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ABSTRACT

This paper investigates the role played by Italian naturalist, Filippo Buonanni (1638–1723), in the reorganization of the Kircher Museum. Specifically, it considers Buonanni’s unique philosophy of nature, which can be gleaned from his public debates about spontaneous generation and fossil formation. This paper argues that Buonanni rejected a conformity of causes in nature, which in turn informed his approach to natural history. His unique approach helped to transform Kircher’s collection from a cabinet of wonders to one of the earliest examples of the modern museum.

INTRODUCTION

The Kircher Museum (Rome, 1651–1773) has remained the subject of fascination and inquiry for centuries, and in recent decades, there has been a renaissance of literature investigating its namesake’s influence on chemistry, music, and natural philosophy. Less well known, however, is that Kircher’s student—Filippo Buonanni—would go on to save the collection from obscurity following Kircher’s death in 1680. With the notable exception of Paula Findlen’s Possessing Nature (Findlen, 1996), Buonanni’s stewardship of the Kircher Museum has been all but forgotten. Instead, Buonanni is generally relegated to a passing footnote in conversations on the generation of insects.

In between the death of Athanasius Kircher (1602–1680) and Buonanni’s subsequent accession of the museum in 1698, Buonanni became involved in very public disputes concerning spontaneous generation. History has generally considered him to be on the losing end. This paper argues, however, that a close inspection of Buonanni’s public controversies shows that he maintained a more sophisticated philosophy of nature than is typically ascribed to him. It further investigates how these debates about generation inform early modern understandings of fossil formation, methodological assumptions about science more generally, and the curation of museum collections.

FATHER KIRCHER AND HIS COLLECTION OF WONDERS

Father Athanasius Kircher was an eccentric, Jesuit polymath and among the more colorful characters of the seventeenth century. He seems to have had a rather polarizing effect upon those who met him: they either loved him or they hated him. The Royal Society thought him to be gullible and greeted him with immense skepticism, and the eminent German philosopher, Gottfried Leibniz, once lamented that “the man understands nothing” (Cobb, 2006, p. 75–76). And yet, he successfully charmed and impressed a sufficient number of benefactors (Queen Christina of Sweden among them) to procure one of the most successful cabinets of wonder in history.

Kircher was born to a large family in Geisa, Germany, where he was educated at the Jesuit Gymnasium in Fulda. Before his ordination as a Jesuit priest in 1628, Kircher had obtained an ideal Renaissance education. He was fluent in Greek and Latin in addition to studying the humanities, natural science, burgeoning seventeenth-century mathematics, theology, and philosophy. His curiosity of nature and the eagerness to disseminate the knowledge he had obtained of it would last throughout his life. The Thirty Years’ War led Kircher out of Germany and into papal territory at Avignon, France, and, eventually, to Rome. There he would be appointed Professor of Mathematics at the Romanum Collegium in 1638 (Koertge, 2008, p. 374–375; Fletcher et al., 2011, Ch. 1). Here, he is depicted as such in a portrait of him printed in the Musaeum Celeberrimum (De Sepibus, 1678), the museum’s first catalogue (see Fig. 1).

Figure 1.

Portrait of Kircher, as printed in Georgio de Sepi’s Musaeum Celeberrimum (1678).

Figure 1.

Portrait of Kircher, as printed in Georgio de Sepi’s Musaeum Celeberrimum (1678).

At the Collegium, Kircher became popular with students, whom he would invite to view his growing collection of artifacts and relics of nature. In 1651, Roman senator, Alfonso Doninno, bequeathed to the local Collegium Romanum, a large collection of fossils, “monuments of antiquity,” and portraits. The generous bequest from so venerable a patron placed pressure upon the Collegium and Society of Jesus to create a public space worthy of the display. Kircher was soon after charged with the task of curating their joint collections. The result—Museum Kircherianum—was one of the very first public museums (Findlen, 2004, p. 29–30; Fletcher et al., 2011, p. 184).

Regarding the fossil collection with which he was tasked, Kircher had a good deal to say about their origin. Until recently, Kircher is generally rembered for having misidentified fossils and their origins (Parcell, 2009, p. 70). This characterization, however, is somewhat unfair. To begin, fossils, as understood in the early seventeenth century, were of an altogether different genus. The seventeenth-century conception of fossil included any object retrieved from below the Earth’s surface, from gemstones to minerals, metals to what we would now call fossils, and virtually any stony object dug from the Earth (Rossi, 1984, p. 6).1 Of these stony objects, the most problematic to explain were fossilized shells, which (unlike other fossils) had no living analogues. Even more strange was the petrification of the area surrounding them, leaving behind a mere ghostly imprint of their existence. Having no analogue among the living, they were often called Naturae Ludibria, lusus naturae or “sports of nature” (Rappaport, 1997, p. 119).

Stephen J. Gould, in particular, has done an excellent job of evaluating Kircher’s paleontological thought to show that Kircher—far from advocating for the inorganic origin of all fossils—has received the “short end of the stick” in the triumphalist historiography of geology. For his own part, Kircher divided fossils into two distinct categories: those that were the remains of actual organisms and those that were minerals that had been made to resemble other organisms (Gould, 2004, p. 215ff.). The former usually included things such as teeth and bones that had been made stony by petrifying waters. The latter, however, required a more complex explanation.

Kircher maintained the commonly held view of his time that a seminal or seed-like power manifested at Creation was responsible for the generation of plants, animals, and even minerals. According to Kircher, God endowed the world with panspermia, or the universal seeds of nature, at Creation (Kircher, [1678] r2004, Book 12, p. 347; cf. De Boodt, 1647, p. 22–23. For a detailed account of Kircher’s panspermia, see Rowland, 2004, p. 191–206). A seminal spiritus, the generative power of these invisible seeds, was used by God to create life from chaotic matter and “play[ed] the role of the medium between the Creator and creatures” (Hirai, 2007, p. 78–79). According to this worldview, the invisible seeds have some kind of formative power that is responsible for plants and animals, minerals and crystals alike. Whereas living beings come only from matter that was once animated and are the result of the seminal power of these seeds, minerals are merely the result of a saline power that is merely “akin” to the formative power of seeds (Kircher, 1678, reprinted in 2004, Book 12, p. 346–356. See also Chang, 2011, p. 326; Smith, 2011, p. 224; Hirai, 2016, p. 265). This saline power alludes not to groundwater but to the salt of alchemists, following the tradition of Paracelsian tria prima (Chang, 2011, p. 326).

So-called “spontaneous generation” is the result of latent seeds, invisible to the naked eye, which lay hidden until activated by the ambient heat of putrefaction (Kircher, [1678] r2004, Book 12, p. 346ff.). Upon the decay of the previous creature, the emergent form of the seed is then responsible for the production of a different creature altogether. Through this notion of emergent forms, Kircher is able to explain why some minerals are made to resemble so closely other living creatures. Namely, the seed of an animal such as a fish can act upon the inanimate matter from under the Earth’s surface, generating a fish-like object in rock or stone (Kircher, [1678] 2004, Book 8, Ch. 2, p. 5–6; Rossi, p. 6–8). Kircher’s Mundus Subterraneus ([1665] 2004) depicts several examples of these sorts of fossils, in which the form of a fish has been clearly imposed upon the inanimate matter of the rock or stone (see Fig. 2).

Figure 2.

Fossilized fish, from Kircher’s Mundus Subterraneus ([1665] 2004).

Figure 2.

Fossilized fish, from Kircher’s Mundus Subterraneus ([1665] 2004).

In addition to fossils of the sort mentioned above, the early Kircher Museum also boasted several specimens of fossils and artifacts from China, including books by leading Chinese converts (Hsia, 2004, p. 393). Kircher discusses them in his 1667 China Illustrata (China Illustrated) in which he describes the regional geography and natural history of the area based largely on information from the overseas missions of his fellow Jesuits. Notably, Kircher describes the fossils and stones collected from China as “sports of nature” (Yamanda, 2006, p. 68).2 The museum of the Collegio Romano, which soon became known as “Kircher’s Museum,” became “a sort of philosophical gymnasium” under the stewardship of the legendary Jesuit (Sardo, 2004, p. 60). Kircher’s Museum became well known for the fantastic elements of its collection throughout Rome and abroad. The space for the museum was a powerful arrangement of vaulted rooms decorated floor to ceiling with allegorical paintings and unusual objects retrieved from around the world. Most prominent of these were the Egyptian obelisks, placed alongside astronomical maps (Hagan, 2008, p. 43).

Just two years before Kircher’s death, his disciple at the Collegium, Georgio de Sepi, printed the first account and Catalog of Kircher’s Museum (1678). In terms of its organization, the treatise emphasized the more incredible elements of the collection. In particular, the frontispiece alone served as an advertisement for the museum and its marvels. As word of the collection spread, it soon was, in Kircher’s own words, “visited by all the nations of the world and a prince cannot become better known in this theatre of the world than to have his likeness here” (Findlen, 1996, p. 641; Sardo, 2004, p. 53). We can catch a glimpse of the breathtaking wonder that the museum must have aroused within its visitors from de Sepi’s frontispiece, which illustrates the foyer of the museum (see Fig. 3). When Kircher died in November of 1680, he was nearly 80 years old. His death would leave behind a vacancy that would remain unfilled for nearly 20 years.

Figure 3.

A contemporary view of the Kircher Museum as seen in the frontispiece for Musaeum Celeberrimum (1678).

Figure 3.

A contemporary view of the Kircher Museum as seen in the frontispiece for Musaeum Celeberrimum (1678).

FILIPPO BUONANNI AND RECREATIO

Filippo Buonanni, the devoted student of Kircher who would succeed him as Professor of Mathematics at the Collegium, differed from his teacher in a number of respects. Unlike Kircher, who hailed from Germany and traveled throughout Europe, Buonanni spent his life in Rome, where his proximity to the sea influenced his ideas about natural history (Findlen, 1996, p. 160). In a more striking contrast, Buonanni lacked the international notoriety and consequential patronage that Kircher had gained (Franceschini, 2008, p. 592). He nonetheless shared Kircher’s devotion to Aristotle and commitment to the study of natural history. Shortly after Kircher’s death, Buonanni became embroiled in a dispute over the subject of spontaneous generation following the publication of his Ricreatione dell’occhio e della mente nell’osservazione delle chiocciole (Recreation of the Eye and the Mind in the Observation of Snails) in 1681 (see Fig. 4). While this dispute may initially seem tangential to the nature of fossils, the curation of the museum, or geology more generally, a close analysis can provide a deep insight into the early curation of the Kircher Museum.

Figure 4.

Recreatio frontispiece (Buonanni, 1684).

Figure 4.

Recreatio frontispiece (Buonanni, 1684).

Because the treatise has never been translated into English, it has received relatively little attention in the secondary literature. It was nonetheless famed in its own time for its detailed illustrations of seashells and their methodical categorization (Rappaport, 1997, p. 127). Buonanni was truly unique in his devotion to the book’s subject matter. He treasured his beloved mollusks. While several texts had already considered the origin of fossils, the problem of generation, or the constitution of the Earth, Buonanni presented the first reference book for mollusks and other testaceous animals.3Ricreatione boasts hundreds of detailed engravings, each one depicting a uniquely different specimen. The treatise gained an even larger audience in 1684, when a Latin edition was published in Rome by the name of Recreatio mentis et oculi in observatione animalium testaceorum (hereafter Recreatio).

Recreatio is organized into four parts, with the majority of the written content in the first and third parts. The first part of the book contains 12 chapters devoted to the origin and causes of testaceous animals, i.e., those animals such as barnacles, mollusks, sponges, and shellfish whose correlative parts are like plants, causing them to lack the sensation and properties of motion shared by most other animals. The second part divides testaceous animals into three classes, and the third part is organized into “problems,” following a traditional Scholastic style. Finally, the fourth part, which comprises more than half of the impressive tome, contains several hundred detailed illustrations of Buonanni’s collection of seashells. Each class of testaceons has hundreds of detailed, beautiful engravings depicting unique examples of the animals discussed (see Fig. 5).

Figure 5.

Testaceous seashells, as depicted in Buonanni’s Recreatio (Buonanni, 1684).

Figure 5.

Testaceous seashells, as depicted in Buonanni’s Recreatio (Buonanni, 1684).

In the first part of Recreatio, Buonanni provides in-depth discussion on the production or generation of a variety of mollusks. Like a good Aristotelian, Buonanni describes them in terms of spontaneous generation. The subject of spontaneous generation comes up early in the text with the subject of snails, “Whether snails are generated by propagation of a species, or rather are born spontaneously from themselves” 4 (Buonanni, 1684, p. 22). He begins the chapter by explaining that Aristotle flatly denies the propagation of the species in testaceous animals, claiming instead that they are born spontaneously from putrefied matter. (Although in some cases, this happens in the form of “shoots.”)

Buonanni continues by citing Aristotle’s metaphysics, where Aristotle has a term for creatures of this kind: spontaneous. Spontaneously generated animals, Buonanni explains, are those living beings whose “matter is able to be moved even by itself in just the same way that the seed usually moves it in the generation of other animals…”5 (Buonanni, 1684, p. 23; cf. Aristotle’s Metaphysics, Bk. VII: 1034b: 1–5 in Aristotle, 1995, p. 1633). He goes on to respond to Nicolaus Steno (1638–1686) citing the latter’s De solido intra solidum naturaliter contento dissertationis prodromus (The Prodromus to a Dissertation Concerning Solids Naturally Contained within Solids, hereafter known as Prodromus), published 1669:

Fr. Steno has taught in his most Illustrious Prodromus that snails are, in all actuality, born from eggs, [as he writes that] “From experience it is evident that oysters, as well as other testaceous animals, are born from eggs and not from putrefied matter.” These words, however, are in direct opposition to Aristotle, who—after exhausting many fisherman with the use of his immense salary from Alexander of Macedon—gained a thorough knowledge of the secrets of nature about undersea creatures. Undoubtedly, Aristotle himself affirms that, “As a general rule, all testaceous animals are spontaneous in nature, [developing] in mud, and diverse according to the differences of the mud from which they arise: Oysters from slimy mud on the one hand, and snails from sandy mud on the other”6 (Buonanni, 1684, p. 23–24; cf. Steno, 1671, p. 78; Aristotle’s History of Animals, Bk. V: 547b: 18–24 in Aristotle, 1995, p. 864)

Worth noting is that when Buonanni appeals to the expertise of Aristotle over that of Steno, he does so by appealing to the general experiences of the fisherman with whom Aristotle conversed as a counter example to Steno’s own claim. This is an interesting example of giving epistemic priority to general folk experience. Missing from his retort, however, is that Steno actually has a response to this objection. Namely, that many shells found within the sandy beaches are as old as Noah’s flood, or the “Great Deluge,” thus predating the sand (Steno, 1671, p. 90). Ultimately, Buonanni maintains the view that all testaceous animals are the result of spontaneous generation and that many of their petrified shells may be similarly generated from stony matter.

The specifics of the flood and the origin of fossil shells became another point of contention between Steno and Buonanni. Buonanni considers the question of whether the fossil shells that we find from beneath the Earth’s surface are made of stone and merely shaped with images of sea life imposed on them, or whether they were actually living sea creatures (Buonanni, 1684, p. 41–53). Here, again, he responds to Steno, who says that all shells once belonged to those of living testaceous animals—even in those areas where living sea creatures are no longer found. They were later calcined or petrified by means of the petrifying force of fluids (Buonanni, 1684, p. 42, cf. Steno, 1671, p. 83–95). But Buonanni found the notion of water transporting heavy shells over great distances—especially in mountainous terrain—to be problematic, suggesting instead that latent seeds could be deposited by the floods and thus capable of informing stony matter. On this point, he actually breaks away from Aristotle, who maintains that all shells are from marine life, and follows Kircher (Buonanni, 1684, p. 41–43; cf. Rappaport, 1997, p. 127). Figure 6 shows the sort of fossilized shells that were the subject of their debates. Much like the fossilized fish described by Kircher, one can see how the imprint of shells has been imposed upon inanimate rock.

Figure 6.

Mollusk fossils from Buonanni’s Recreatio (Buonanni, 1684). In this chapter, Buonanni is discussing microscopic worms found within the fossil, the burrows of which are labeled “M.”

Figure 6.

Mollusk fossils from Buonanni’s Recreatio (Buonanni, 1684). In this chapter, Buonanni is discussing microscopic worms found within the fossil, the burrows of which are labeled “M.”

Rhoda Rappaport has suggested that Buonanni would develop only much later in life a more sophisticated account of fossils in which “the wise Aristotelian,” as he was called, divided them into (1) the remains of organisms and (2) the products of “natural powers” (Rappaport, 1997, p. 128). More likely, however, Buonanni’s divisions were consistently similar to those of Kircher. Just as Kircher was far from advocating the inorganic origin of all fossils, so too was Buonanni. Ultimately, whatever contributions he may have tried to make regarding the constitutions of mollusks and fossils were soon to be overshadowed by his views on spontaneous generation.

GENERATION DISPUTES

Because of its insistence on spontaneous generation, Recreatio was not well received by experimentalists within Italy or abroad. This negative response was due in no small part to a previous controversy that had occurred more than a decade earlier between Kircher and Francesco Redi (1626–1697), a courtier from the Royal Court of Duke Ferdinando. Redi—assisted on occasion with the aid of his closest friend, Nicolaus Steno—conducted a series of controlled experiments utilizing a variety of substances that could putrefy, from raw meat and fish, milk and cheese, to fruits, such as pumpkin. What they discovered is that, when left out to rot, maggots and worms appeared only in the uncovered containers (Redi, 1909, p. 74–76; Wilson, 1997, p. 200; Cobb, 2006, p. 82ff.). In Figure 7, Redi has illustrated their reproduction cycle.

Figure 7.

The reproduction cycle of flies, as portrayed in Redi’s Esperienze (Redi, 1909).

Figure 7.

The reproduction cycle of flies, as portrayed in Redi’s Esperienze (Redi, 1909).

Redi ([1668] 1909) published a detailed account of his experiments in 1668, Esperienze intorno alla generazione degl’insetti (Experiments on the Generation of Insects), through which he aimed to demonstrate that creatures such as maggots—previously believed to be the result of some kind of generative process from corrupt and putrid matter—actually develop from material laid by adult flies. In doing so, he sought to refute Kircher’s own claims about generation (Wilson, 1997, p. 193; Cobb, 2006, p. 85ff.; Bertoloni Meli, 2011, p. 180, 183). Indeed, a good deal of Redi’s treatise could be seen as a direct response to Kircher. He frequently names Kircher specifically, and on one such occasion describes the Jesuit, “though a man worthy of esteem” as erroneous in his claim that one could breed flies from putrefied fly corpses (Redi, 1909, p. 34).

