE, AND PARTICULARLY WOMEN IN THE GEOSCIENCES

Bold text represents AWG-specific events; italicized text represents NSF activities or programs; bold italics represents significant strides by other geoscience professional societies; black text represents federal or state laws that affect women working in the geosciences.
Pre-1970s1889Mary Emilee Holmes becomes the first woman Fellow of GSA
1963The Equal Pay Act is passed by Congress
1966The National Organization for Women (NOW) is organized
1970s1971Inge Lehmann becomes the first female AGU medalist at the age of 71
Association for Women in Science forms
1972Title IV passes
Equal Rights Act is passed by Congress, sent to states for ratification
1973Roe v. Wade
1974Women’s Educational Equity Act Program is established
1977Congressional Caucus for Women’s Issues is formed
Association for Women Geoscientists is formed
1978The Pregnancy Discrimination Act is passed
1980s1980Congress passes the Science and Engineering Equal Opportunities Act
1981Women’s History Month is recognized
Sandra Day O’Connor becomes the first woman to sit on the U.S. Supreme Court
1982Equal Rights Act fails to ratify (missing three states)
First NSF publication of statistics on women in Women and Minorities in Science and Engineering
NSF develops the Visiting Professorships for Women in Science and Engineering (this program lasted through 1997)
1983AWG is incorporated as a non-profit mutual-benefit organization
The AWG Foundation is established as a non-profit public-benefit corporation
1984AWG Foundation gives out their first awards at the International Science Fair
AWG begins their annual tradition of the Encourage, Enhance, and Exchange Awards
1986NSF Research Planning Grants and Career Advancement Grants for Women Scientists & Engineers (RPG & CAA) (this program lasted through 1998)
1987U.S. Census Bureau reports that women earn 68 cents for every dollar earned by men
1988The AWG Foundation gives out their first Outstanding Educator Award
1989NSF Task Force on Programs for Women convenes
1990s1990Sylvia Earle is appointed as first female Chief Scientist at the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
NSF Faculty Grants for Women Scientists and Engineers (lasted one year)
1991Doris Curtis becomes the first woman to hold the office of GSA President
1993NSF Program for Women and Girls (PWG) (this program still exists today, but is now called the Research on Gender in Science and Engineering [GSE] program)
Supreme Court rules for the first time that sexual harassment is illegal in the workplace
Family and Medical Leave Act is signed into law
1994Marcia Neugebauer becomes the first woman to hold the office of AGU President
1995AGU awards their first medal recognizing a woman scientist, Inge Lehmann
NSF Women and Science Conference
1996Equal Pay Day is observed for the first time
The AWG Foundation gives out their first Chrysalis Scholarship
1997NSF Professional Opportunities for Women in Research & Education (POWRE) (this program lasted through 2000)
1998AWG awards their first President’s Award
The AWG Foundation awards their first Winifred Goldring Award (in partnership with the Paleontological Society)
Congress establishes the Commission on the Advancement of Women in Science, Engineering, and Technology Development (existed through 2000)
1999GSA begins the annual tradition of the Doris M. Curtis Outstanding Woman in Science Award
2000s2000Sally Zinke becomes the first woman to hold the office of SEG President
2001Robbie Gries becomes the first woman to hold the office of AAPG President
NSF Advance Program is launched (still exists today)
AWG establishes both an Honorary Membership program and a Distinguished Service Award
All major geoscience organizations (AGU, AAPG, GSA, SEG) have female presidents
2002State of California passes their own Paid Family Leave Program
2005The AWG Foundation establishes two new student awards: the Brunton Award and the Minority Scholarships
2007The AWG Foundation awards the first Maria Luisa Crawford Field Camp scholarships (in partnership with NAGT)
2009Marcia McNutt becomes the first woman to lead the USGS since its establishment in 1879
Lily Ledbetter Fair Pay Act is signed into law by President Obama
New Jersey establishes a Family Leave Insurance program
2010s2010The AWG Foundation establishes two new student awards: The Ginny Sand and Suzanne Takken Research Presentation Awards
2013AWG establishes and awards the first Professional Excellence Awards
Rhode Island signs into law the Temporary Caregiver Insurance Program
2016AWG, the AWG Foundation and the Paleontological Society partner up to offer a new student award: Undergraduate Excellence in Paleontology
AWG cosponsors an NSF-funded workshop for leaders across government institutions, academic institutions, and professional societies to address the issue of sexual harassment in the sciences
Marcia McNutt becomes the first woman to lead the U.S. National Academy of Sciences since its founding in 1863
2017Women’s March on Washington
Nevada ratifies the Equal Rights Act after the Women’s March on Washington
March for Science
Bold text represents AWG-specific events; italicized text represents NSF activities or programs; bold italics represents significant strides by other geoscience professional societies; black text represents federal or state laws that affect women working in the geosciences.
