How female geologists were written out of history: The micropaleontology breakthrough
Robbie Rice Gries, 2018. "How female geologists were written out of history: The micropaleontology breakthrough", Women and Geology: Who Are We, Where Have We Come From, and Where Are We Going?, Beth A. Johnson
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In 1921, exploration for oil and gas was substantially assisted by the discovery that foraminifera could be used to more accurately correlate subsurface strata. This changed everything. It was at a time when the petroleum industry did not have the benefit of geophysical logging tools or seismic mapping capabilities. Micropaleontology was quickly embraced by industry and almost instantly expanded to global use.
Three young women were responsible for this technological breakthrough—Alva Ellisor, Esther Applin née Richards, and Hedwig Kniker. They were hired by Texas oil companies in 1920–1921 for the express purpose of using paleontology, specifically macropaleontology, to try to solve the Gulf Coast stratigraphic problems. They were encouraged to collaborate—in itself an unusual phenomenon in the highly competitive oil and gas business—which they did with grace and skill and which led to their discovery of foraminifera as a major biostratigraphic tool. However, their role was downplayed over time, and by 1975 credit for this important technology was shifted to four men—men who had themselves failed to recognize the application, in fact one had ridiculed the idea, but who quickly embraced it when the women presented their evidence.
It is time to recognize their revolutionary contribution to the improved economics of oil-finding as well as to the sciences of biostratigraphy and paleontology.
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Women have been a part of the story of geology from the beginning, but they have struggled to gain professional opportunities, equal pay, and respect as scientists for decades. Some have been dismissed, some have been forced to work without pay, and some have been denied credit. This volume highlights the progress of women in geology, including past struggles and how remarkable individuals were able to overcome them, current efforts to draw positive attention and perceptions to women in the science, and recruitment and mentorship efforts to attract and retain the next generation of women in geology. Chapters include the first American women researchers in Antarctica, a survey of Hollywood disaster movies and the casting of women as geologists, social media campaigns such as #365ScienceSelfies, and the stories of the Association for Women Geoscientists and the Earth Science Women’s Network and their work to support and mentor women in geology.