Given that Buonnani was both a loyal student of Kircher and a self-identified Aristotelian, it is hardly surprising that he would speak disparagingly of Redi’s experiments. He explicitly criticizes the courtier for reaffirming that ordinary flies and gnats do not generate from rotting plants or meat. Buonanni replies that he may well find Redi’s assertions that spontaneous generation from putrefied bodies never happens to be ridiculous. Buonanni even goes so far as to say that he really does not understand (nescio) by what means Redi thinks his experiment is able to counter claims of spontaneous generation. The Italian Jesuit then cites other living beings that have been said to generate spontaneously from putrefied matter, such as worms that are generated from Hyacinth flowers, before providing a similar account of mollusks (Buonanni, 1684, p. 42; see also Basile, 1987, p. 150ff.).

Francesco Redi responded to Buonanni in 1684, no doubt at the insistence from others within the community of Italian experimentalists, with Osservazioni intorno agli animali viventi che si trovano negli animali viventi (Observations of Living Animals That Are Found in Living Animals). As its title suggests, Osservazioni deals primarily with the generation of parasitic worms, and Redi provides within the treatise a continued defense of the increasingly popular claim that all animals originate from eggs. Buonanni eventually replied to the refined courtier in 1691 with Observationes ca. viventia, quae in rebus non viventibus reperuntur (Observations Concerning Living Beings, Which Are Not Found in Other Living Things), published in Rome (Fazzari, 1999, p. 99ff.).

Buonanni makes his intentions apparent in the very first sentence of his dedication to the volume wherein he proposes to offer evidence of spontaneous generation to the “Illustrious Leoni Strozze” (Buonanni, 1691). The treatise thus served as a means for Buonanni to defend his earlier claims about the generation of mollusks and attempted to prove that, contra Redi, spontaneous generation could in fact happen without seeds. In the massive tome of more than 600 pages, Buonanni frequently quotes Redi in order to respond to the celebrated courtier. On one such occasion, he provides a counter example to Redi in the chapter, “Ex Verminbus generatis in Floribus Hyacinthi” (“Worms That Are Generated from Hyacinth Flowers”) (Buonanni, 1691, p. 145). At this point, one almost has to wonder if the two Italian scholars are talking past each other, as this is the exact same example provided by Buonanni in his much earlier Recreatio.

BUONANNI’S PHILOSOPHY OF NATURE

It is tempting for the twenty-first-century reader to view Buonanni as naive and simply too entrenched within an Aristotelian paradigm to appreciate or even fully understand Redi’s experimental approach. Indeed, several of his own contemporaries seem to have done just this. For example, the famed Bolognese physician and anatomist, Marcello Malpighi (1628–1694)—respected friend and colleague of both Redi and Steno—notably complained in his private correspondence that the Jesuit “…corrupts the true method of philosophizing a posteriori, rendering everything uncertain and every possible extravagance as credible.” Further, wrote Malpighi, this methodological approach “maltreats Redi and other Moderns on some matters … for Buonanni thinks that their flies are produced spontaneously and not from eggs deposited in them; and he proves all this, not by a series of observations of his own, but by the conjectures and assertions of others” (Adelmann, 1966, v. 1, p. 636).7

The grievance aired by Malpighi in this letter is Buonanni’s rejection of an experimental epistemology. That Buonanni would give priority to Aristotelian text and natural history over the tried and true empirical results of those such as Redi, Malpighi, and Steno surely would seem nothing short of ridiculous to them. But Buonanni’s program was additionally informed by another such principle that seems to be lost on Malpighi and his peers, thus missing the heart of Buonanni’s response. Underlying their disagreements about generation, however, is Buonanni’s explicit rejection that nature has uniformity. That is, Buonanni was quick to point out that just because an experiment produces results for one species, its conclusions could not, and should not, be generalized to others. In order to appreciate the significance of Buonanni’s view of nature, it is important to see how closely this implicit assumption was linked with the experimental philosophy of the seventeenth century.

For example, consider one of the most celebrated experiments in natural philosophy, the discovery by William Harvey (1578–1657) of the circulation of the blood. A major part of Harvey’s proof that blood circulates throughout the human body relied upon the large mass of blood pumped by the heart from the veins and to the arteries (Frank, 1980, p. 11; Bertoloni Meli, 2011, p. 146). His calculations, however, relied upon the vivisection of a wide range of animals, including not just mammals, but also birds, lizards, frogs, eels, and fish (Frank, 1980, p. 17). (Cold blooded animals are, in fact, easier to observe due to their slower heart rate at low temperatures.) This particular method, what we might call comparative anatomy, is intended to provide a demonstration that begins with the particulars and uses induction to conclude about animals more generally. Harvey—like his Paduan anatomy teacher, Fabricius, before him—practiced this method of investigation following Aristotle, who assumes a similitude and unity across species, allowing for the induction from the specific to the general (Cunningham, 1997, Ch. 6). While this methodological approach did not go unnoticed or without criticism by Harvey’s detractors, the underlying supposition that nature is uniform or generalizable became commonplace among experimentalists of the “New Science” by the second half of the seventeenth century (Frank, 1980, p. 17).

Vis-à-vis generation, Nicolaus Steno applies similar reasoning to the dissection of his famed dogfish. During his investigations with a viviparous dogfish shark, which he conducted while at Florence in 1667 with the aid of Francesco Redi, Steno noted similarities between the generative organs of the dogfish and that of the oviparous stingray that he had dissected several years earlier. His observations led him to the conclusion that, “the testicles of women are analogous to the ovary, whatever the manner the eggs themselves, or the matter that they contain, pass from the testicles to the uterus” (Cobb, 2006, p. 99). From this discovery, Steno surmised that that the egg was not produced by the uterus but came instead from those so-called female testicles, which he rightly identified as ovaries (Roger, 1997, p. 207; Bertoloni Meli, 2011, p. 209–217).

Here, too, lies the underlying assumption that the results from specific empirical investigations are generalizable across species. In truth, our privileged knowledge of the veracity of Steno’s claims may prevent our fully recognizing just how giant a leap Steno and Redi were making to draw a conclusion about the entirety of avian and even mammalian reproduction based on his investigations of sharks and stingrays. This methodological assumption nevertheless played a vital role in the execution of these dissections and experiments and is ultimately what Buonanni finds so problematic and vehemently rejects. Thus, in this context, we can more fully appreciate Buonanni’s claim that he has no idea by what means Redi claims to have proven spontaneous generation to be impossible. Namely, his criticism is Redi’s fallacious application of the experiment to the whole of nature more generally. It is the methodological content of this complaint that makes Buonanni so unrelenting in each of his responses, regardless of whatever new discovery Redi, Steno, or others might report.

Domenico Bertoloni Meli discusses a related dispute between Buonanni and the future archdeacon of Bologna University, Antonio Felice Marsigli. Marsigli described the discovery of snails that reproduce sexually as a challenge to Buonanni’s own claims of spontaneous generation. To this, Buonanni responded that just because some snails are generated from eggs does not mean that there is sufficient reason to assume that all do. Buonanni flat-out rejected “the uniformity of nature” and subsequently called “for greater caution in defending universal claims and questioned the method of induction, arguing that not all stars are fixed, since planets move, and not all birds fly, as the ostrich never leaves the ground” (Bertoloni Meli, 2011, p. 254–255).

The public disputes in which Buonanni engaged are distinct from later eighteenth-century debates between uniformitarianism (i.e., the view that geological processes have spatiotemporal uniformity and affect Earth gradually over time) and catastrophism (or the view that the formative geological processes are in fact large-scale, catastrophic events such as earthquakes or the Great Flood). Buonanni likewise does not address the functional morphology of the seashells and fossils he collected. Rather, he maintained a more general skepticism about the role of experimental induction. This skepticism put him at odds with contemporary experimentalists such as Steno, who used individual experiments to make universal claims such as “All animals come from eggs” and “No animals result from spontaneous generation.”

Buonanni was hardly alone among their contemporaries to maintain this philosophical position. This philosophy of nature was shared by other traditional scholars within the Italian community, such as Bolognese naturalist, Giovanni Trionfetti, and his student, the physician, Giovanni Sbaraglia. Yet, Buonanni’s access to—and later his position as curator for—the Kircher Museum put him in the unique position to apply that philosophy of nature more generally to both the benefit and the knowledge of a much larger audience. For Buonanni, the study of mollusks is inextricably linked to the museum. Buonanni’s views on nature then would inform his curation of the Kircher Museum and play an important organizing principle under his stewardship. Namely, his rejecting conformity of causes in nature resulted in his collecting multiple specimens of natural artifacts such as shells and fossils, treating each as a unique object with a unique history worth recording. His doing so would have profound consequences for the future of the Museum Kircherianum.

BUONANNI AND MUSEUM CURATION

When Buonanni composed his response to Redi from the Collegium in 1691, Kircher’s collection of wonders was in disarray and at the risk of perishing entirely. Georgio de Sepi, the disciple of Kircher responsible for publishing the Museum’s first catalogue, openly lamented “more in sorrow than in anger” the neglect of Kircher’s collection upon the death of its namesake (Fletcher et al., 2011, p. 184). In 1687, for example, the collection was described by one visitor as “formerly one of the most curious [cabinets] in Europe,” but upon his visit was “very much mangl’d and dismembered.” This inimical state of affairs was largely due to the Collegium not having yet found a suitable replacement for Kircher as curator of the museum (Findlen, 1996, p. 34). The fate of the collection would change, luckily, in 1698, when Buonanni finally succeeded Kircher.

Under his stewardship of the Kircher Museum, the cabinet was successfully restored to its glory days as a space of public wonder and learning. Buonanni moved the collection from a cramped, dark corridor near the infirmary to a more open space near the chapel of St. Louis. With the new space available to him, he decorated the ceilings, and Buonanni further added to the remarkable collection of wonders his own extensive collection of hundreds of mollusks shells and microscopes. In doing so, the “Wise Aristotelian” single-handedly transformed the museum into a space that would remain relevant and regularly visited until the dissolution of the Society of Jesus in 1773, nearly a century after Kircher’s own death (Findlen, 1996, p. 126–127). (The Society would be subsequently restored by papal authority in 1814. See O’Malley SJ, 2014, p. 116.)

Paula Findlen has elegantly (and convincingly) argued that for naturalists such as Buonanni, the museum represented the reconstitution of the Aristotelian research program and a response to the experimental philosophy threatening them. In the case of Kircher, she explains how the collecting of artifacts of nature when conjoined with interrogation produced new attitudes toward nature and new methods of natural history (Findlen, 1996). Buonanni was certainly among the more recalcitrant Aristotelians of the late seventeenth century during a time when Aristotle was becoming increasingly unpopular. He consequently was vehemently opposed to the experimentalist epistemology of those such as Steno and Redi.

And yet, his refusal to generalize from induction is arguably at tension with an Aristotelian methodology, which assumes a unity across species. This break from Aristotle is even more striking given that Buonanni’s method of collecting is distinguishable from that of his beloved professor, Kircher. The artifacts most treasured by Buonanni are not curious articles from afar, but example after example of shells and artifacts that could be found locally. Buonanni was creating a public record. He would become a unique figure in history because his conception of the museum as a space to preserve and actively study mollusk shells and their related fossils—each of which are to be treated as a uniquely significant specimen—greatly informed his research on mollusks and, later, his role as curator. As curator of the collection, he became one who served the public, expanding knowledge beyond small scientific communities.

Buonanni first articulates the role played by the museum in the study of seashells and fossils as early as Recreatio. In the last chapter of Part I, “The various museums to which snails are brought back and in which conch shells are preserved,”8 Buonanni urges other scholars of museums to include exhibitions with snails, likewise urging them not to include any words or decorations on the shells (Buonanni, 1684, p. 81ff.). He makes mention of the Kircher Museum before concluding the chapter with an illusion to the book’s own title. Buonanni presents illustrations of testaceous animals in the following pages so that they can be easily identified even without color. Thus, he explains that testaceous animals should be observed for pleasure to nothing less than the mind’s eye (Buonanni, 1684, p. 85).

The year 1709 saw the publication of the second catalogue for the Kircher Museum, Musaeum Kircherianum sive musaeum, which was published by Buonanni. Whereas the original catalogue to the museum was 139 pages, including the illustrations and index, Buonanni’s Musaeum Kircherianum sive musaeum totals 770 pages. The impressive catalogue divides the entirety of the museum’s collection into a total of 12 classes, which include categories such as mathematical instruments, land and sea animals, artifacts from antiquity, and a collection of microscopes also donated by Buonanni. Most classes include numerous engravings depicting the items belonging to the museum. One surprising exception to his trend of including ample illustrations is Class VI, which discusses the Museum’s collection of stones and fossils.

The testaceous animals and their remains added by Buonanni to Kircher’s Museum are treated in Class XII. Buonanni, not surprisingly, has several chapters devoted to their generation and production. In describing the origin and causes of testaceous animals, the content conspicuously echoes that of Buonanni’s earlier Recreatio, to the point that several chapters have the same title as earlier ones, such as “The qualities of other retrieved testaceous animals in which the Providence of God is manifest”9 and “The various museums to which snails are brought back and in which conch shells are preserved,”10 discussed earlier. Further inspection of those chapters shows that, by and large, they contain the same content verbatim.

In many ways, the overall organization of Museum also mirrors that of Recreatio. Much like his first publication, the treatise is divided into four parts. The first, described above, provided a meticulous and detailed account of the museum’s collection. The second part provides a brief discussion on the classes of testaceous animals, and the third part is organized into “problems,” following a traditional Scholastic style. And the fourth part, as with Recreatio, contains several detailed illustrations of Buonanni’s collection of seashells. Another striking parallel between the 1709 Catalogue for the Kircher Museum and Buonanni’s earlier Recreatio is his use of a copper engraving to introduce the numerous, detailed illustrations of seashells. At first glance, the images look indistinguishable. Closer inspection, however, shows that they are actually mirror images of each other. One possibility is that Buonanni used the back of the copper engraving, allowing an artist to engrave new text for the subsequent publication. Given that the written content is the same, however, his incentive remains unclear (see Figs. 8 and 9). In the Catalogue, as with Recreatio, the engraving is followed by Part IV of the treatise, roughly a hundred pages, which are a series of detailed engravings of the seashell collection added by Buonanni. In examining the close relationship between Buonanni’s mollusk research and the Kircher Museum, it is apparent that Buonanni’s understanding of nature was not only influenced by his work as curator, but by applying the museum as a means of investigating natural history.

Figure 8.

From Recreatio (Buonanni, 1684).

Figure 8.

From Recreatio (Buonanni, 1684).

Figure 9.

From Musaeum Kircerianum (Buonanni, 1709).

Figure 9.

From Musaeum Kircerianum (Buonanni, 1709).

In this regard, Buonanni’s methodological approach stands in stark contrast to that of his predecessor. For Father Kircher, wonder and marvel were among “the essential components in the study of nature and in the unravelling of its secrets” (Lugli, 1986, p. 123). Kircher’s own presentation of the museum’s collection reflected this outlook, as he embellished its corridors with optical chambers and marvelous curiosities from around the world. Specimens of nature such as seashells, by contrast, were used to line the gardens and grottos—a common sixteenth-century decorating technique (Lugli, 1986). Whereas Kircher sought to possess one of every curiosity from around the world, Buonanni includes specimen after specimen after specimen of local seashells and their fossils. Buonanni thus helped to transform the museum from a mere cabinet of wonders and curiosities to a more robust public record, making his tenure at the Kircher Museum one of the very earliest examples of a modern museum.

Previous scholars have noted the many parallels between the impact of the printing press in Renaissance Europe and that of the Internet upon the present “Information Age” in which we reside. Both are responsible for the widespread dissemination of information at unprecedented speeds because of technological advancements, and both consequently had profound impacts upon culture and learning. A comparable relationship can be found between Buonanni’s curation of the Kircher Museum and more recent efforts by scientific communities to make museum collections accessible through electronic databases, such as the digitization of fossil collections for open access. Both are responsible for the publication of unprecedented quantities of data regarding the many individual shells, fossils, and other natural artifacts unique to a specific location (for Buonanni, the shores of Rome). In finding these parallels, we can begin to see how Buonanni’s story traverses through centuries, resonating throughout time and illustrating the important role played by museums to create a record of natural artifacts and their unique geological history; to preserve those artifacts and encourage their use in research; and to relay this information both to scientific communities and to the public more generally.

CONCLUSION

However laughable we may presently find Buonanni’s views on spontaneous generation or the inorganic production of fossils, he was right to question the underlying assumptions of experimentalists such as Steno and Redi. In particular, there is perfectly good reason to question the conformity of causes in nature. While Buonanni’s use of the Museum Catalogue to promote his own ideas on testaceous animals could be seen as somewhat opportunistic, in truth it was this aspect of his role as curator that helped to make the Kircher Museum actively engaged not only with the past, but with the present and future. In 1895, for example, Smithsonian Institution administrator, George Brown Goode, delivered a paper to the Museum Association on “The Relationship and Responsibilities of the Museum.” In the address, he describes the responsibility of museums: to advance learning; to impart special information to the general public; and to preserve materials for record and for future comparative studies. But he also explains that museums must be dynamic and “constantly engaged in aggressive work” in order to be useful or reputable. Failure to do so means that the museum has finished its work, and “A FINISHED MUSEUM,” he explains in all caps, “IS A DEAD MUSEUM, AND A DEAD MUSEUM IS A USELESS MUSEUM” (Goode, 2008, p. 111–117).

Buonanni made certain that the Kircher Museum was anything but finished. Under his stewardship, the Kircher Museum went on to serve as an early building block of a legacy for the geology museum—one in which each artifact, shell, or fossil is treated as having a unique and independent history, and one that serves to inform the general public rather than a smaller community of scientific scholars. He consequently helped to develop a tradition of the museum that is engaged not just with the past but with the future. It is, then, somewhat of a historical irony that it was his insistence upon the principle for which he has been ridiculed—his rejecting the conformity in nature—that allowed him to bring the museum to the forefront.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

I would like to thank Gary Rosenberg, Curtis Sommerlatte, two anonymous reviewers, and the GSA staff for insightful comments and suggestions that have much improved the quality of this paper.