Pre-1970s1889Mary Emilee Holmes becomes the first woman Fellow of GSA
1963The Equal Pay Act is passed by Congress
1966The National Organization for Women (NOW) is organized
1970s1971Inge Lehmann becomes the first female AGU medalist at the age of 71
Association for Women in Science forms
1972Title IV passes
Equal Rights Act is passed by Congress, sent to states for ratification
1973Roe v. Wade
1974Women’s Educational Equity Act Program is established
1977Congressional Caucus for Women’s Issues is formed
Association for Women Geoscientists is formed
1978The Pregnancy Discrimination Act is passed
1980s1980Congress passes the Science and Engineering Equal Opportunities Act
1981Women’s History Month is recognized
Sandra Day O’Connor becomes the first woman to sit on the U.S. Supreme Court
1982Equal Rights Act fails to ratify (missing three states)
First NSF publication of statistics on women in Women and Minorities in Science and Engineering
NSF develops the Visiting Professorships for Women in Science and Engineering (this program lasted through 1997)
1983AWG is incorporated as a non-profit mutual-benefit organization
The AWG Foundation is established as a non-profit public-benefit corporation
1984AWG Foundation gives out their first awards at the International Science Fair
AWG begins their annual tradition of the Encourage, Enhance, and Exchange Awards
1986NSF Research Planning Grants and Career Advancement Grants for Women Scientists & Engineers (RPG & CAA) (this program lasted through 1998)
1987U.S. Census Bureau reports that women earn 68 cents for every dollar earned by men
1988The AWG Foundation gives out their first Outstanding Educator Award
1989NSF Task Force on Programs for Women convenes
1990s1990Sylvia Earle is appointed as first female Chief Scientist at the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
NSF Faculty Grants for Women Scientists and Engineers (lasted one year)
1991Doris Curtis becomes the first woman to hold the office of GSA President
1993NSF Program for Women and Girls (PWG) (this program still exists today, but is now called the Research on Gender in Science and Engineering [GSE] program)
Supreme Court rules for the first time that sexual harassment is illegal in the workplace
Family and Medical Leave Act is signed into law
1994Marcia Neugebauer becomes the first woman to hold the office of AGU President
1995AGU awards their first medal recognizing a woman scientist, Inge Lehmann
NSF Women and Science Conference
1996Equal Pay Day is observed for the first time
The AWG Foundation gives out their first Chrysalis Scholarship
1997NSF Professional Opportunities for Women in Research & Education (POWRE) (this program lasted through 2000)
1998AWG awards their first President’s Award
The AWG Foundation awards their first Winifred Goldring Award (in partnership with the Paleontological Society)
Congress establishes the Commission on the Advancement of Women in Science, Engineering, and Technology Development (existed through 2000)
1999GSA begins the annual tradition of the Doris M. Curtis Outstanding Woman in Science Award
2000s2000Sally Zinke becomes the first woman to hold the office of SEG President
2001Robbie Gries becomes the first woman to hold the office of AAPG President
NSF Advance Program is launched (still exists today)
AWG establishes both an Honorary Membership program and a Distinguished Service Award
All major geoscience organizations (AGU, AAPG, GSA, SEG) have female presidents
2002State of California passes their own Paid Family Leave Program
2005The AWG Foundation establishes two new student awards: the Brunton Award and the Minority Scholarships
2007The AWG Foundation awards the first Maria Luisa Crawford Field Camp scholarships (in partnership with NAGT)
2009Marcia McNutt becomes the first woman to lead the USGS since its establishment in 1879
Lily Ledbetter Fair Pay Act is signed into law by President Obama
New Jersey establishes a Family Leave Insurance program
2010s2010The AWG Foundation establishes two new student awards: The Ginny Sand and Suzanne Takken Research Presentation Awards
2013AWG establishes and awards the first Professional Excellence Awards
Rhode Island signs into law the Temporary Caregiver Insurance Program
2016AWG, the AWG Foundation and the Paleontological Society partner up to offer a new student award: Undergraduate Excellence in Paleontology
AWG cosponsors an NSF-funded workshop for leaders across government institutions, academic institutions, and professional societies to address the issue of sexual harassment in the sciences
Marcia McNutt becomes the first woman to lead the U.S. National Academy of Sciences since its founding in 1863
2017Women’s March on Washington
Nevada ratifies the Equal Rights Act after the Women’s March on Washington
March for Science

Contents

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,
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,
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,
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,
Teaching science now optional in Florida
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Gaea
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23
, no.
5
, p.
12
.
Heymann
,
J.
, and
McNeill
,
K.
,
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,
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:
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,
Harvard University Press
,
408
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,
M.A.
,
2001
,
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 , v.
24
, no.
3
, p.
6
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,
M.A.
, and
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,
S.
,
2007
,
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:
AWIS Magazine
 , v.
36
, no.
4
, p.
22
23
.
Holmes
,
M.A.
,
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,
S.
,
Frey
,
C.
, and
Ongley
,
L.
,
2003
,
The status of women in the geosciences, 2001
:
Geotimes
 , v.
48
, no.
9
, p.
24
25
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Holmes
,
M.A.
,
O’Connell
,
S.
, and
Dutt
,
K.
,
2015
, eds.,
Women in the Geosciences: Practical, Positive Practices toward Parity
:
Hoboken, New Jersey
,
John Wiley & Sons
,
192
p., https://doi.org/10.1002/9781119067573.
Holmes
,
M.A.
,
Marin-Spiotta
,
E.
, and
Schneider
,
B.
,
2017
,
Harassment as an ethics issue
:
EGU General Assembly 2017: Geophysical Research Abstracts
 , v.
19
, EGU2017-10067-1.
Keane
,
C.M.
,
2014
,
U.S. female geoscience enrollments level off
:
AGI Geoscience Currents
 , no.
102
, https://www.americangeosciences.org/sites/default/files/currents/Currents-102-GenderEnrollments2014.pdf (last accessed 23 Jan. 2018).
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,
J.
, ed.,
2000
,
The concrete ceiling
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Gaea
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23
, no.
1
, p.
7
8
.
Moody
,
J.B.
,
Ludington
,
S.D.
,
Marvin
,
U.
, and
VanAndel
,
T.
,
1976
,
Professionalism among women and men in the geosciences
:
Journal of Geological Education
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24
, p.
166
171
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,
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, and
Holmes
,
M.A.
,
2007
,
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:
EOS (Transactions, American Geophysical Union)
 , v.
88
, no.
47
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, https://doi.org/10.1029/2007EO470010.
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,
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,
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,
USGS directors talks on future for women geoscientists at agency
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Gaea
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, no.
2
, p.
1
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,
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,
Marten
,
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, and
Von Lonski
,
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,
2017
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,
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Adamy
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J.
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American Geosciences Institute, Women Geoscientists Committee
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M.
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Women close gender pay gap in two STEM jobs, lag in others
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K.
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AWG new code of conduct
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46
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10
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Donovan
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J.
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2
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B.
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H.
,
Hegewisch
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A.
,
Milli
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J.
, and
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L.
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,
Paid Parental Leave in the United States: What the Data Tell Us about Access, Usage, and Economic and Health Benefits
:
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p.
Gillula
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J.
,
Fullenbaum
,
R.
, and
Winkel
,
R.
,
2016
,
Minority and female employment in the oil and natural gas and petrochemical industries
,
2015
2035
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L.K.
, and
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,
S.L.