Note: All figures are from copper engravings and in the public domain.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

I would like to thank Gary Rosenberg, Curtis Sommerlatte, two anonymous reviewers, and the GSA staff for insightful comments and suggestions that have much improved the quality of this paper.

Note: All figures are from copper engravings and in the public domain.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

I would like to thank Gary Rosenberg, Curtis Sommerlatte, two anonymous reviewers, and the GSA staff for insightful comments and suggestions that have much improved the quality of this paper.

Note: All figures are from copper engravings and in the public domain.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

I would like to thank Gary Rosenberg, Curtis Sommerlatte, two anonymous reviewers, and the GSA staff for insightful comments and suggestions that have much improved the quality of this paper.

Note: All figures are from copper engravings and in the public domain.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

I would like to thank Gary Rosenberg, Curtis Sommerlatte, two anonymous reviewers, and the GSA staff for insightful comments and suggestions that have much improved the quality of this paper.

Note: All figures are from copper engravings and in the public domain.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

I would like to thank Gary Rosenberg, Curtis Sommerlatte, two anonymous reviewers, and the GSA staff for insightful comments and suggestions that have much improved the quality of this paper.

Note: All figures are from copper engravings and in the public domain.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

I would like to thank Gary Rosenberg, Curtis Sommerlatte, two anonymous reviewers, and the GSA staff for insightful comments and suggestions that have much improved the quality of this paper.

Note: All figures are from copper engravings and in the public domain.

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Romani Collegii Societatis Jesu Musaeum celeberrimum, Cujus magnum Antiquariae rei, statuarium imaginum, picturarumque partem Ex Legato Alphonsi Domini, Senatus PopulusQue Romanus
:
Amstelo dami
,
Janssonio-Waesbergiana
, frontispiece.
Fazzari
,
M.
,
1999
,
Redi, Buonanni e La Contraversia Sulla Generazione Spontanea
, in
Bernardi
,
W.
, and
Guerrini
,
L.
, eds.,
Francesco Redi: Un Protagonista Della Scienza Moderna. Documenti, Esperimenti, Immagini
 :
Florence
,
Olschki
, p.
97
127
.
Findlen
,
P.
,
1996
,
Possessing Nature
:
Museums, Collecting, and Scientific Culture in Early Modern Italy
 :
Berkeley
,
University of California Press
,
449
p.
Findlen
,
P.
,
2004
,
Introduction: The last man who knew everything … Or did he? Athanasius Kircher, S.J. (1602–1680) and his world
, in
Findlen
,
P.
, ed.,
Athanasius Kircher: The Last Man Who Knew Everything
 :
New York and London
,
Routledge
, p.
1
48
.
Fletcher
,
J.E.
,
Fletcher
,
E.
, and
Kircher
,
A.
,
2011
,
A Study of the Life and Works of Athanasius Kircher, Germanus Incredibilis: With a Selection of His Unpublished Correspondence and an Annotated Translation of His Autobiography
:
Leiden
,
Brill
,
656
p.
Frank
,
R.G.
,
1980
,
Harvey and the Oxford Physiologists
:
A Study of Scientific Ideas
 :
Berkeley
,
University of California
,
368
p.
Goode
,
G.B.
,
2008
,
The relationships and responsibilities of museums
, in
Andrei
,
M.A.
, and
Genoways
,
H.H.
, eds.,
Museum Origins: Readings in Early Museum History and Philosophy
 :
New York
,
Routledge
, p.
111
124
.
Goudin
,
A.
,
[1668] 1864
,
Philosophie suivant les principes de saint Thomas, Tome 1
: Vol.
1
,
Paris
,
Vve Poussielgue-Rusand
. Digitized by the Bibliothèque nationale de France, département Philosophie, histoire, sciences de l’homme,
582
p.; http://gallica.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/bpt6k653059.
Gould
,
S.J.
,
2004
,
Father Athanasius on the isthmus of a middle state: Understanding Kircher’s paleontology
, in
Findlen
,
P.
, ed.,
Athanasius Kircher: The Last Man Who Knew Everything
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New York and London
,
Routledge
, p.
207
238
.
Hagan
,
H.A.
,
2008
,
The history of the origin and development of museums
, in
Andrei
,
M.A.
, and
Genoways
,
H.H.
, eds.,
Museum Origins: Readings in Early Museum History and Philosophy
 :
New York
,
Routledge
, p.
39
48
.
Hirai
,
H.
,
2007
,
Kircher’s chymical interpretation of the creation and spontaneous generation
, in
Principe
,
L.
, ed.,
Chymists and Chymistry: Studies in the History of Alchemy and Early Modern Chemistry
 :
Sagamore Beach, Massachusetts
,
Science History Publications, Watson Publishing International
, p.
77
87
.
Hirai
,
H.
,
2016
,
Mysteries of living corpuscles
, in
Distelzweig
,
P.
,
Goldberg
,
B.
, and
Ragland
,
E.R.
, eds.,
Early Modern Medicine and Natural Philosophy
 :
Dordrecht, Netherlands
,
Springer
, p.
255
269
.
Hooke
,
R.
,
1665
,
Micrographia
:
Or Some Physiological Descriptions of Minute Bodies Made by Magnifying Glasses with Observations and Inquiries Thereupon
 :
London
,
Royal Society. Digitized by Duke University Libraries
,
246
p.; https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/198549#page/5/mode/1up.
Hsia
,
F.
,
2004
,
Athanasius Kircher’s China Illustrated (1667): An Apologia Pro Vita Sua
, in
Findlen
,
P.
, ed.,
Athanasius Kircher: The Last Man Who Knew Everything
 :
New York and London
,
Routledge
, p.
383
404
.
Hunter
,
M.
, and
Davis
,
E.B.
, eds.,
2000
,
The Works of Robert Boyle
: Volume
7
,
London
,
Routledge
, p.
3
72
Franceschini
,
P.
,
2008
,
Buonanni, Filippo
, in
Koertge
,
N.
, ed.,
Complete Dictionary of Scientific Biography
 , vol.
2
:
Charles Scribner’s Sons
, Gale Virtual Reference Library, p.
591
592
.
Kircher
,
A.
,
[1678] 2004
,
Mundus Subterraneus, Facsimile Reproduction
:
Compiled by Gian Battista Vai
 : 3rd ed., Series 1678:
Bologna, Italy
,
Museo Geologico Giovanni Capellini
,
507
p.
Koertge
,
N.
,
2008
,
Complete Dictionary of Scientific Biography
:
Charles Scribner’s Sons
 ,
Gale Virtual Reference Library
.
Lugli
,
A.
,
1986
,
Inquiry as collection: The Athanasius Kircher Museum in Rome
:
RES: Anthropology and Aesthetics
 , v.
12
, p.
109
124
.
O’Malley
,
J.W.
,
SJ
,
2014
,
The Jesuits: A History from Ignatius to the Present
:
Lanham
 ,
Maryland
,
Rowman & Littlefield
,
160
p.
Parcell
,
W.C.
,
2009
,
Signs and symbols in Kircher’s Mundus Subterraneus
, in
Rosenberg
,
G.D.
, ed.,
The Revolution in Geology from the Renaissance to the Enlightenment: Geological Society of America Memoir
 
203
, p.
63
74
, https://doi.org/10.1130/2009.1203(04).
Plot
,
R.
,
1677
,
The Natural History of Oxford-shire
:
Being an Essay toward the Natural History of England
 :
Oxford, UK
, Printed at the Theater in Oxford: and are to be had there: And in London at
Mr. S. Millers
, at the Star near the West-end of St. Paul’s Church-yard,
358
p.
Rappaport
,
R.
,
1997
,
When Geologists Were Historians: 1665–1750
:
Ithaca
 ,
New York
,
Cornell University Press
,
336
p.
Redi
,
F.
,
[1668] 1909
,
Experiments on the Generation of Insects
 :
Chicago
,
Open Court Publishing
,
174
p.
Roger
,
J.
,
1997
,
The Life Sciences in Eighteenth Century French Thought
: Edited by
Benson
,
K.
, translated by
Ellrich
,
R.
:
Stanford, California
,
Stanford University Press
,
804
p.
Rossi
,
P.
,
1984
,
The Dark Abyss of Time
:
The History of the Earth & the History of Nations from Hooke to Vico
 :
Chicago
,
University of Chicago Press
,
338
p.
Rowland
,
I.D.
,
2004
,
Athanasius Kircher, Giorando Bruno, and the panspermia of the infinite universe
, in
Findlen
,
P.
, ed.,
Athanasius Kircher: The Last Man Who Knew Everything
 :
New York and London
,
Routledge
, p.
191
206
.
Sardo
,
E.L.
,
2004
,
Kircher’s Rome
, in
Findlen
,
P.
, ed.,
Athanasius Kircher: The Last Man Who Knew Everything
 :
New York and London
,
Routledge
, p.
51
62
.
Smith
,
J.E.H.
,
2011
,
Divine Machines: Leibniz and the Sciences of Life
:
Princeton
 ,
New Jersey
,
Princeton University Press
,
380
p.
Steno
,
N.
,
1671
,
The Prodomus to a Dissertation Concerning Solids Naturally Contained Within Solids
. Translated by
Oldenburg
,
H.
:
London
,
Moses Pitt
,
112
p.
Wilson
,
C.
,
1997
,
The Invisible World: Early Modern Philosophy and the Invention of the Microscope
:
Princeton
 ,
New Jersey
,
Princeton University Press
,
280
p.
Yamanda
,
T.
,
2006
,
Kircher and Steno on the “geocosm,” with a reassessment of the role of Gassendi’s works
, in
Vai
,
G.B.
, and
Caldwell
,
W.G.E.
, eds.,
The Origins of Geology in Italy: Geological Society of America Special Paper 411
 , p.
65
80
, https://doi.org/10.1130/2006.2411(05).

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Guerrini
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Florence
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127
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Findlen
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P.
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Possessing Nature
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University of California Press
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449
p.
Findlen
,
P.
,
2004
,
Introduction: The last man who knew everything … Or did he? Athanasius Kircher, S.J. (1602–1680) and his world
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Findlen
,
P.
, ed.,
Athanasius Kircher: The Last Man Who Knew Everything
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New York and London
,
Routledge
, p.
1
48
.
Fletcher
,
J.E.
,
Fletcher
,
E.
, and
Kircher
,
A.
,
2011
,
A Study of the Life and Works of Athanasius Kircher, Germanus Incredibilis: With a Selection of His Unpublished Correspondence and an Annotated Translation of His Autobiography
:
Leiden
,
Brill
,
656
p.
Frank
,
R.G.
,
1980
,
Harvey and the Oxford Physiologists
:
A Study of Scientific Ideas
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Berkeley
,
University of California
,
368
p.
Goode
,
G.B.
,
2008
,
The relationships and responsibilities of museums
, in
Andrei
,
M.A.
, and
Genoways
,
H.H.
, eds.,
Museum Origins: Readings in Early Museum History and Philosophy
 :
New York
,
Routledge
, p.
111
124
.
Goudin
,
A.
,
[1668] 1864
,
Philosophie suivant les principes de saint Thomas, Tome 1
: Vol.
1
,
Paris
,
Vve Poussielgue-Rusand
. Digitized by the Bibliothèque nationale de France, département Philosophie, histoire, sciences de l’homme,
582
p.; http://gallica.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/bpt6k653059.
Gould
,
S.J.
,
2004
,
Father Athanasius on the isthmus of a middle state: Understanding Kircher’s paleontology
, in
Findlen
,
P.
, ed.,
Athanasius Kircher: The Last Man Who Knew Everything
 :
New York and London
,
Routledge
, p.
207
238
.
Hagan
,
H.A.
,
2008
,
The history of the origin and development of museums
, in
Andrei
,
M.A.
, and
Genoways
,
H.H.
, eds.,
Museum Origins: Readings in Early Museum History and Philosophy
 :
New York
,
Routledge
, p.
39
48
.
Hirai
,
H.
,
2007
,
Kircher’s chymical interpretation of the creation and spontaneous generation
, in
Principe
,
L.
, ed.,
Chymists and Chymistry: Studies in the History of Alchemy and Early Modern Chemistry
 :
Sagamore Beach, Massachusetts
,
Science History Publications, Watson Publishing International
, p.
77
87
.
Hirai
,
H.
,
2016
,
Mysteries of living corpuscles
, in
Distelzweig
,
P.
,
Goldberg
,
B.
, and
Ragland
,
E.R.
, eds.,
Early Modern Medicine and Natural Philosophy
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Dordrecht, Netherlands
,
Springer
, p.
255
269
.
Hooke
,
R.
,
1665
,
Micrographia
:
Or Some Physiological Descriptions of Minute Bodies Made by Magnifying Glasses with Observations and Inquiries Thereupon
 :
London
,
Royal Society. Digitized by Duke University Libraries
,
246
p.; https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/198549#page/5/mode/1up.
Hsia
,
F.
,
2004
,
Athanasius Kircher’s China Illustrated (1667): An Apologia Pro Vita Sua
, in
Findlen
,
P.
, ed.,
Athanasius Kircher: The Last Man Who Knew Everything
 :
New York and London
,
Routledge
, p.
383
404
.
Hunter
,
M.
, and
Davis
,
E.B.
, eds.,
2000
,
The Works of Robert Boyle
: Volume
7
,
London
,
Routledge
, p.
3
72
Franceschini
,
P.
,
2008
,
Buonanni, Filippo
, in
Koertge
,
N.
, ed.,
Complete Dictionary of Scientific Biography
 , vol.
2
:
Charles Scribner’s Sons
, Gale Virtual Reference Library, p.
591
592
.
Kircher
,
A.
,
[1678] 2004
,
Mundus Subterraneus, Facsimile Reproduction
:
Compiled by Gian Battista Vai
 : 3rd ed., Series 1678:
Bologna, Italy
,
Museo Geologico Giovanni Capellini
,
507
p.
Koertge
,
N.
,
2008
,
Complete Dictionary of Scientific Biography
:
Charles Scribner’s Sons
 ,
Gale Virtual Reference Library
.
Lugli
,
A.
,
1986
,
Inquiry as collection: The Athanasius Kircher Museum in Rome
:
RES: Anthropology and Aesthetics
 , v.
12
, p.
109
124
.
O’Malley
,
J.W.
,
SJ
,
2014
,
The Jesuits: A History from Ignatius to the Present
:
Lanham
 ,
Maryland
,
Rowman & Littlefield
,
160
p.
Parcell
,
W.C.
,
2009
,
Signs and symbols in Kircher’s Mundus Subterraneus
, in
Rosenberg
,
G.D.
, ed.,
The Revolution in Geology from the Renaissance to the Enlightenment: Geological Society of America Memoir
 
203
, p.
63
74
, https://doi.org/10.1130/2009.1203(04).
Plot
,
R.
,
1677
,
The Natural History of Oxford-shire
:
Being an Essay toward the Natural History of England
 :
Oxford, UK
, Printed at the Theater in Oxford: and are to be had there: And in London at
Mr. S. Millers
, at the Star near the West-end of St. Paul’s Church-yard,
358
p.
Rappaport
,
R.
,
1997
,
When Geologists Were Historians: 1665–1750
:
Ithaca
 ,
New York
,
Cornell University Press
,
336
p.
Redi
,
F.
,
[1668] 1909
,
Experiments on the Generation of Insects
 :
Chicago
,
Open Court Publishing
,
174
p.
Roger
,
J.
,
1997
,
The Life Sciences in Eighteenth Century French Thought
: Edited by
Benson
,
K.
, translated by
Ellrich
,
R.
:
Stanford, California
,
Stanford University Press
,
804
p.
Rossi
,
P.
,
1984
,
The Dark Abyss of Time
:
The History of the Earth & the History of Nations from Hooke to Vico
 :
Chicago
,
University of Chicago Press
,
338
p.
Rowland
,
I.D.
,
2004
,
Athanasius Kircher, Giorando Bruno, and the panspermia of the infinite universe
, in
Findlen
,
P.
, ed.,
Athanasius Kircher: The Last Man Who Knew Everything
 :
New York and London
,
Routledge
, p.
191
206
.
Sardo
,
E.L.
,
2004
,
Kircher’s Rome
, in
Findlen
,
P.
, ed.,
Athanasius Kircher: The Last Man Who Knew Everything
 :
New York and London
,
Routledge
, p.
51
62
.
Smith
,
J.E.H.
,
2011
,
Divine Machines: Leibniz and the Sciences of Life
:
Princeton
 ,
New Jersey
,
Princeton University Press
,
380
p.
Steno
,
N.
,
1671
,
The Prodomus to a Dissertation Concerning Solids Naturally Contained Within Solids
. Translated by
Oldenburg
,
H.
:
London
,
Moses Pitt
,
112
p.
Wilson
,
C.
,
1997
,
The Invisible World: Early Modern Philosophy and the Invention of the Microscope
:
Princeton
 ,
New Jersey
,
Princeton University Press
,
280
p.
Yamanda
,
T.
,
2006
,
Kircher and Steno on the “geocosm,” with a reassessment of the role of Gassendi’s works
, in
Vai
,
G.B.
, and
Caldwell
,
W.G.E.
, eds.,
The Origins of Geology in Italy: Geological Society of America Special Paper 411
 , p.
65
80
, https://doi.org/10.1130/2006.2411(05).

REFERENCES CITED

Adelmann
,
H.B.
,
1966
,
Marcello Malpighi and the Evolution of Embryology: Ithaca
 ,
New York
,
Cornell University Press
,
5
vols.,
551
p.
Adelmann
,
H.B.
, and
Malpighi
,
M.
,
1975
,
The Correspondence of Marcello Malpighi
:
Ithaca
 ,
New York
,
Cornell University Press
,
5
vols.,
2227
p.
Aristotle
, and
Barnes
,
J.
, ed.,
1995
,
Complete Works of Aristotle: The Revised Oxford Translation
:
Princeton
 ,
New Jersey
,
Princeton University Press
,
2
vols., p.
774
993
and p.
1552
1728
.
Basile
,
B.
,
1987
,
Polemiche sulla generazione spontanea: Redi, Buonanni, Malpighi
, in
Basile
,
B.
, ed.,
L’invenzione del vero: La letteratura scientifica da Galileo a Algarotti
 :
Rome
,
Salerno
, p.
125
167
.
Bertoloni Meli
,
D.
,
2011
,
Mechanism, Experiment, Disease
:
Marcello Malpighi and Seventeenth-century Anatomy
 :
Baltimore
,
Johns Hopkins University Press
,
439
p.
Buonanni
,
F.
,
1684
,
Recreatio mentis et oculi in observatione animalium testaceorum
:
Digitized copy of original from Harvard University Library of Dept. of Mollusks
 :
Rome
,
Varesi
,
569
p.
Buonanni
,
F.
,
1691
,
Observationes circa viventia, quae in rebus non viventibus reperuntur, Digitized by the Elektronische Bibliothek Schweiz project
:
Rome
,
Antonio Hercules
,
585
p.
Buonanni
,
F.
,
1709
,
Musaeum Kicherianum Sive Musaeum AP Athanasio Kichero in Collegio Romano Societatis Jesu
:
Digitized by Google Books
 :
Rome
,
Collegio Romano Societatis Jesu
,
748
p.
Chang
,
K.-M.(K.)
,
2011
,
Alchemy as studies of life and matter: Reconsidering the place of vitalism in early modern chemistry
:
Isis
 , v.
102
, no.
2
, p.
322
329
, https://doi.org/10.1086/660141.
Cobb
,
M.
,
2006
,
Generation: The Seventeenth-Century Scientists Who Unraveled the Secrets of Sex, Life, and Growth
:
New York
,
Bloomsbury Publisher
,
333
p.
Cunningham
,
A.
,
1997
,
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The Resurrection of the Anatomical Projects of the Ancients
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Aldershot, UK
,
Scholar Press
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,
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,
Redi, Buonanni e La Contraversia Sulla Generazione Spontanea
, in
Bernardi
,
W.
, and
Guerrini
,
L.
, eds.,
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,
P.
,
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,
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,
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449
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P.
,
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,
Introduction: The last man who knew everything … Or did he? Athanasius Kircher, S.J. (1602–1680) and his world
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Findlen
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P.
, ed.,
Athanasius Kircher: The Last Man Who Knew Everything
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,
Routledge
, p.
1
48
.
Fletcher
,
J.E.
,
Fletcher
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E.
, and
Kircher
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A.
,
2011
,
A Study of the Life and Works of Athanasius Kircher, Germanus Incredibilis: With a Selection of His Unpublished Correspondence and an Annotated Translation of His Autobiography
:
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,
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656
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,
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,
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,
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,
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,
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,
2008
,
The relationships and responsibilities of museums
, in
Andrei
,
M.A.
, and
Genoways
,
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, eds.,
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,
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,
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,
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,
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L.
, ed.,
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,
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,
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,
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P.
,
Goldberg
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,
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,
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,
246
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F.
,
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,
Athanasius Kircher’s China Illustrated (1667): An Apologia Pro Vita Sua
, in
Findlen
,
P.
, ed.,
Athanasius Kircher: The Last Man Who Knew Everything
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New York and London
,
Routledge
, p.
383
404
.
Hunter
,
M.
, and
Davis
,
E.B.
, eds.,
2000
,
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,
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,
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3
72
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P.
,
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,
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, in
Koertge
,
N.
, ed.,
Complete Dictionary of Scientific Biography
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2
:
Charles Scribner’s Sons
, Gale Virtual Reference Library, p.
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592
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Kircher
,
A.
,
[1678] 2004
,
Mundus Subterraneus, Facsimile Reproduction
:
Compiled by Gian Battista Vai
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Bologna, Italy
,
Museo Geologico Giovanni Capellini
,
507
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Koertge
,
N.
,
2008
,
Complete Dictionary of Scientific Biography
:
Charles Scribner’s Sons
 ,
Gale Virtual Reference Library
.
Lugli
,
A.
,
1986
,
Inquiry as collection: The Athanasius Kircher Museum in Rome
:
RES: Anthropology and Aesthetics
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12
, p.
109
124
.
O’Malley
,
J.W.
,
SJ
,
2014
,
The Jesuits: A History from Ignatius to the Present
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Lanham
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Maryland
,
Rowman & Littlefield
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160
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Parcell
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W.C.
,
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,
Signs and symbols in Kircher’s Mundus Subterraneus
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Rosenberg
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G.D.
, ed.,
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203
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63
74
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,
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Being an Essay toward the Natural History of England
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Oxford, UK
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358
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Rappaport
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R.
,
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When Geologists Were Historians: 1665–1750
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Ithaca
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New York
,
Cornell University Press
,
336
p.
Redi
,
F.
,
[1668] 1909
,
Experiments on the Generation of Insects
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Chicago
,
Open Court Publishing
,
174
p.
Roger
,
J.
,
1997
,
The Life Sciences in Eighteenth Century French Thought
: Edited by
Benson
,
K.
, translated by
Ellrich
,
R.
:
Stanford, California
,
Stanford University Press
,
804
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Rossi
,
P.
,
1984
,
The Dark Abyss of Time
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The History of the Earth & the History of Nations from Hooke to Vico
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Chicago
,
University of Chicago Press
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338
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Rowland
,
I.D.
,
2004
,
Athanasius Kircher, Giorando Bruno, and the panspermia of the infinite universe
, in
Findlen
,
P.
, ed.,
Athanasius Kircher: The Last Man Who Knew Everything
 :
New York and London
,
Routledge
, p.
191
206
.
Sardo
,
E.L.
,
2004
,
Kircher’s Rome
, in
Findlen
,
P.
, ed.,
Athanasius Kircher: The Last Man Who Knew Everything
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New York and London
,
Routledge
, p.
51
62
.
Smith
,
J.E.H.
,
2011
,
Divine Machines: Leibniz and the Sciences of Life
:
Princeton
 ,
New Jersey
,
Princeton University Press
,
380
p.
Steno
,
N.
,
1671
,
The Prodomus to a Dissertation Concerning Solids Naturally Contained Within Solids
. Translated by
Oldenburg
,
H.
:
London
,
Moses Pitt
,
112
p.
Wilson
,
C.
,
1997
,
The Invisible World: Early Modern Philosophy and the Invention of the Microscope
:
Princeton
 ,
New Jersey
,
Princeton University Press
,
280
p.
Yamanda
,
T.
,
2006
,
Kircher and Steno on the “geocosm,” with a reassessment of the role of Gassendi’s works
, in
Vai
,
G.B.
, and
Caldwell
,
W.G.E.
, eds.,
The Origins of Geology in Italy: Geological Society of America Special Paper 411
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65
80
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Athanasius Kircher: The Last Man Who Knew Everything
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48
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G.B.
,
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,
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M.A.
, and
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H.H.
, eds.,
Museum Origins: Readings in Early Museum History and Philosophy
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111
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Goudin
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A.
,
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1
,
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Vve Poussielgue-Rusand
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S.J.
,
2004
,
Father Athanasius on the isthmus of a middle state: Understanding Kircher’s paleontology
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Findlen
,
P.
, ed.,
Athanasius Kircher: The Last Man Who Knew Everything
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New York and London
,
Routledge
, p.
207
238
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Hagan
,
H.A.
,
2008
,
The history of the origin and development of museums
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Andrei
,
M.A.
, and
Genoways
,
H.H.
, eds.,
Museum Origins: Readings in Early Museum History and Philosophy
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New York
,
Routledge
, p.
39
48
.
Hirai
,
H.
,
2007
,
Kircher’s chymical interpretation of the creation and spontaneous generation
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Principe
,
L.
, ed.,
Chymists and Chymistry: Studies in the History of Alchemy and Early Modern Chemistry
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77
87
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H.
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Mysteries of living corpuscles
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P.
,
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B.
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P.
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Athanasius Kircher: The Last Man Who Knew Everything
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,
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,
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,
N.
, ed.,
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2
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592
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A.
,
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,
Mundus Subterraneus, Facsimile Reproduction
:
Compiled by Gian Battista Vai
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Bologna, Italy
,
Museo Geologico Giovanni Capellini
,
507
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,
N.
,
2008
,
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Gale Virtual Reference Library
.
Lugli
,
A.
,
1986
,
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RES: Anthropology and Aesthetics
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12
, p.
109
124
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O’Malley
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J.W.
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SJ
,
2014
,
The Jesuits: A History from Ignatius to the Present
:
Lanham
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Maryland
,
Rowman & Littlefield
,
160
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Parcell
,
W.C.
,
2009
,
Signs and symbols in Kircher’s Mundus Subterraneus
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Rosenberg
,
G.D.
, ed.,
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74
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,
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,
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,
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Being an Essay toward the Natural History of England
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Oxford, UK
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Mr. S. Millers
, at the Star near the West-end of St. Paul’s Church-yard,
358
p.
Rappaport
,
R.
,
1997
,
When Geologists Were Historians: 1665–1750
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Ithaca
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New York
,
Cornell University Press
,
336
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Redi
,
F.
,
[1668] 1909
,
Experiments on the Generation of Insects
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,
Open Court Publishing
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174
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Roger
,
J.
,
1997
,
The Life Sciences in Eighteenth Century French Thought
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Benson
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K.
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,
R.
:
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804
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Rossi
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P.
,
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,
The Dark Abyss of Time
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Chicago
,
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,
338
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Rowland
,
I.D.
,
2004
,
Athanasius Kircher, Giorando Bruno, and the panspermia of the infinite universe
, in
Findlen
,
P.
, ed.,
Athanasius Kircher: The Last Man Who Knew Everything
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New York and London
,
Routledge
, p.
191
206
.
Sardo
,
E.L.
,
2004
,
Kircher’s Rome
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Findlen
,
P.
, ed.,
Athanasius Kircher: The Last Man Who Knew Everything
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New York and London
,
Routledge
, p.
51
62
.
Smith
,
J.E.H.
,
2011
,
Divine Machines: Leibniz and the Sciences of Life
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Princeton
 ,
New Jersey
,
Princeton University Press
,
380
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Steno
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N.
,
1671
,
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,
H.
:
London
,
Moses Pitt
,
112
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Wilson
,
C.
,
1997
,
The Invisible World: Early Modern Philosophy and the Invention of the Microscope
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Princeton
 ,
New Jersey
,
Princeton University Press
,
280
p.
Yamanda
,
T.
,
2006
,
Kircher and Steno on the “geocosm,” with a reassessment of the role of Gassendi’s works
, in
Vai
,
G.B.
, and
Caldwell
,
W.G.E.
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The Origins of Geology in Italy: Geological Society of America Special Paper 411
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65
80
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REFERENCES CITED

Adelmann
,
H.B.
,
1966
,
Marcello Malpighi and the Evolution of Embryology: Ithaca
 ,
New York
,
Cornell University Press
,
5
vols.,
551
p.
Adelmann
,
H.B.
, and
Malpighi
,
M.
,
1975
,
The Correspondence of Marcello Malpighi
:
Ithaca
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New York
,
Cornell University Press
,
5
vols.,
2227
p.
Aristotle
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Barnes
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J.
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Complete Works of Aristotle: The Revised Oxford Translation
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 ,
New Jersey
,
Princeton University Press
,
2
vols., p.
774
993
and p.
1552
1728
.
Basile
,
B.
,
1987
,
Polemiche sulla generazione spontanea: Redi, Buonanni, Malpighi
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Basile
,
B.
, ed.,
L’invenzione del vero: La letteratura scientifica da Galileo a Algarotti
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Rome
,
Salerno
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125
167
.
Bertoloni Meli
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D.
,
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,
Mechanism, Experiment, Disease
:
Marcello Malpighi and Seventeenth-century Anatomy
 :
Baltimore
,
Johns Hopkins University Press
,
439
p.
Buonanni
,
F.
,
1684
,
Recreatio mentis et oculi in observatione animalium testaceorum
:
Digitized copy of original from Harvard University Library of Dept. of Mollusks
 :
Rome
,
Varesi
,
569
p.
Buonanni
,
F.
,
1691
,
Observationes circa viventia, quae in rebus non viventibus reperuntur, Digitized by the Elektronische Bibliothek Schweiz project
:
Rome
,
Antonio Hercules
,
585
p.
Buonanni
,
F.
,
1709
,
Musaeum Kicherianum Sive Musaeum AP Athanasio Kichero in Collegio Romano Societatis Jesu
:
Digitized by Google Books
 :
Rome
,
Collegio Romano Societatis Jesu
,
748
p.
Chang
,
K.-M.(K.)
,
2011
,
Alchemy as studies of life and matter: Reconsidering the place of vitalism in early modern chemistry
:
Isis
 , v.
102
, no.
2
, p.
322
329
, https://doi.org/10.1086/660141.
Cobb
,
M.
,
2006
,
Generation: The Seventeenth-Century Scientists Who Unraveled the Secrets of Sex, Life, and Growth
:
New York
,
Bloomsbury Publisher
,
333
p.
Cunningham
,
A.
,
1997
,
The Anatomical Renaissance
:
The Resurrection of the Anatomical Projects of the Ancients
 :
Aldershot, UK
,
Scholar Press
,
283
p.
De Boodt
,
A.B.
,
1647
,
Gemmarum et Lapidum Historia
:
Quam Olim Edidit
,
602
p.
De Sepibus
,
G.
,
1678
,
Romani Collegii Societatis Jesu Musaeum celeberrimum, Cujus magnum Antiquariae rei, statuarium imaginum, picturarumque partem Ex Legato Alphonsi Domini, Senatus PopulusQue Romanus
:
Amstelo dami
,
Janssonio-Waesbergiana
, frontispiece.
Fazzari
,
M.
,
1999
,
Redi, Buonanni e La Contraversia Sulla Generazione Spontanea
, in
Bernardi
,
W.
, and
Guerrini
,
L.
, eds.,
Francesco Redi: Un Protagonista Della Scienza Moderna. Documenti, Esperimenti, Immagini
 :
Florence
,
Olschki
, p.
97
127
.
Findlen
,
P.
,
1996
,
Possessing Nature
:
Museums, Collecting, and Scientific Culture in Early Modern Italy
 :
Berkeley
,
University of California Press
,
449
p.
Findlen
,
P.
,
2004
,
Introduction: The last man who knew everything … Or did he? Athanasius Kircher, S.J. (1602–1680) and his world
, in
Findlen
,
P.
, ed.,
Athanasius Kircher: The Last Man Who Knew Everything
 :
New York and London
,
Routledge
, p.
1
48
.
Fletcher
,
J.E.
,
Fletcher
,
E.
, and
Kircher
,
A.
,
2011
,
A Study of the Life and Works of Athanasius Kircher, Germanus Incredibilis: With a Selection of His Unpublished Correspondence and an Annotated Translation of His Autobiography
:
Leiden
,
Brill
,
656
p.
Frank
,
R.G.
,
1980
,
Harvey and the Oxford Physiologists
:
A Study of Scientific Ideas
 :
Berkeley
,
University of California
,
368
p.
Goode
,
G.B.
,
2008
,
The relationships and responsibilities of museums
, in
Andrei
,
M.A.
, and
Genoways
,
H.H.
, eds.,
Museum Origins: Readings in Early Museum History and Philosophy
 :
New York
,
Routledge
, p.
111
124
.
Goudin
,
A.
,
[1668] 1864
,
Philosophie suivant les principes de saint Thomas, Tome 1
: Vol.
1
,
Paris
,
Vve Poussielgue-Rusand
. Digitized by the Bibliothèque nationale de France, département Philosophie, histoire, sciences de l’homme,
582
p.; http://gallica.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/bpt6k653059.
Gould
,
S.J.
,
2004
,
Father Athanasius on the isthmus of a middle state: Understanding Kircher’s paleontology
, in
Findlen
,
P.
, ed.,
Athanasius Kircher: The Last Man Who Knew Everything
 :
New York and London
,
Routledge
, p.
207
238
.
Hagan
,
H.A.
,
2008
,
The history of the origin and development of museums
, in
Andrei
,
M.A.
, and
Genoways
,
H.H.
, eds.,
Museum Origins: Readings in Early Museum History and Philosophy
 :
New York
,
Routledge
, p.
39
48
.
Hirai
,
H.
,
2007
,
Kircher’s chymical interpretation of the creation and spontaneous generation
, in
Principe
,
L.
, ed.,
Chymists and Chymistry: Studies in the History of Alchemy and Early Modern Chemistry
 :
Sagamore Beach, Massachusetts
,
Science History Publications, Watson Publishing International
, p.
77
87
.
Hirai
,
H.
,
2016
,
Mysteries of living corpuscles
, in
Distelzweig
,
P.
,
Goldberg
,
B.
, and
Ragland
,
E.R.
, eds.,
Early Modern Medicine and Natural Philosophy
 :
Dordrecht, Netherlands
,
Springer
, p.
255
269
.
Hooke
,
R.
,
1665
,
Micrographia
:
Or Some Physiological Descriptions of Minute Bodies Made by Magnifying Glasses with Observations and Inquiries Thereupon
 :
London
,
Royal Society. Digitized by Duke University Libraries
,
246
p.; https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/198549#page/5/mode/1up.
Hsia
,
F.
,
2004
,
Athanasius Kircher’s China Illustrated (1667): An Apologia Pro Vita Sua
, in
Findlen
,
P.
, ed.,
Athanasius Kircher: The Last Man Who Knew Everything
 :
New York and London
,
Routledge
, p.
383
404
.
Hunter
,
M.
, and
Davis
,
E.B.
, eds.,
2000
,
The Works of Robert Boyle
: Volume
7
,
London
,
Routledge
, p.
3
72
Franceschini
,
P.
,
2008
,
Buonanni, Filippo
, in
Koertge
,
N.
, ed.,
Complete Dictionary of Scientific Biography
 , vol.
2
:
Charles Scribner’s Sons
, Gale Virtual Reference Library, p.
591
592
.
Kircher
,
A.
,
[1678] 2004
,
Mundus Subterraneus, Facsimile Reproduction
:
Compiled by Gian Battista Vai
 : 3rd ed., Series 1678:
Bologna, Italy
,
Museo Geologico Giovanni Capellini
,
507
p.
Koertge
,
N.
,
2008
,
Complete Dictionary of Scientific Biography
:
Charles Scribner’s Sons
 ,
Gale Virtual Reference Library
.
Lugli
,
A.
,
1986
,
Inquiry as collection: The Athanasius Kircher Museum in Rome
:
RES: Anthropology and Aesthetics
 , v.
12
, p.
109
124
.
O’Malley
,
J.W.
,
SJ
,
2014
,
The Jesuits: A History from Ignatius to the Present
:
Lanham
 ,
Maryland
,
Rowman & Littlefield
,
160
p.
Parcell
,
W.C.
,
2009
,
Signs and symbols in Kircher’s Mundus Subterraneus
, in
Rosenberg
,
G.D.
, ed.,
The Revolution in Geology from the Renaissance to the Enlightenment: Geological Society of America Memoir
 