,
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,
More women in the driver’s seat
:
AARP Bulletin
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Hallock Muller
,
P.
,
2000
,
Teaching science now optional in Florida
:
Gaea
 , v.
23
, no.
5
, p.
12
.
Heymann
,
J.
, and
McNeill
,
K.
,
2013
,
Children’s Chances: How Countries Can Move from Surviving to Thriving
:
Cambridge, Massachusetts
,
Harvard University Press
,
408
p.
Holmes
,
M.A.
,
2001
,
Status of women in the geosciences: Salaries, jobs
:
Gaea
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24
, no.
3
, p.
6
.
Holmes
,
M.A.
, and
O’Connell
,
S.
,
2007
,
Women geoscientists’ writing retreat
:
AWIS Magazine
 , v.
36
, no.
4
, p.
22
23
.
Holmes
,
M.A.
,
O’Connell
,
S.
,
Frey
,
C.
, and
Ongley
,
L.
,
2003
,
The status of women in the geosciences, 2001
:
Geotimes
 , v.
48
, no.
9
, p.
24
25
.
Holmes
,
M.A.
,
O’Connell
,
S.
, and
Dutt
,
K.
,
2015
, eds.,
Women in the Geosciences: Practical, Positive Practices toward Parity
:
Hoboken, New Jersey
,
John Wiley & Sons
,
192
p., https://doi.org/10.1002/9781119067573.
Holmes
,
M.A.
,
Marin-Spiotta
,
E.
, and
Schneider
,
B.
,
2017
,
Harassment as an ethics issue
:
EGU General Assembly 2017: Geophysical Research Abstracts
 , v.
19
, EGU2017-10067-1.
Keane
,
C.M.
,
2014
,
U.S. female geoscience enrollments level off
:
AGI Geoscience Currents
 , no.
102
, https://www.americangeosciences.org/sites/default/files/currents/Currents-102-GenderEnrollments2014.pdf (last accessed 23 Jan. 2018).
Kluessendorf
,
J.
, ed.,
2000
,
The concrete ceiling
:
Gaea
 , v.
23
, no.
1
, p.
7
8
.
Moody
,
J.B.
,
Ludington
,
S.D.
,
Marvin
,
U.
, and
VanAndel
,
T.
,
1976
,
Professionalism among women and men in the geosciences
:
Journal of Geological Education
 , v.
24
, p.
166
171
, https://doi.org/10.5408/0022-1368-24.5.166.
National Conference of State Legislatures
,
2016
(19 July),
Family and Medical Leave Laws
:
NCSL
 , http://www.ncsl.org/research/labor-and-employment/state-family-and-medical-leave-laws.aspx (last accessed 15 Sept. 2017).
Neuschatz
,
S.
,
1985
,
Summary report on 1983–1984 national survey of geoscientists
:
Gaea
 , v.
8
, no.
4
, p.
1
2
.
O’Connell
,
S.
, and
Holmes
,
M.A.
,
2007
,
Retreating to advance women geoscience faculty
:
EOS (Transactions, American Geophysical Union)
 , v.
88
, no.
47
, p.
505
, https://doi.org/10.1029/2007EO470010.
Pecora
,
P.
,
1985
,
USGS directors talks on future for women geoscientists at agency
:
Gaea
 , v.
8
, no.
2
, p.
1
.
Rick
,
K.
,
Marten
,
I.
, and
Von Lonski
,
U.
,
2017
(12 July),
Untapped reserves: Promoting gender balance in oil and gas
:
Report by the World Petroleum Council and the Boston Consulting Group
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Rudnick
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R.
,
2000
,
Women in science conference highlights disparity, enthusiasm
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Gaea
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23
, no.
4
, p.
6
7
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Sand
,
V.
, and
Bunning
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B.
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Ten years of progress for AGI’s Women Geoscientists Committee
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Journal of Geological Education
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33
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212
215
, https://doi.org/10.5408/0022-1368-33.4.212.
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L.
, ed.,
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Another glass ceiling
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Gaea
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20
, no.
1
, p.
1
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Sheth
,
S.
, and
Gould
,
S.
,
2017
(8 March),
5 charts show how much more men make than women
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