203
, p.
63
74
, https://doi.org/10.1130/2009.1203(04).
Plot
,
R.
,
1677
,
The Natural History of Oxford-shire
:
Being an Essay toward the Natural History of England
 :
Oxford, UK
, Printed at the Theater in Oxford: and are to be had there: And in London at
Mr. S. Millers
, at the Star near the West-end of St. Paul’s Church-yard,
358
p.
Rappaport
,
R.
,
1997
,
When Geologists Were Historians: 1665–1750
:
Ithaca
 ,
New York
,
Cornell University Press
,
336
p.
Redi
,
F.
,
[1668] 1909
,
Experiments on the Generation of Insects
 :
Chicago
,
Open Court Publishing
,
174
p.
Roger
,
J.
,
1997
,
The Life Sciences in Eighteenth Century French Thought
: Edited by
Benson
,
K.
, translated by
Ellrich
,
R.
:
Stanford, California
,
Stanford University Press
,
804
p.
Rossi
,
P.
,
1984
,
The Dark Abyss of Time
:
The History of the Earth & the History of Nations from Hooke to Vico
 :
Chicago
,
University of Chicago Press
,
338
p.
Rowland
,
I.D.
,
2004
,
Athanasius Kircher, Giorando Bruno, and the panspermia of the infinite universe
, in
Findlen
,
P.
, ed.,
Athanasius Kircher: The Last Man Who Knew Everything
 :
New York and London
,
Routledge
, p.
191
206
.
Sardo
,
E.L.
,
2004
,
Kircher’s Rome
, in
Findlen
,
P.
, ed.,
Athanasius Kircher: The Last Man Who Knew Everything
 :
New York and London
,
Routledge
, p.
51
62
.
Smith
,
J.E.H.
,
2011
,
Divine Machines: Leibniz and the Sciences of Life
:
Princeton
 ,
New Jersey
,
Princeton University Press
,
380
p.
Steno
,
N.
,
1671
,
The Prodomus to a Dissertation Concerning Solids Naturally Contained Within Solids
. Translated by
Oldenburg
,
H.
:
London
,
Moses Pitt
,
112
p.
Wilson
,
C.
,
1997
,
The Invisible World: Early Modern Philosophy and the Invention of the Microscope
:
Princeton
 ,
New Jersey
,
Princeton University Press
,
280
p.
Yamanda
,
T.
,
2006
,
Kircher and Steno on the “geocosm,” with a reassessment of the role of Gassendi’s works
, in
Vai
,
G.B.
, and
Caldwell
,
W.G.E.
, eds.,
The Origins of Geology in Italy: Geological Society of America Special Paper 411
 , p.
65
80
, https://doi.org/10.1130/2006.2411(05).

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Findlen
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Possessing Nature
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University of California Press
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449
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Findlen
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P.
,
2004
,
Introduction: The last man who knew everything … Or did he? Athanasius Kircher, S.J. (1602–1680) and his world
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Findlen
,
P.
, ed.,
Athanasius Kircher: The Last Man Who Knew Everything
 :
New York and London
,
Routledge
, p.
1
48
.
Fletcher
,
J.E.
,
Fletcher
,
E.
, and
Kircher
,
A.
,
2011
,
A Study of the Life and Works of Athanasius Kircher, Germanus Incredibilis: With a Selection of His Unpublished Correspondence and an Annotated Translation of His Autobiography
:
Leiden
,
Brill
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656
p.
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,
R.G.
,
1980
,
Harvey and the Oxford Physiologists
:
A Study of Scientific Ideas
 :
Berkeley
,
University of California
,
368
p.
Goode
,
G.B.
,
2008
,
The relationships and responsibilities of museums
, in
Andrei
,
M.A.
, and
Genoways
,
H.H.
, eds.,
Museum Origins: Readings in Early Museum History and Philosophy
 :
New York
,
Routledge
, p.
111
124
.
Goudin
,
A.
,
[1668] 1864
,
Philosophie suivant les principes de saint Thomas, Tome 1
: Vol.
1
,
Paris
,
Vve Poussielgue-Rusand
. Digitized by the Bibliothèque nationale de France, département Philosophie, histoire, sciences de l’homme,
582
p.; http://gallica.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/bpt6k653059.
Gould
,
S.J.
,
2004
,
Father Athanasius on the isthmus of a middle state: Understanding Kircher’s paleontology
, in
Findlen
,
P.
, ed.,
Athanasius Kircher: The Last Man Who Knew Everything
 :
New York and London
,
Routledge
, p.
207
238
.
Hagan
,
H.A.
,
2008
,
The history of the origin and development of museums
, in
Andrei
,
M.A.
, and
Genoways
,
H.H.
, eds.,
Museum Origins: Readings in Early Museum History and Philosophy
 :
New York
,
Routledge
, p.
39
48
.
Hirai
,
H.
,
2007
,
Kircher’s chymical interpretation of the creation and spontaneous generation
, in
Principe
,
L.
, ed.,
Chymists and Chymistry: Studies in the History of Alchemy and Early Modern Chemistry
 :
Sagamore Beach, Massachusetts
,
Science History Publications, Watson Publishing International
, p.
77
87
.
Hirai
,
H.
,
2016
,
Mysteries of living corpuscles
, in
Distelzweig
,
P.
,
Goldberg
,
B.
, and
Ragland
,
E.R.
, eds.,
Early Modern Medicine and Natural Philosophy
 :
Dordrecht, Netherlands
,
Springer
, p.
255
269
.
Hooke
,
R.
,
1665
,
Micrographia
:
Or Some Physiological Descriptions of Minute Bodies Made by Magnifying Glasses with Observations and Inquiries Thereupon
 :
London
,
Royal Society. Digitized by Duke University Libraries
,
246
p.; https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/198549#page/5/mode/1up.
Hsia
,
F.
,
2004
,
Athanasius Kircher’s China Illustrated (1667): An Apologia Pro Vita Sua
, in
Findlen
,
P.
, ed.,
Athanasius Kircher: The Last Man Who Knew Everything
 :
New York and London
,
Routledge
, p.
383
404
.
Hunter
,
M.
, and
Davis
,
E.B.
, eds.,
2000
,
The Works of Robert Boyle
: Volume
7
,
London
,
Routledge
, p.
3
72
Franceschini
,
P.
,
2008
,
Buonanni, Filippo
, in
Koertge
,
N.
, ed.,
Complete Dictionary of Scientific Biography
 , vol.
2
:
Charles Scribner’s Sons
, Gale Virtual Reference Library, p.
591
592
.
Kircher
,
A.
,
[1678] 2004
,
Mundus Subterraneus, Facsimile Reproduction
:
Compiled by Gian Battista Vai
 : 3rd ed., Series 1678:
Bologna, Italy
,
Museo Geologico Giovanni Capellini
,
507
p.
Koertge
,
N.
,
2008
,
Complete Dictionary of Scientific Biography
:
Charles Scribner’s Sons
 ,
Gale Virtual Reference Library
.
Lugli
,
A.
,
1986
,
Inquiry as collection: The Athanasius Kircher Museum in Rome
:
RES: Anthropology and Aesthetics
 , v.
12
, p.
109
124
.
O’Malley
,
J.W.
,
SJ
,
2014
,
The Jesuits: A History from Ignatius to the Present
:
Lanham
 ,
Maryland
,
Rowman & Littlefield
,
160
p.
Parcell
,
W.C.
,
2009
,
Signs and symbols in Kircher’s Mundus Subterraneus
, in
Rosenberg
,
G.D.
, ed.,
The Revolution in Geology from the Renaissance to the Enlightenment: Geological Society of America Memoir
 
203
, p.
63
74
, https://doi.org/10.1130/2009.1203(04).
Plot
,
R.
,
1677
,
The Natural History of Oxford-shire
:
Being an Essay toward the Natural History of England
 :
Oxford, UK
, Printed at the Theater in Oxford: and are to be had there: And in London at
Mr. S. Millers
, at the Star near the West-end of St. Paul’s Church-yard,
358
p.
Rappaport
,
R.
,
1997
,
When Geologists Were Historians: 1665–1750
:
Ithaca
 ,
New York
,
Cornell University Press
,
336
p.
Redi
,
F.
,
[1668] 1909
,
Experiments on the Generation of Insects
 :
Chicago
,
Open Court Publishing
,
174
p.
Roger
,
J.
,
1997
,
The Life Sciences in Eighteenth Century French Thought
: Edited by
Benson
,
K.
, translated by
Ellrich
,
R.
:
Stanford, California
,
Stanford University Press
,
804
p.
Rossi
,
P.
,
1984
,
The Dark Abyss of Time
:
The History of the Earth & the History of Nations from Hooke to Vico
 :
Chicago
,
University of Chicago Press
,
338
p.
Rowland
,
I.D.
,
2004
,
Athanasius Kircher, Giorando Bruno, and the panspermia of the infinite universe
, in
Findlen
,
P.
, ed.,
Athanasius Kircher: The Last Man Who Knew Everything
 :
New York and London
,
Routledge
, p.
191
206
.
Sardo
,
E.L.
,
2004
,
Kircher’s Rome
, in
Findlen
,
P.
, ed.,
Athanasius Kircher: The Last Man Who Knew Everything
 :
New York and London
,
Routledge
, p.
51
62
.
Smith
,
J.E.H.
,
2011
,
Divine Machines: Leibniz and the Sciences of Life
:
Princeton
 ,
New Jersey
,
Princeton University Press
,
380
p.
Steno
,
N.
,
1671
,
The Prodomus to a Dissertation Concerning Solids Naturally Contained Within Solids
. Translated by
Oldenburg
,
H.
:
London
,
Moses Pitt
,
112
p.
Wilson
,
C.
,
1997
,
The Invisible World: Early Modern Philosophy and the Invention of the Microscope
:
Princeton
 ,
New Jersey
,
Princeton University Press
,
280
p.
Yamanda
,
T.
,
2006
,
Kircher and Steno on the “geocosm,” with a reassessment of the role of Gassendi’s works
, in
Vai
,
G.B.
, and
Caldwell
,
W.G.E.
, eds.,
The Origins of Geology in Italy: Geological Society of America Special Paper 411
 , p.
65
80
, https://doi.org/10.1130/2006.2411(05).
1
The Latin fossilia is in fact derived from the verb fodere meaning “to dig.” See Oxford English Dictionary: www.oed.com (accessed September 2016).
2
Curiously, he also introduces the term geologus in this text as well, defi ning the term as “one who investigates stones.” See Yamada (2006).
3
For earlier examples of publications that examine the origin of fossils, see Robert Hooke’s Micrographia (1665); Antoine Goudin’s Philosophy, Following the Principles of St. Thomas ([1668] 1864); Nicolaus Steno’s Prodromus to a Dissertation Concerning Solids Naturally Contained within Solids (1671); Robert Boyle’s Origin and Virtues of Gems ([1672] 2000); and Robert Plott’s A Natural History of Oxfordshire (1677).
4
“Quaeritur an Cochleae propagatione Specierum generentur, aut potius sponte ex se nascantur.”
5
“… materia potest se ipsa moueri eo motu, quo semen mouet in generatione aliorum Animalium, qui motus dicitur spontaneus, ….”
6
“Nasci vero ex Cocleis oua docuit in suo Prodomo Illustrissimus Praeful Steno, ubi habit: Experientia constat, Ostrea, & alia Testacea ex ouis non ex putredine nasci. Haec autem sententia directe Aristoteli opponitur, qui postquam multos Picatores ingentibus Alexandri Macedonis expensis defatigasset, ut sub mari Naturae Aracna pernosceret, constanter affirmauit: Universim omnia Testacea sponte naturae in limo diversa pro differentia limi oriri, nam in caenoso Ostreae, in arenoso conchae.”
7
Buonanni, sadly, did not reciprocate Malpighi’s sentiments, but held Malpighi in rather high esteem and wished to smooth matters over with him. See Adelmann and Malpighi (1975, The Correspondence of Marcello Malpighi, p. 182, n. 9).
8
“Referuntur varia Musea, in quibus Cochlearum, & Concarum Testae conferuantur.”
9
“Referuntur Proprietates aliquorumTestaceorum, in quibus elucet Providentia Divina.”
10
“Referuntur varia Musea, in quibus Cochlearum, & Concarum Testae conferuantur.”
1
The Latin fossilia is in fact derived from the verb fodere meaning “to dig.” See Oxford English Dictionary: www.oed.com (accessed September 2016).
2
Curiously, he also introduces the term geologus in this text as well, defi ning the term as “one who investigates stones.” See Yamada (2006).
3
For earlier examples of publications that examine the origin of fossils, see Robert Hooke’s Micrographia (1665); Antoine Goudin’s Philosophy, Following the Principles of St. Thomas ([1668] 1864); Nicolaus Steno’s Prodromus to a Dissertation Concerning Solids Naturally Contained within Solids (1671); Robert Boyle’s Origin and Virtues of Gems ([1672] 2000); and Robert Plott’s A Natural History of Oxfordshire (1677).
4
“Quaeritur an Cochleae propagatione Specierum generentur, aut potius sponte ex se nascantur.”
5
“… materia potest se ipsa moueri eo motu, quo semen mouet in generatione aliorum Animalium, qui motus dicitur spontaneus, ….”
6
“Nasci vero ex Cocleis oua docuit in suo Prodomo Illustrissimus Praeful Steno, ubi habit: Experientia constat, Ostrea, & alia Testacea ex ouis non ex putredine nasci. Haec autem sententia directe Aristoteli opponitur, qui postquam multos Picatores ingentibus Alexandri Macedonis expensis defatigasset, ut sub mari Naturae Aracna pernosceret, constanter affirmauit: Universim omnia Testacea sponte naturae in limo diversa pro differentia limi oriri, nam in caenoso Ostreae, in arenoso conchae.”
7
Buonanni, sadly, did not reciprocate Malpighi’s sentiments, but held Malpighi in rather high esteem and wished to smooth matters over with him. See Adelmann and Malpighi (1975, The Correspondence of Marcello Malpighi, p. 182, n. 9).
8
“Referuntur varia Musea, in quibus Cochlearum, & Concarum Testae conferuantur.”
9
“Referuntur Proprietates aliquorumTestaceorum, in quibus elucet Providentia Divina.”
10
“Referuntur varia Musea, in quibus Cochlearum, & Concarum Testae conferuantur.”
1
The Latin fossilia is in fact derived from the verb fodere meaning “to dig.” See Oxford English Dictionary: www.oed.com (accessed September 2016).
2
Curiously, he also introduces the term geologus in this text as well, defi ning the term as “one who investigates stones.” See Yamada (2006).
3
For earlier examples of publications that examine the origin of fossils, see Robert Hooke’s Micrographia (1665); Antoine Goudin’s Philosophy, Following the Principles of St. Thomas ([1668] 1864); Nicolaus Steno’s Prodromus to a Dissertation Concerning Solids Naturally Contained within Solids (1671); Robert Boyle’s Origin and Virtues of Gems ([1672] 2000); and Robert Plott’s A Natural History of Oxfordshire (1677).
4
“Quaeritur an Cochleae propagatione Specierum generentur, aut potius sponte ex se nascantur.”
5
“… materia potest se ipsa moueri eo motu, quo semen mouet in generatione aliorum Animalium, qui motus dicitur spontaneus, ….”
6
“Nasci vero ex Cocleis oua docuit in suo Prodomo Illustrissimus Praeful Steno, ubi habit: Experientia constat, Ostrea, & alia Testacea ex ouis non ex putredine nasci. Haec autem sententia directe Aristoteli opponitur, qui postquam multos Picatores ingentibus Alexandri Macedonis expensis defatigasset, ut sub mari Naturae Aracna pernosceret, constanter affirmauit: Universim omnia Testacea sponte naturae in limo diversa pro differentia limi oriri, nam in caenoso Ostreae, in arenoso conchae.”
7
Buonanni, sadly, did not reciprocate Malpighi’s sentiments, but held Malpighi in rather high esteem and wished to smooth matters over with him. See Adelmann and Malpighi (1975, The Correspondence of Marcello Malpighi, p. 182, n. 9).
8
“Referuntur varia Musea, in quibus Cochlearum, & Concarum Testae conferuantur.”
9
“Referuntur Proprietates aliquorumTestaceorum, in quibus elucet Providentia Divina.”
10
“Referuntur varia Musea, in quibus Cochlearum, & Concarum Testae conferuantur.”
1
The Latin fossilia is in fact derived from the verb fodere meaning “to dig.” See Oxford English Dictionary: www.oed.com (accessed September 2016).
2
Curiously, he also introduces the term geologus in this text as well, defi ning the term as “one who investigates stones.” See Yamada (2006).
3
For earlier examples of publications that examine the origin of fossils, see Robert Hooke’s Micrographia (1665); Antoine Goudin’s Philosophy, Following the Principles of St. Thomas ([1668] 1864); Nicolaus Steno’s Prodromus to a Dissertation Concerning Solids Naturally Contained within Solids (1671); Robert Boyle’s Origin and Virtues of Gems ([1672] 2000); and Robert Plott’s A Natural History of Oxfordshire (1677).
4
“Quaeritur an Cochleae propagatione Specierum generentur, aut potius sponte ex se nascantur.”
5
“… materia potest se ipsa moueri eo motu, quo semen mouet in generatione aliorum Animalium, qui motus dicitur spontaneus, ….”
6
“Nasci vero ex Cocleis oua docuit in suo Prodomo Illustrissimus Praeful Steno, ubi habit: Experientia constat, Ostrea, & alia Testacea ex ouis non ex putredine nasci. Haec autem sententia directe Aristoteli opponitur, qui postquam multos Picatores ingentibus Alexandri Macedonis expensis defatigasset, ut sub mari Naturae Aracna pernosceret, constanter affirmauit: Universim omnia Testacea sponte naturae in limo diversa pro differentia limi oriri, nam in caenoso Ostreae, in arenoso conchae.”
7
Buonanni, sadly, did not reciprocate Malpighi’s sentiments, but held Malpighi in rather high esteem and wished to smooth matters over with him. See Adelmann and Malpighi (1975, The Correspondence of Marcello Malpighi, p. 182, n. 9).
8
“Referuntur varia Musea, in quibus Cochlearum, & Concarum Testae conferuantur.”
9
“Referuntur Proprietates aliquorumTestaceorum, in quibus elucet Providentia Divina.”
10
“Referuntur varia Musea, in quibus Cochlearum, & Concarum Testae conferuantur.”
1
The Latin fossilia is in fact derived from the verb fodere meaning “to dig.” See Oxford English Dictionary: www.oed.com (accessed September 2016).
2
Curiously, he also introduces the term geologus in this text as well, defi ning the term as “one who investigates stones.” See Yamada (2006).
3
For earlier examples of publications that examine the origin of fossils, see Robert Hooke’s Micrographia (1665); Antoine Goudin’s Philosophy, Following the Principles of St. Thomas ([1668] 1864); Nicolaus Steno’s Prodromus to a Dissertation Concerning Solids Naturally Contained within Solids (1671); Robert Boyle’s Origin and Virtues of Gems ([1672] 2000); and Robert Plott’s A Natural History of Oxfordshire (1677).
4
“Quaeritur an Cochleae propagatione Specierum generentur, aut potius sponte ex se nascantur.”
5
“… materia potest se ipsa moueri eo motu, quo semen mouet in generatione aliorum Animalium, qui motus dicitur spontaneus, ….”
6
“Nasci vero ex Cocleis oua docuit in suo Prodomo Illustrissimus Praeful Steno, ubi habit: Experientia constat, Ostrea, & alia Testacea ex ouis non ex putredine nasci. Haec autem sententia directe Aristoteli opponitur, qui postquam multos Picatores ingentibus Alexandri Macedonis expensis defatigasset, ut sub mari Naturae Aracna pernosceret, constanter affirmauit: Universim omnia Testacea sponte naturae in limo diversa pro differentia limi oriri, nam in caenoso Ostreae, in arenoso conchae.”
7
Buonanni, sadly, did not reciprocate Malpighi’s sentiments, but held Malpighi in rather high esteem and wished to smooth matters over with him. See Adelmann and Malpighi (1975, The Correspondence of Marcello Malpighi, p. 182, n. 9).
8
“Referuntur varia Musea, in quibus Cochlearum, & Concarum Testae conferuantur.”
9
“Referuntur Proprietates aliquorumTestaceorum, in quibus elucet Providentia Divina.”
10
“Referuntur varia Musea, in quibus Cochlearum, & Concarum Testae conferuantur.”
1
The Latin fossilia is in fact derived from the verb fodere meaning “to dig.” See Oxford English Dictionary: www.oed.com (accessed September 2016).
2
Curiously, he also introduces the term geologus in this text as well, defi ning the term as “one who investigates stones.” See Yamada (2006).
3
For earlier examples of publications that examine the origin of fossils, see Robert Hooke’s Micrographia (1665); Antoine Goudin’s Philosophy, Following the Principles of St. Thomas ([1668] 1864); Nicolaus Steno’s Prodromus to a Dissertation Concerning Solids Naturally Contained within Solids (1671); Robert Boyle’s Origin and Virtues of Gems ([1672] 2000); and Robert Plott’s A Natural History of Oxfordshire (1677).
4
“Quaeritur an Cochleae propagatione Specierum generentur, aut potius sponte ex se nascantur.”
5
“… materia potest se ipsa moueri eo motu, quo semen mouet in generatione aliorum Animalium, qui motus dicitur spontaneus, ….”
6
“Nasci vero ex Cocleis oua docuit in suo Prodomo Illustrissimus Praeful Steno, ubi habit: Experientia constat, Ostrea, & alia Testacea ex ouis non ex putredine nasci. Haec autem sententia directe Aristoteli opponitur, qui postquam multos Picatores ingentibus Alexandri Macedonis expensis defatigasset, ut sub mari Naturae Aracna pernosceret, constanter affirmauit: Universim omnia Testacea sponte naturae in limo diversa pro differentia limi oriri, nam in caenoso Ostreae, in arenoso conchae.”
7
Buonanni, sadly, did not reciprocate Malpighi’s sentiments, but held Malpighi in rather high esteem and wished to smooth matters over with him. See Adelmann and Malpighi (1975, The Correspondence of Marcello Malpighi, p. 182, n. 9).
8
“Referuntur varia Musea, in quibus Cochlearum, & Concarum Testae conferuantur.”
9
“Referuntur Proprietates aliquorumTestaceorum, in quibus elucet Providentia Divina.”
10
“Referuntur varia Musea, in quibus Cochlearum, & Concarum Testae conferuantur.”
1
The Latin fossilia is in fact derived from the verb fodere meaning “to dig.” See Oxford English Dictionary: www.oed.com (accessed September 2016).
2
Curiously, he also introduces the term geologus in this text as well, defi ning the term as “one who investigates stones.” See Yamada (2006).
3
For earlier examples of publications that examine the origin of fossils, see Robert Hooke’s Micrographia (1665); Antoine Goudin’s Philosophy, Following the Principles of St. Thomas ([1668] 1864); Nicolaus Steno’s Prodromus to a Dissertation Concerning Solids Naturally Contained within Solids (1671); Robert Boyle’s Origin and Virtues of Gems ([1672] 2000); and Robert Plott’s A Natural History of Oxfordshire (1677).
4
“Quaeritur an Cochleae propagatione Specierum generentur, aut potius sponte ex se nascantur.”
5
“… materia potest se ipsa moueri eo motu, quo semen mouet in generatione aliorum Animalium, qui motus dicitur spontaneus, ….”
6
“Nasci vero ex Cocleis oua docuit in suo Prodomo Illustrissimus Praeful Steno, ubi habit: Experientia constat, Ostrea, & alia Testacea ex ouis non ex putredine nasci. Haec autem sententia directe Aristoteli opponitur, qui postquam multos Picatores ingentibus Alexandri Macedonis expensis defatigasset, ut sub mari Naturae Aracna pernosceret, constanter affirmauit: Universim omnia Testacea sponte naturae in limo diversa pro differentia limi oriri, nam in caenoso Ostreae, in arenoso conchae.”
7
Buonanni, sadly, did not reciprocate Malpighi’s sentiments, but held Malpighi in rather high esteem and wished to smooth matters over with him. See Adelmann and Malpighi (1975, The Correspondence of Marcello Malpighi, p. 182, n. 9).
8
“Referuntur varia Musea, in quibus Cochlearum, & Concarum Testae conferuantur.”
9
“Referuntur Proprietates aliquorumTestaceorum, in quibus elucet Providentia Divina.”
10
“Referuntur varia Musea, in quibus Cochlearum, & Concarum Testae conferuantur.”

Figures & Tables

Figure 1.

Portrait of Kircher, as printed in Georgio de Sepi’s Musaeum Celeberrimum (1678).

Figure 1.

Portrait of Kircher, as printed in Georgio de Sepi’s Musaeum Celeberrimum (1678).

Figure 2.

Fossilized fish, from Kircher’s Mundus Subterraneus ([1665] 2004).

Figure 2.

Fossilized fish, from Kircher’s Mundus Subterraneus ([1665] 2004).

Figure 3.

A contemporary view of the Kircher Museum as seen in the frontispiece for Musaeum Celeberrimum (1678).

Figure 3.

A contemporary view of the Kircher Museum as seen in the frontispiece for Musaeum Celeberrimum (1678).

Figure 4.

Recreatio frontispiece (Buonanni, 1684).

Figure 4.

Recreatio frontispiece (Buonanni, 1684).

Figure 5.

Testaceous seashells, as depicted in Buonanni’s Recreatio (Buonanni, 1684).

Figure 5.

Testaceous seashells, as depicted in Buonanni’s Recreatio (Buonanni, 1684).

Figure 6.

Mollusk fossils from Buonanni’s Recreatio (Buonanni, 1684). In this chapter, Buonanni is discussing microscopic worms found within the fossil, the burrows of which are labeled “M.”

Figure 6.

Mollusk fossils from Buonanni’s Recreatio (Buonanni, 1684). In this chapter, Buonanni is discussing microscopic worms found within the fossil, the burrows of which are labeled “M.”

Figure 7.

The reproduction cycle of flies, as portrayed in Redi’s Esperienze (Redi, 1909).

Figure 7.

The reproduction cycle of flies, as portrayed in Redi’s Esperienze (Redi, 1909).

Figure 8.

From Recreatio (Buonanni, 1684).

Figure 8.

From Recreatio (Buonanni, 1684).

Figure 9.

From Musaeum Kircerianum (Buonanni, 1709).

Figure 9.

From Musaeum Kircerianum (Buonanni, 1709).

Contents

References

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Mr. S. Millers
, at the Star near the West-end of St. Paul’s Church-yard,
358
p.
Rappaport
,
R.
,
1997
,
When Geologists Were Historians: 1665–1750
:
Ithaca
 ,
New York
,
Cornell University Press
,
336
p.
Redi
,
F.
,
[1668] 1909
,
Experiments on the Generation of Insects
 :
Chicago
,
Open Court Publishing
,
174
p.
Roger
,
J.
,
1997
,
The Life Sciences in Eighteenth Century French Thought
: Edited by
Benson
,
K.
, translated by
Ellrich
,
R.
:
Stanford, California
,
Stanford University Press
,
804
p.
Rossi
,
P.
,
1984
,
The Dark Abyss of Time
:
The History of the Earth & the History of Nations from Hooke to Vico
 :
Chicago
,
University of Chicago Press
,
338
p.
Rowland
,
I.D.
,
2004
,
Athanasius Kircher, Giorando Bruno, and the panspermia of the infinite universe
, in
Findlen
,
P.
, ed.,
Athanasius Kircher: The Last Man Who Knew Everything
 :
New York and London
,
Routledge
, p.
191
206
.
Sardo
,
E.L.
,
2004
,
Kircher’s Rome
, in
Findlen
,
P.
, ed.,
Athanasius Kircher: The Last Man Who Knew Everything
 :
New York and London
,
Routledge
, p.
51
62
.
Smith
,
J.E.H.
,
2011
,
Divine Machines: Leibniz and the Sciences of Life
:
Princeton
 ,
New Jersey
,
Princeton University Press
,
380
p.
Steno
,
N.
,
1671
,
The Prodomus to a Dissertation Concerning Solids Naturally Contained Within Solids
. Translated by
Oldenburg
,
H.
:
London
,
Moses Pitt
,
112
p.
Wilson
,
C.
,
1997
,
The Invisible World: Early Modern Philosophy and the Invention of the Microscope
:
Princeton
 ,
New Jersey
,
Princeton University Press
,
280
p.
Yamanda
,
T.
,
2006
,
Kircher and Steno on the “geocosm,” with a reassessment of the role of Gassendi’s works
, in
Vai
,
G.B.
, and
Caldwell
,
W.G.E.
, eds.,
The Origins of Geology in Italy: Geological Society of America Special Paper
 
411
, p.
65
80
, https://doi.org/10.1130/2006.2411(05).

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H.B.
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Marcello Malpighi and the Evolution of Embryology: Ithaca
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551
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Adelmann
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H.B.
, and
Malpighi
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M.
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The Correspondence of Marcello Malpighi
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Cornell University Press
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vols.,
2227
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Aristotle
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J.
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F.
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Recreatio mentis et oculi in observatione animalium testaceorum
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Rome
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Varesi
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Buonanni
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F.
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Digitized by Google Books
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Rome
,
Collegio Romano Societatis Jesu
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748
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Chang
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K.-M.(K.)
,
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,
Alchemy as studies of life and matter: Reconsidering the place of vitalism in early modern chemistry
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Isis
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102
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2
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322
329
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Cobb
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M.
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Generation: The Seventeenth-Century Scientists Who Unraveled the Secrets of Sex, Life, and Growth
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Bloomsbury Publisher
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p.
Cunningham
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,
Scholar Press
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p.
De Boodt
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Janssonio-Waesbergiana
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Fazzari
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M.
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,
Redi, Buonanni e La Contraversia Sulla Generazione Spontanea
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W.
, and
Guerrini
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L.
, eds.,
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P.
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P.
,
2004
,
Introduction: The last man who knew everything … Or did he? Athanasius Kircher, S.J. (1602–1680) and his world
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P.
, ed.,
Athanasius Kircher: The Last Man Who Knew Everything
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New York and London
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Routledge
, p.
1
48
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Fletcher
,
J.E.
,
Fletcher
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E.
, and
Kircher
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A.
,
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A Study of the Life and Works of Athanasius Kircher, Germanus Incredibilis: With a Selection of His Unpublished Correspondence and an Annotated Translation of His Autobiography
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Leiden
,
Brill
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656
p.
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,
R.G.
,
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,
Harvey and the Oxford Physiologists
:
A Study of Scientific Ideas
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University of California
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p.
Goode
,
G.B.
,
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,
The relationships and responsibilities of museums
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Andrei
,
M.A.
, and
Genoways
,
H.H.
, eds.,
Museum Origins: Readings in Early Museum History and Philosophy
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New York
,
Routledge
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111
124
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Goudin
,
A.
,
[1668] 1864
,
Philosophie suivant les principes de saint Thomas, Tome 1
: Vol.
1
,
Paris
,
Vve Poussielgue-Rusand
. Digitized by the Bibliothèque nationale de France, département Philosophie, histoire, sciences de l’homme,
582
p.; http://gallica.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/bpt6k653059.
Gould
,
S.J.
,
2004
,
Father Athanasius on the isthmus of a middle state: Understanding Kircher’s paleontology
, in
Findlen
,
P.
, ed.,
Athanasius Kircher: The Last Man Who Knew Everything
 :
New York and London
,
Routledge
, p.
207
238
.
Hagan
,
H.A.
,
2008
,
The history of the origin and development of museums
, in
Andrei
,
M.A.
, and
Genoways
,
H.H.
, eds.,
Museum Origins: Readings in Early Museum History and Philosophy
 :
New York
,
Routledge
, p.
39
48
.
Hirai
,
H.
,
2007
,
Kircher’s chymical interpretation of the creation and spontaneous generation
, in
Principe
,
L.
, ed.,
Chymists and Chymistry: Studies in the History of Alchemy and Early Modern Chemistry
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Sagamore Beach, Massachusetts
,
Science History Publications, Watson Publishing International
, p.
77
87
.
Hirai
,
H.
,
2016
,
Mysteries of living corpuscles
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Distelzweig
,
P.
,
Goldberg
,
B.
, and
Ragland
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Early Modern Medicine and Natural Philosophy
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,
R.
,
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,
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London
,
Royal Society. Digitized by Duke University Libraries
,
246
p.; https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/198549#page/5/mode/1up.
Hsia
,
F.
,
2004
,
Athanasius Kircher’s China Illustrated (1667): An Apologia Pro Vita Sua
, in
Findlen
,
P.
, ed.,
Athanasius Kircher: The Last Man Who Knew Everything
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New York and London
,
Routledge
, p.
383
404
.
Hunter
,
M.
, and
Davis
,
E.B.
, eds.,
2000
,
The Works of Robert Boyle
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,
London
,
Routledge
, p.
3
72
Franceschini
,
P.
,
2008
,
Buonanni, Filippo
, in
Koertge
,
N.
, ed.,
Complete Dictionary of Scientific Biography
 , vol.
2
:
Charles Scribner’s Sons
, Gale Virtual Reference Library, p.
591
592
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Kircher
,
A.
,
[1678] 2004
,
Mundus Subterraneus, Facsimile Reproduction
:
Compiled by Gian Battista Vai
 : 3rd ed., Series 1678:
Bologna, Italy
,
Museo Geologico Giovanni Capellini
,
507
p.
Koertge
,
N.
,
2008
,
Complete Dictionary of Scientific Biography
:
Charles Scribner’s Sons
 ,
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.
Lugli
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A.
,
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,
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RES: Anthropology and Aesthetics
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J.W.
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,
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,
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,
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, ed.,
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203
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Plot
,
R.
,
1677
,
The Natural History of Oxford-shire
:
Being an Essay toward the Natural History of England
 :
Oxford, UK
, Printed at the Theater in Oxford: and are to be had there: And in London at
Mr. S. Millers
, at the Star near the West-end of St. Paul’s Church-yard,
358
p.
Rappaport
,
R.
,
1997
,
When Geologists Were Historians: 1665–1750
:
Ithaca
 ,
New York
,
Cornell University Press
,
336
p.
Redi
,
F.
,
[1668] 1909
,
Experiments on the Generation of Insects
 :
Chicago
,
Open Court Publishing
,
174
p.
Roger
,
J.
,
1997
,
The Life Sciences in Eighteenth Century French Thought
: Edited by
Benson
,
K.
, translated by
Ellrich
,
R.
:
Stanford, California
,
Stanford University Press
,
804
p.
Rossi
,
P.
,
1984
,
The Dark Abyss of Time
:
The History of the Earth & the History of Nations from Hooke to Vico
 :
Chicago
,
University of Chicago Press
,
338
p.
Rowland
,
I.D.
,
2004
,
Athanasius Kircher, Giorando Bruno, and the panspermia of the infinite universe
, in
Findlen
,
P.
, ed.,
Athanasius Kircher: The Last Man Who Knew Everything
 :
New York and London
,
Routledge
, p.
191
206
.
Sardo
,
E.L.
,
2004
,
Kircher’s Rome
, in
Findlen
,
P.
, ed.,
Athanasius Kircher: The Last Man Who Knew Everything
 :
New York and London
,
Routledge
, p.
51
62
.
Smith
,
J.E.H.
,
2011
,
Divine Machines: Leibniz and the Sciences of Life
:
Princeton
 ,
New Jersey
,
Princeton University Press
,
380
p.
Steno
,
N.
,
1671
,
The Prodomus to a Dissertation Concerning Solids Naturally Contained Within Solids
. Translated by
Oldenburg
,
H.
:
London
,
Moses Pitt
,
112
p.
Wilson
,
C.
,
1997
,
The Invisible World: Early Modern Philosophy and the Invention of the Microscope
:
Princeton
 ,
New Jersey
,
Princeton University Press
,
280
p.
Yamanda
,
T.
,
2006
,
Kircher and Steno on the “geocosm,” with a reassessment of the role of Gassendi’s works
, in
Vai
,
G.B.
, and
Caldwell
,
W.G.E.
, eds.,
The Origins of Geology in Italy: Geological Society of America Special Paper 411
 , p.
65
80
, https://doi.org/10.1130/2006.2411(05).

REFERENCES CITED

Adelmann
,
H.B.
,
1966
,
Marcello Malpighi and the Evolution of Embryology: Ithaca
 ,
New York
,
Cornell University Press
,
5
vols.,
551
p.
Adelmann
,
H.B.
, and
Malpighi
,
M.
,
1975
,
The Correspondence of Marcello Malpighi
:
Ithaca
 ,
New York
,
Cornell University Press
,
5
vols.,
2227
p.
Aristotle
, and
Barnes
,
J.
, ed.,
1995
,
Complete Works of Aristotle: The Revised Oxford Translation
:
Princeton
 ,
New Jersey
,
Princeton University Press
,
2
vols., p.
774
993
and p.
1552
1728
.
Basile
,
B.
,
1987
,
Polemiche sulla generazione spontanea: Redi, Buonanni, Malpighi
, in
Basile
,
B.
, ed.,
L’invenzione del vero: La letteratura scientifica da Galileo a Algarotti
 :
Rome
,
Salerno
, p.
125
167
.
Bertoloni Meli
,
D.
,
2011
,
Mechanism, Experiment, Disease
:
Marcello Malpighi and Seventeenth-century Anatomy
 :
Baltimore
,
Johns Hopkins University Press
,
439
p.
Buonanni
,
F.
,
1684
,
Recreatio mentis et oculi in observatione animalium testaceorum
:
Digitized copy of original from Harvard University Library of Dept. of Mollusks
 :
Rome
,
Varesi
,
569
p.
Buonanni
,
F.
,
1691
,
Observationes circa viventia, quae in rebus non viventibus reperuntur, Digitized by the Elektronische Bibliothek Schweiz project
:
Rome
,
Antonio Hercules
,
585
p.
Buonanni
,
F.
,
1709
,
Musaeum Kicherianum Sive Musaeum AP Athanasio Kichero in Collegio Romano Societatis Jesu
:
Digitized by Google Books
 :
Rome
,
Collegio Romano Societatis Jesu
,
748
p.
Chang
,
K.-M.(K.)
,
2011
,
Alchemy as studies of life and matter: Reconsidering the place of vitalism in early modern chemistry
:
Isis
 , v.
102
, no.
2
, p.
322
329
, https://doi.org/10.1086/660141.
Cobb
,
M.
,
2006
,
Generation: The Seventeenth-Century Scientists Who Unraveled the Secrets of Sex, Life, and Growth
:
New York
,
Bloomsbury Publisher
,
333
p.
Cunningham
,
A.
,
1997
,
The Anatomical Renaissance
:
The Resurrection of the Anatomical Projects of the Ancients
 :
Aldershot, UK
,
Scholar Press
,
283
p.
De Boodt
,
A.B.
,
1647
,
Gemmarum et Lapidum Historia
:
Quam Olim Edidit
,
602
p.
De Sepibus
,
G.
,
1678
,
Romani Collegii Societatis Jesu Musaeum celeberrimum, Cujus magnum Antiquariae rei, statuarium imaginum, picturarumque partem Ex Legato Alphonsi Domini, Senatus PopulusQue Romanus
:
Amstelo dami
,
Janssonio-Waesbergiana
, frontispiece.
Fazzari
,
M.
,
1999
,
Redi, Buonanni e La Contraversia Sulla Generazione Spontanea
, in
Bernardi
,
W.
, and
Guerrini
,
L.
, eds.,
Francesco Redi: Un Protagonista Della Scienza Moderna. Documenti, Esperimenti, Immagini
 :
Florence
,
Olschki
, p.
97
127
.
Findlen
,
P.
,
1996
,
Possessing Nature
:
Museums, Collecting, and Scientific Culture in Early Modern Italy
 :
Berkeley
,
University of California Press
,
449
p.
Findlen
,
P.
,
2004
,
Introduction: The last man who knew everything … Or did he? Athanasius Kircher, S.J. (1602–1680) and his world
, in
Findlen
,
P.
, ed.,
Athanasius Kircher: The Last Man Who Knew Everything
 :
New York and London
,
Routledge
, p.
1
48
.
Fletcher
,
J.E.
,
Fletcher
,
E.
, and
Kircher
,
A.
,
2011
,
A Study of the Life and Works of Athanasius Kircher, Germanus Incredibilis: With a Selection of His Unpublished Correspondence and an Annotated Translation of His Autobiography
:
Leiden
,
Brill
,
656
p.
Frank
,
R.G.
,
1980
,
Harvey and the Oxford Physiologists
:
A Study of Scientific Ideas
 :
Berkeley
,
University of California
,
368
p.
Goode
,
G.B.
,
2008
,
The relationships and responsibilities of museums
, in
Andrei
,
M.A.
, and
Genoways
,
H.H.
, eds.,
Museum Origins: Readings in Early Museum History and Philosophy
 :
New York
,
Routledge
, p.
111
124
.
Goudin
,
A.
,
[1668] 1864
,
Philosophie suivant les principes de saint Thomas, Tome 1
: Vol.
1
,
Paris
,
Vve Poussielgue-Rusand
. Digitized by the Bibliothèque nationale de France, département Philosophie, histoire, sciences de l’homme,
582
p.; http://gallica.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/bpt6k653059.
Gould
,
S.J.
,
2004
,
Father Athanasius on the isthmus of a middle state: Understanding Kircher’s paleontology
, in
Findlen
,
P.
, ed.,
Athanasius Kircher: The Last Man Who Knew Everything
 :
New York and London
,
Routledge
, p.
207
238
.
Hagan
,
H.A.
,
2008
,
The history of the origin and development of museums
, in
Andrei
,
M.A.
, and
Genoways
,
H.H.
, eds.,
Museum Origins: Readings in Early Museum History and Philosophy
 :
New York
,
Routledge
, p.
39
48
.
Hirai
,
H.
,
2007
,
Kircher’s chymical interpretation of the creation and spontaneous generation
, in
Principe
,
L.
, ed.,
Chymists and Chymistry: Studies in the History of Alchemy and Early Modern Chemistry
 :
Sagamore Beach, Massachusetts
,
Science History Publications, Watson Publishing International
, p.
77
87
.
Hirai
,
H.
,
2016
,
Mysteries of living corpuscles
, in
Distelzweig
,
P.
,
Goldberg
,
B.
, and
Ragland
,
E.R.
, eds.,
Early Modern Medicine and Natural Philosophy
 :
Dordrecht, Netherlands
,
Springer
, p.
255
269
.
Hooke
,
R.
,
1665
,
Micrographia
:
Or Some Physiological Descriptions of Minute Bodies Made by Magnifying Glasses with Observations and Inquiries Thereupon
 :
London
,
Royal Society. Digitized by Duke University Libraries
,
246
p.; https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/198549#page/5/mode/1up.
Hsia
,
F.
,
2004
,
Athanasius Kircher’s China Illustrated (1667): An Apologia Pro Vita Sua
, in
Findlen
,
P.
, ed.,
Athanasius Kircher: The Last Man Who Knew Everything
 :
New York and London
,
Routledge
, p.
383
404
.
Hunter
,
M.
, and
Davis
,
E.B.
, eds.,
2000
,
The Works of Robert Boyle
: Volume
7
,
London
,
Routledge
, p.
3
72
Franceschini
,
P.
,
2008
,
Buonanni, Filippo
, in
Koertge
,
N.
, ed.,
Complete Dictionary of Scientific Biography
 , vol.
2
:
Charles Scribner’s Sons
, Gale Virtual Reference Library, p.
591
592
.
Kircher
,
A.
,
[1678] 2004
,
Mundus Subterraneus, Facsimile Reproduction
:
Compiled by Gian Battista Vai
 : 3rd ed., Series 1678:
Bologna, Italy
,
Museo Geologico Giovanni Capellini
,
507
p.
Koertge
,
N.
,
2008
,
Complete Dictionary of Scientific Biography
:
Charles Scribner’s Sons
 ,
Gale Virtual Reference Library
.
Lugli
,
A.
,
1986
,
Inquiry as collection: The Athanasius Kircher Museum in Rome
:
RES: Anthropology and Aesthetics
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12
, p.
109
124
.
O’Malley
,
J.W.
,
SJ
,
2014
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The Jesuits: A History from Ignatius to the Present
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Lanham
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Maryland
,
Rowman & Littlefield
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160
p.
Parcell
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W.C.
,
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,
Signs and symbols in Kircher’s Mundus Subterraneus
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Rosenberg
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G.D.
, ed.,
The Revolution in Geology from the Renaissance to the Enlightenment: Geological Society of America Memoir
 
203
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63
74
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R.
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,
The Natural History of Oxford-shire
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Being an Essay toward the Natural History of England
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Oxford, UK
, Printed at the Theater in Oxford: and are to be had there: And in London at
Mr. S. Millers
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358
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Rappaport
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R.
,
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When Geologists Were Historians: 1665–1750
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Ithaca
 ,
New York
,
Cornell University Press
,
336
p.
Redi
,
F.
,
[1668] 1909
,
Experiments on the Generation of Insects
 :
Chicago
,
Open Court Publishing
,
174
p.
Roger
,
J.
,
1997
,
The Life Sciences in Eighteenth Century French Thought
: Edited by
Benson
,
K.
, translated by
Ellrich
,
R.
:
Stanford, California
,
Stanford University Press
,
804
p.
Rossi
,
P.
,
1984
,
The Dark Abyss of Time
:
The History of the Earth & the History of Nations from Hooke to Vico
 :
Chicago
,
University of Chicago Press
,
338
p.
Rowland
,
I.D.
,
2004
,
Athanasius Kircher, Giorando Bruno, and the panspermia of the infinite universe
, in
Findlen
,
P.
, ed.,
Athanasius Kircher: The Last Man Who Knew Everything
 :
New York and London
,
Routledge
, p.
191
206
.
Sardo
,
E.L.
,
2004
,
Kircher’s Rome
, in
Findlen
,
P.
, ed.,
Athanasius Kircher: The Last Man Who Knew Everything
 :
New York and London
,
Routledge
, p.
51
62
.
Smith
,
J.E.H.
,
2011
,
Divine Machines: Leibniz and the Sciences of Life
:
Princeton
 ,
New Jersey
,
Princeton University Press
,
380
p.
Steno
,
N.
,
1671
,
The Prodomus to a Dissertation Concerning Solids Naturally Contained Within Solids
. Translated by
Oldenburg
,
H.
:
London
,
Moses Pitt
,
112
p.
Wilson
,
C.
,
1997
,
The Invisible World: Early Modern Philosophy and the Invention of the Microscope
:
Princeton
 ,
New Jersey
,
Princeton University Press
,
280
p.
Yamanda
,
T.
,
2006
,
Kircher and Steno on the “geocosm,” with a reassessment of the role of Gassendi’s works
, in
Vai
,
G.B.
, and
Caldwell
,
W.G.E.
, eds.,
The Origins of Geology in Italy: Geological Society of America Special Paper 411
 , p.
65
80
, https://doi.org/10.1130/2006.2411(05).

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Athanasius Kircher: The Last Man Who Knew Everything
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,
Father Athanasius on the isthmus of a middle state: Understanding Kircher’s paleontology
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Findlen
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P.
, ed.,
Athanasius Kircher: The Last Man Who Knew Everything
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New York and London
,
Routledge
, p.
207
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,
H.A.
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,
The history of the origin and development of museums
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M.A.
, and
Genoways
,
H.H.
, eds.,
Museum Origins: Readings in Early Museum History and Philosophy
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New York
,
Routledge
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39
48
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,
H.
,
2007
,
Kircher’s chymical interpretation of the creation and spontaneous generation
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L.
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Chymists and Chymistry: Studies in the History of Alchemy and Early Modern Chemistry
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77
87
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H.
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F.
,
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,
Athanasius Kircher’s China Illustrated (1667): An Apologia Pro Vita Sua
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P.
, ed.,
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A.
,
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,
Inquiry as collection: The Athanasius Kircher Museum in Rome
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RES: Anthropology and Aesthetics
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12
, p.
109
124
.
O’Malley
,
J.W.
,
SJ
,
2014
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The Jesuits: A History from Ignatius to the Present
:
Lanham
 ,
Maryland
,
Rowman & Littlefield
,
160
p.
Parcell
,
W.C.
,
2009
,
Signs and symbols in Kircher’s Mundus Subterraneus
, in
Rosenberg
,
G.D.
, ed.,
The Revolution in Geology from the Renaissance to the Enlightenment: Geological Society of America Memoir
 
203
, p.
63
74
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Plot
,
R.
,
1677
,
The Natural History of Oxford-shire
:
Being an Essay toward the Natural History of England
 :
Oxford, UK
, Printed at the Theater in Oxford: and are to be had there: And in London at
Mr. S. Millers
, at the Star near the West-end of St. Paul’s Church-yard,
358
p.
Rappaport
,
R.
,
1997
,
When Geologists Were Historians: 1665–1750
:
Ithaca
 ,
New York
,
Cornell University Press
,
336
p.
Redi
,
F.
,
[1668] 1909
,
Experiments on the Generation of Insects
 :
Chicago
,
Open Court Publishing
,
174
p.
Roger
,
J.
,
1997
,
The Life Sciences in Eighteenth Century French Thought
: Edited by
Benson
,
K.
, translated by
Ellrich
,
R.
:
Stanford, California
,
Stanford University Press
,
804
p.
Rossi
,
P.
,
1984
,
The Dark Abyss of Time
:
The History of the Earth & the History of Nations from Hooke to Vico
 :
Chicago
,
University of Chicago Press
,
338
p.
Rowland
,
I.D.
,
2004
,
Athanasius Kircher, Giorando Bruno, and the panspermia of the infinite universe
, in
Findlen
,
P.
, ed.,
Athanasius Kircher: The Last Man Who Knew Everything
 :
New York and London
,
Routledge
, p.
191
206
.
Sardo
,
E.L.
,
2004
,
Kircher’s Rome
, in
Findlen
,
P.
, ed.,
Athanasius Kircher: The Last Man Who Knew Everything
 :
New York and London
,
Routledge
, p.
51
62
.
Smith
,
J.E.H.
,
2011
,
Divine Machines: Leibniz and the Sciences of Life
:
Princeton
 ,
New Jersey
,
Princeton University Press
,
380
p.
Steno
,
N.
,
1671
,
The Prodomus to a Dissertation Concerning Solids Naturally Contained Within Solids
. Translated by
Oldenburg
,
H.
:
London
,
Moses Pitt
,
112
p.
Wilson
,
C.
,
1997
,
The Invisible World: Early Modern Philosophy and the Invention of the Microscope
:
Princeton
 ,
New Jersey
,
Princeton University Press
,
280
p.
Yamanda
,
T.
,
2006
,
Kircher and Steno on the “geocosm,” with a reassessment of the role of Gassendi’s works
, in
Vai
,
G.B.
, and
Caldwell
,
W.G.E.
, eds.,
The Origins of Geology in Italy: Geological Society of America Special Paper 411
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65
80
, https://doi.org/10.1130/2006.2411(05).

REFERENCES CITED

Adelmann
,
H.B.
,
1966
,
Marcello Malpighi and the Evolution of Embryology: Ithaca
 ,
New York
,
Cornell University Press
,
5
vols.,
551
p.
Adelmann
,
H.B.
, and
Malpighi
,
M.
,
1975
,
The Correspondence of Marcello Malpighi
:
Ithaca
 ,
New York
,
Cornell University Press
,
5
vols.,
2227
p.
Aristotle
, and
Barnes
,
J.
, ed.,
1995
,
Complete Works of Aristotle: The Revised Oxford Translation
:
Princeton
 ,
New Jersey
,
Princeton University Press
,
2
vols., p.
774
993
and p.
1552
1728
.
Basile
,
B.
,
1987
,
Polemiche sulla generazione spontanea: Redi, Buonanni, Malpighi
, in
Basile
,
B.
, ed.,
L’invenzione del vero: La letteratura scientifica da Galileo a Algarotti
 :
Rome
,
Salerno
, p.
125
167
.
Bertoloni Meli
,
D.
,
2011
,
Mechanism, Experiment, Disease
:
Marcello Malpighi and Seventeenth-century Anatomy
 :
Baltimore
,
Johns Hopkins University Press
,
439
p.
Buonanni
,
F.
,
1684
,
Recreatio mentis et oculi in observatione animalium testaceorum
:
Digitized copy of original from Harvard University Library of Dept. of Mollusks
 :
Rome
,
Varesi
,
569
p.
Buonanni
,
F.
,
1691
,
Observationes circa viventia, quae in rebus non viventibus reperuntur, Digitized by the Elektronische Bibliothek Schweiz project
:
Rome
,
Antonio Hercules
,
585
p.
Buonanni
,
F.
,
1709
,
Musaeum Kicherianum Sive Musaeum AP Athanasio Kichero in Collegio Romano Societatis Jesu
:
Digitized by Google Books
 :
Rome
,
Collegio Romano Societatis Jesu
,
748
p.
Chang
,
K.-M.(K.)
,
2011
,
Alchemy as studies of life and matter: Reconsidering the place of vitalism in early modern chemistry
:
Isis
 , v.
102
, no.
2
, p.
322
329
, https://doi.org/10.1086/660141.
Cobb
,
M.
,
2006
,
Generation: The Seventeenth-Century Scientists Who Unraveled the Secrets of Sex, Life, and Growth
:
New York
,
Bloomsbury Publisher
,
333
p.
Cunningham
,
A.
,
1997
,
The Anatomical Renaissance
:
The Resurrection of the Anatomical Projects of the Ancients
 :
Aldershot, UK
,
Scholar Press
,
283
p.
De Boodt
,
A.B.
,
1647
,
Gemmarum et Lapidum Historia
:
Quam Olim Edidit
,
602
p.
De Sepibus
,
G.
,
1678
,
Romani Collegii Societatis Jesu Musaeum celeberrimum, Cujus magnum Antiquariae rei, statuarium imaginum, picturarumque partem Ex Legato Alphonsi Domini, Senatus PopulusQue Romanus
:
Amstelo dami
,
Janssonio-Waesbergiana
, frontispiece.
Fazzari
,
M.
,
1999
,
Redi, Buonanni e La Contraversia Sulla Generazione Spontanea
, in
Bernardi
,
W.
, and
Guerrini
,
L.
, eds.,
Francesco Redi: Un Protagonista Della Scienza Moderna. Documenti, Esperimenti, Immagini
 :
Florence
,
Olschki
, p.
97
127
.
Findlen
,
P.
,
1996
,
Possessing Nature
:
Museums, Collecting, and Scientific Culture in Early Modern Italy
 :
Berkeley
,
University of California Press
,
449
p.
Findlen
,
P.
,
2004
,
Introduction: The last man who knew everything … Or did he? Athanasius Kircher, S.J. (1602–1680) and his world
, in
Findlen
,
P.
, ed.,
Athanasius Kircher: The Last Man Who Knew Everything
 :
New York and London
,
Routledge
, p.
1
48
.
Fletcher
,
J.E.
,
Fletcher
,
E.
, and
Kircher
,
A.
,
2011
,
A Study of the Life and Works of Athanasius Kircher, Germanus Incredibilis: With a Selection of His Unpublished Correspondence and an Annotated Translation of His Autobiography
:
Leiden
,
Brill
,
656
p.
Frank
,
R.G.
,
1980
,
Harvey and the Oxford Physiologists
:
A Study of Scientific Ideas
 :
Berkeley
,
University of California
,
368
p.
Goode
,
G.B.
,
2008
,
The relationships and responsibilities of museums
, in
Andrei
,
M.A.
, and
Genoways
,
H.H.
, eds.,
Museum Origins: Readings in Early Museum History and Philosophy
 :
New York
,
Routledge
, p.
111
124
.
Goudin
,
A.
,
[1668] 1864
,
Philosophie suivant les principes de saint Thomas, Tome 1
: Vol.
1
,
Paris
,
Vve Poussielgue-Rusand
. Digitized by the Bibliothèque nationale de France, département Philosophie, histoire, sciences de l’homme,
582
p.; http://gallica.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/bpt6k653059.
Gould
,
S.J.
,
2004
,
Father Athanasius on the isthmus of a middle state: Understanding Kircher’s paleontology
, in
Findlen
,
P.
, ed.,
Athanasius Kircher: The Last Man Who Knew Everything
 :
New York and London
,
Routledge
, p.
207
238
.
Hagan
,
H.A.
,
2008
,
The history of the origin and development of museums
, in
Andrei
,
M.A.
, and
Genoways
,
H.H.
, eds.,
Museum Origins: Readings in Early Museum History and Philosophy
 :
New York
,
Routledge
, p.
39
48
.
Hirai
,
H.
,
2007
,
Kircher’s chymical interpretation of the creation and spontaneous generation
, in
Principe
,
L.
, ed.,
Chymists and Chymistry: Studies in the History of Alchemy and Early Modern Chemistry
 :
Sagamore Beach, Massachusetts
,
Science History Publications, Watson Publishing International
, p.
77
87
.
Hirai
,
H.
,
2016
,
Mysteries of living corpuscles
, in
Distelzweig
,
P.
,
Goldberg
,
B.
, and
Ragland
,
E.R.
, eds.,
Early Modern Medicine and Natural Philosophy
 :
Dordrecht, Netherlands
,
Springer
, p.
255
269
.
Hooke
,
R.
,
1665
,
Micrographia
:
Or Some Physiological Descriptions of Minute Bodies Made by Magnifying Glasses with Observations and Inquiries Thereupon
 :
London
,
Royal Society. Digitized by Duke University Libraries
,
246
p.; https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/198549#page/5/mode/1up.
Hsia
,
F.
,
2004
,
Athanasius Kircher’s China Illustrated (1667): An Apologia Pro Vita Sua
, in
Findlen
,
P.
, ed.,
Athanasius Kircher: The Last Man Who Knew Everything
 :
New York and London
,
Routledge
, p.
383
404
.
Hunter
,
M.
, and
Davis
,
E.B.
, eds.,
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,
The Works of Robert Boyle
: Volume
7
,
London
,
Routledge
, p.
3
72
Franceschini
,
P.
,
2008
,
Buonanni, Filippo
, in
Koertge
,
N.
, ed.,
Complete Dictionary of Scientific Biography
 , vol.
2
:
Charles Scribner’s Sons
, Gale Virtual Reference Library, p.
591
592
.
Kircher
,
A.
,
[1678] 2004
,
Mundus Subterraneus, Facsimile Reproduction
:
Compiled by Gian Battista Vai
 : 3rd ed., Series 1678:
Bologna, Italy
,
Museo Geologico Giovanni Capellini
,
507
p.
Koertge
,
N.
,
2008
,
Complete Dictionary of Scientific Biography
:
Charles Scribner’s Sons
 ,
Gale Virtual Reference Library
.
Lugli
,
A.
,
1986
,
Inquiry as collection: The Athanasius Kircher Museum in Rome
:
RES: Anthropology and Aesthetics
 , v.
12
, p.
109
124
.
O’Malley
,
J.W.
,
SJ
,
2014
,
The Jesuits: A History from Ignatius to the Present
:
Lanham
 ,
Maryland
,
Rowman & Littlefield
,
160
p.
Parcell
,
W.C.
,
2009
,
Signs and symbols in Kircher’s Mundus Subterraneus
, in
Rosenberg
,
G.D.
, ed.,
The Revolution in Geology from the Renaissance to the Enlightenment: Geological Society of America Memoir
 
203
, p.
63
74
, https://doi.org/10.1130/2009.1203(04).
Plot
,
R.
,
1677
,
The Natural History of Oxford-shire
:
Being an Essay toward the Natural History of England
 :
Oxford, UK
, Printed at the Theater in Oxford: and are to be had there: And in London at
Mr. S. Millers
, at the Star near the West-end of St. Paul’s Church-yard,
358
p.
Rappaport
,
R.
,
1997
,
When Geologists Were Historians: 1665–1750
:
Ithaca
 ,
New York
,
Cornell University Press
,
336
p.
Redi
,
F.
,
[1668] 1909
,
Experiments on the Generation of Insects
 :
Chicago
,
Open Court Publishing
,
174
p.
Roger
,
J.
,
1997
,
The Life Sciences in Eighteenth Century French Thought
: Edited by
Benson
,
K.
, translated by
Ellrich
,
R.
:
Stanford, California
,
Stanford University Press
,
804
p.
Rossi
,
P.
,
1984
,
The Dark Abyss of Time
:
The History of the Earth & the History of Nations from Hooke to Vico
 :
Chicago
,
University of Chicago Press
,
338
p.
Rowland
,
I.D.
,
2004
,
Athanasius Kircher, Giorando Bruno, and the panspermia of the infinite universe
, in
Findlen
,
P.
, ed.,
Athanasius Kircher: The Last Man Who Knew Everything
 :
New York and London
,
Routledge
, p.
191
206
.
Sardo
,
E.L.
,
2004
,
Kircher’s Rome
, in
Findlen
,
P.
, ed.,
Athanasius Kircher: The Last Man Who Knew Everything
 :
New York and London
,
Routledge
, p.
51
62
.
Smith
,
J.E.H.
,
2011
,
Divine Machines: Leibniz and the Sciences of Life
:
Princeton
 ,
New Jersey
,
Princeton University Press
,
380
p.
Steno
,
N.
,
1671
,
The Prodomus to a Dissertation Concerning Solids Naturally Contained Within Solids
. Translated by
Oldenburg
,
H.
:
London
,
Moses Pitt
,
112
p.
Wilson
,
C.
,
1997
,
The Invisible World: Early Modern Philosophy and the Invention of the Microscope
:
Princeton
 ,
New Jersey
,
Princeton University Press
,
280
p.
Yamanda
,
T.
,
2006
,
Kircher and Steno on the “geocosm,” with a reassessment of the role of Gassendi’s works
, in
Vai
,
G.B.
, and
Caldwell
,
W.G.E.
, eds.,
The Origins of Geology in Italy: Geological Society of America Special Paper 411
 , p.
65
80
, https://doi.org/10.1130/2006.2411(05).

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Athanasius Kircher: The Last Man Who Knew Everything
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A.
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A Study of the Life and Works of Athanasius Kircher, Germanus Incredibilis: With a Selection of His Unpublished Correspondence and an Annotated Translation of His Autobiography
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,
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Vve Poussielgue-Rusand
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,
Father Athanasius on the isthmus of a middle state: Understanding Kircher’s paleontology
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Findlen
,
P.
, ed.,
Athanasius Kircher: The Last Man Who Knew Everything
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New York and London
,
Routledge
, p.
207
238
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,
H.A.
,
2008
,
The history of the origin and development of museums
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Andrei
,
M.A.
, and
Genoways
,
H.H.
, eds.,
Museum Origins: Readings in Early Museum History and Philosophy
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New York
,
Routledge
, p.
39
48
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,
H.
,
2007
,
Kircher’s chymical interpretation of the creation and spontaneous generation
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L.
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Chymists and Chymistry: Studies in the History of Alchemy and Early Modern Chemistry
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, p.
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72
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,
P.
,
2008
,
Buonanni, Filippo
, in
Koertge
,
N.
, ed.,
Complete Dictionary of Scientific Biography
 , vol.
2
:
Charles Scribner’s Sons
, Gale Virtual Reference Library, p.
591
592
.
Kircher
,
A.
,
[1678] 2004
,
Mundus Subterraneus, Facsimile Reproduction
:
Compiled by Gian Battista Vai
 : 3rd ed., Series 1678:
Bologna, Italy
,
Museo Geologico Giovanni Capellini
,
507
p.
Koertge
,
N.
,
2008
,
Complete Dictionary of Scientific Biography
:
Charles Scribner’s Sons
 ,
Gale Virtual Reference Library
.
Lugli
,
A.
,
1986
,
Inquiry as collection: The Athanasius Kircher Museum in Rome
:
RES: Anthropology and Aesthetics
 , v.
12
, p.
109
124
.
O’Malley
,
J.W.
,
SJ
,
2014
,
The Jesuits: A History from Ignatius to the Present
:
Lanham
 ,
Maryland
,
Rowman & Littlefield
,
160
p.
Parcell
,
W.C.
,
2009
,
Signs and symbols in Kircher’s Mundus Subterraneus
, in
Rosenberg
,
G.D.
, ed.,
The Revolution in Geology from the Renaissance to the Enlightenment: Geological Society of America Memoir
 
203
, p.
63
74
, https://doi.org/10.1130/2009.1203(04).
Plot
,
R.
,
1677
,
The Natural History of Oxford-shire
:
Being an Essay toward the Natural History of England
 :
Oxford, UK
, Printed at the Theater in Oxford: and are to be had there: And in London at
Mr. S. Millers
, at the Star near the West-end of St. Paul’s Church-yard,
358
p.
Rappaport
,
R.
,
1997
,
When Geologists Were Historians: 1665–1750
:
Ithaca
 ,
New York
,
Cornell University Press
,
336
p.
Redi
,
F.
,
[1668] 1909
,
Experiments on the Generation of Insects
 :
Chicago
,
Open Court Publishing
,
174
p.
Roger
,
J.
,
1997
,
The Life Sciences in Eighteenth Century French Thought
: Edited by
Benson
,
K.
, translated by
Ellrich
,
R.
:
Stanford, California
,
Stanford University Press
,
804
p.
Rossi
,
P.
,
1984
,
The Dark Abyss of Time
:
The History of the Earth & the History of Nations from Hooke to Vico
 :
Chicago
,
University of Chicago Press
,
338
p.
Rowland
,
I.D.
,
2004
,
Athanasius Kircher, Giorando Bruno, and the panspermia of the infinite universe
, in
Findlen
,
P.
, ed.,
Athanasius Kircher: The Last Man Who Knew Everything
 :
New York and London
,
Routledge
, p.
191
206
.
Sardo
,
E.L.
,
2004
,
Kircher’s Rome
, in
Findlen
,
P.
, ed.,
Athanasius Kircher: The Last Man Who Knew Everything
 :
New York and London
,
Routledge
, p.
51
62
.
Smith
,
J.E.H.
,
2011
,
Divine Machines: Leibniz and the Sciences of Life
:
Princeton
 ,
New Jersey
,
Princeton University Press
,
380
p.
Steno
,
N.
,
1671
,
The Prodomus to a Dissertation Concerning Solids Naturally Contained Within Solids
. Translated by
Oldenburg
,
H.
:
London
,
Moses Pitt
,
112
p.
Wilson
,
C.
,
1997
,
The Invisible World: Early Modern Philosophy and the Invention of the Microscope
:
Princeton
 ,
New Jersey
,
Princeton University Press
,
280
p.
Yamanda
,
T.
,
2006
,
Kircher and Steno on the “geocosm,” with a reassessment of the role of Gassendi’s works
, in
Vai
,
G.B.
, and
Caldwell
,
W.G.E.
, eds.,
The Origins of Geology in Italy: Geological Society of America Special Paper 411
 , p.
65
80
, https://doi.org/10.1130/2006.2411(05).

REFERENCES CITED

Adelmann
,
H.B.
,
1966
,
Marcello Malpighi and the Evolution of Embryology: Ithaca
 ,
New York
,
Cornell University Press
,
5
vols.,
551
p.
Adelmann
,
H.B.
, and
Malpighi
,
M.
,
1975
,
The Correspondence of Marcello Malpighi
:
Ithaca
 ,
New York
,
Cornell University Press
,
5
vols.,
2227
p.
Aristotle
, and
Barnes
,
J.
, ed.,
1995
,
Complete Works of Aristotle: The Revised Oxford Translation
:
Princeton
 ,
New Jersey
,
Princeton University Press
,
2
vols., p.
774
993
and p.
1552
1728
.
Basile
,
B.
,
1987
,
Polemiche sulla generazione spontanea: Redi, Buonanni, Malpighi
, in
Basile
,
B.
, ed.,
L’invenzione del vero: La letteratura scientifica da Galileo a Algarotti
 :
Rome
,
Salerno
, p.
125
167
.
Bertoloni Meli
,
D.
,
2011
,
Mechanism, Experiment, Disease
:
Marcello Malpighi and Seventeenth-century Anatomy
 :
Baltimore
,
Johns Hopkins University Press
,
439
p.
Buonanni
,
F.
,
1684
,
Recreatio mentis et oculi in observatione animalium testaceorum
:
Digitized copy of original from Harvard University Library of Dept. of Mollusks
 :
Rome
,
Varesi
,
569
p.
Buonanni
,
F.
,
1691
,
Observationes circa viventia, quae in rebus non viventibus reperuntur, Digitized by the Elektronische Bibliothek Schweiz project
:
Rome
,
Antonio Hercules
,
585
p.
Buonanni
,
F.
,
1709
,
Musaeum Kicherianum Sive Musaeum AP Athanasio Kichero in Collegio Romano Societatis Jesu
:
Digitized by Google Books
 :
Rome
,
Collegio Romano Societatis Jesu
,
748
p.
Chang
,
K.-M.(K.)
,
2011
,
Alchemy as studies of life and matter: Reconsidering the place of vitalism in early modern chemistry
:
Isis
 , v.
102
, no.
2
, p.
322
329
, https://doi.org/10.1086/660141.
Cobb
,
M.
,
2006
,
Generation: The Seventeenth-Century Scientists Who Unraveled the Secrets of Sex, Life, and Growth
:
New York
,
Bloomsbury Publisher
,
333
p.
Cunningham
,
A.
,
1997
,
The Anatomical Renaissance
:
The Resurrection of the Anatomical Projects of the Ancients
 :
Aldershot, UK
,
Scholar Press
,
283
p.
De Boodt
,
A.B.
,
1647
,
Gemmarum et Lapidum Historia
:
Quam Olim Edidit
,
602
p.
De Sepibus
,
G.
,
1678
,
Romani Collegii Societatis Jesu Musaeum celeberrimum, Cujus magnum Antiquariae rei, statuarium imaginum, picturarumque partem Ex Legato Alphonsi Domini, Senatus PopulusQue Romanus
:
Amstelo dami
,
Janssonio-Waesbergiana
, frontispiece.
Fazzari
,
M.
,
1999
,
Redi, Buonanni e La Contraversia Sulla Generazione Spontanea
, in
Bernardi
,
W.
, and
Guerrini
,
L.
, eds.,
Francesco Redi: Un Protagonista Della Scienza Moderna. Documenti, Esperimenti, Immagini
 :
Florence
,
Olschki
, p.
97
127
.
Findlen
,
P.
,
1996
,
Possessing Nature
:
Museums, Collecting, and Scientific Culture in Early Modern Italy
 :
Berkeley
,
University of California Press
,
449
p.
Findlen
,
P.
,
2004
,
Introduction: The last man who knew everything … Or did he? Athanasius Kircher, S.J. (1602–1680) and his world
, in
Findlen
,
P.
, ed.,
Athanasius Kircher: The Last Man Who Knew Everything
 :
New York and London
,
Routledge
, p.
1
48
.
Fletcher
,
J.E.
,
Fletcher
,
E.
, and
Kircher
,
A.
,
2011
,
A Study of the Life and Works of Athanasius Kircher, Germanus Incredibilis: With a Selection of His Unpublished Correspondence and an Annotated Translation of His Autobiography
:
Leiden
,
Brill
,
656
p.
Frank
,
R.G.
,
1980
,
Harvey and the Oxford Physiologists
:
A Study of Scientific Ideas
 :
Berkeley
,
University of California
,
368
p.
Goode
,
G.B.
,
2008
,
The relationships and responsibilities of museums
, in
Andrei
,
M.A.
, and
Genoways
,
H.H.
, eds.,
Museum Origins: Readings in Early Museum History and Philosophy
 :
New York
,
Routledge
, p.
111
124
.
Goudin
,
A.
,
[1668] 1864
,
Philosophie suivant les principes de saint Thomas, Tome 1
: Vol.
1
,
Paris
,
Vve Poussielgue-Rusand
. Digitized by the Bibliothèque nationale de France, département Philosophie, histoire, sciences de l’homme,
582
p.; http://gallica.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/bpt6k653059.
Gould
,
S.J.
,
2004
,
Father Athanasius on the isthmus of a middle state: Understanding Kircher’s paleontology
, in
Findlen
,
P.
, ed.,
Athanasius Kircher: The Last Man Who Knew Everything
 :
New York and London
,
Routledge
, p.
207
238
.
Hagan
,
H.A.
,
2008
,
The history of the origin and development of museums
, in
Andrei
,
M.A.
, and
Genoways
,
H.H.
, eds.,
Museum Origins: Readings in Early Museum History and Philosophy
 :
New York
,
Routledge
, p.
39
48
.
Hirai
,
H.
,
2007
,
Kircher’s chymical interpretation of the creation and spontaneous generation
, in
Principe
,
L.
, ed.,
Chymists and Chymistry: Studies in the History of Alchemy and Early Modern Chemistry
 :
Sagamore Beach, Massachusetts
,
Science History Publications, Watson Publishing International
, p.
77
87
.
Hirai
,
H.
,
2016
,
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