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*Michele L. Aldrich passed away on 23 November 2016 following a brief illness. She was coauthor of this work, which was presented at the 2016 GSA Annual Meeting in Denver in session T-95 sponsored by GSA’s History and Philosophy of Geology Division. This presentation is a modestly enlarged version of the oral presentation given at the meeting, and it is here with much affection dedicated to her memory.

ABSTRACT

Too often we view museums as display centers, not places where basic research takes place. But that is unfortunate. Museums bridge the gap between scientists and public outreach and, on balance, manage well. This is true for many of the world’s major museums, including the California Academy of Sciences, where geology plays a significant role in both basic research and outreach programs.

In 1889, the Academy began construction of its building on Market Street in downtown San Francisco to replace the ramshackle church that had been its home for some years. It would now have space for public exhibits and its core research activities. For some of its exhibits, spectacular materials were purchased from Ward’s Natural Science Establishment, but for others, it drew upon its own collections, notably rocks and minerals. The new Academy opened its doors to the public in early 1892, but not long afterward both buildings and contents were lost in the 1906 San Francisco earthquake. The Academy rebounded and undertook construction of new facilities in Golden Gate Park where, for many years, its exhibits, apart from the magnificent Steinhart Aquarium and its displays of living fishes, consisted mostly of habitat dioramas but also included a mineralogy hall and, in time, a fossil hall, Life through Time. The mineral hall played to the human urge to collect and classify, embodied in the “rock-hound” approach of youngsters who fill their rooms with natural materials. And basic research by curators, e.g., F.M. Anderson, GD. Hanna, L.G. Hertlein, A.G. Smith, and, more recently, P.D. Roopnarine, R. Mooi, and G.C. Williams, resulted in many publications on stratigraphy, paleontology, paleocommunities, and evolution and extinctions.

In the late 1980s, confronted by seismic concerns, the Academy replaced all but one of its buildings. And, because of exciting developments, the new geology exhibits, introduced by an eye-catching globe and text about the Earth’s crust, panels on earthquakes (California’s “bugaboo”) and on continental drift and plate tectonics and their impact on Earth history, reinforce the educational aspects of the Academy’s public outreach. Also given Kociolek and Fourtanier’s studies of diatoms, and more recently paleobiodiversity and biogeography by Mooi, Roopnarine, and students, and with fossil and mineral collections, managed by Jean DeMouthe, now numbering in the millions of specimens, outreach and basic research continue unabated.

1853 FOUNDING OF THE ACADEMY TO 1906 SAN FRANCISCO EARTHQUAKE AND INITIAL RECOVERY

The California Academy of Sciences’ involvement with geology and paleontology dates from its founding in 1853. In that year, Andrew Randall (1819–1856), formerly a field assistant to David Dale Owen (1807–1860) during the latter’s survey of the Wisconsin territory, and John Boardman Trask (1824–1879), who had an abiding interest in the Sierra foothills, its geology and mining districts, joined five other San Franciscans in founding the California Academy of Natural Sciences. Also in 1853, William Phipps Blake (1826–1910), of the Pacific Railroad Survey, published the first geologic map of the San Francisco region. Thus, from its founding, geology played a significant role in Academy activities, and one that has continued throughout its 165-year history.

It should be kept in mind in perusing what follows that the California Academy of Sciences is not solely dedicated to research or public outreach in the earth sciences. It has a much broader outlook harboring several other world-class research collections, among them being botany, fishes, reptiles and amphibians, entomology, invertebrate zoology, and anthropology. And while not all have an extended relationship to geology and/or paleontology, insofar as the research activities of specific curators are concerned, there is considerable interplay, especially so in invertebrate zoology. Without belaboring the matter, in the recent past in anthropology, both Nina Jablonski and Zeray Alemsagrad dealt with the Koobi Fora fauna of the East African Plio-Pleistocene of the Lake Turkana region, whereas others drew heavily on Tertiary geology in the Philippines, Gondwanan geology of South Africa, Cenozoic history of Madagascar, in discussing matters of historical and biogeographical significance.

Returning to the geological studies at the Academy, and specifically with respect to its early years, roughly 1853–1907, Aldrich and Leviton covered those years of Academy activities in earlier presentations and publications (1982, 1987, 1993, 1997; Aldrich et al., 1986; Leviton et al., 2006, 2010; Rodda and Leviton, 1983), so that our starting point for this historical synopsis will be the mid-1890s with the report on submarine canyons off the California coast, published in 1897 in the Academy’s Proceedings series by Academy associate and former Academy President George Davidson (1825–1911) (Fig. 1A) and Frank Marion Anderson (1863–1943) (Fig. 1B), who was elected a resident member of the academy in 1899, and then in 1903 as curator of geology and invertebrate paleontology, to serve without salary.

Figure 1.

(A) George Davidson (California Academy of Sciences Archives). (B) Frank Marion Anderson (California Academy of Sciences Archives).

Figure 1.

(A) George Davidson (California Academy of Sciences Archives). (B) Frank Marion Anderson (California Academy of Sciences Archives).

George Davidson (1825–1911; Dickie et al., 1914), who served as head of the U.S. Coastal Survey (later the U.S. Coast and Geodetic Survey) for the Pacific Coast until his summary dismissal in 1894, was both an avid oceanographer and astronomer. He was elected to membership in the Academy in 1869, though he attended Academy meetings in the earlier 1860s and occasionally gave presentations on his work in Alaska and along the Pacific Coast.

Frank Marion Anderson’s (1863–1945) research focused on Cretaceous and Lower to Mid-Tertiary stratigraphy and paleontology of California, Baja California (e.g., 1902, 1905, 1908, 1911, 1927, 1928, 1929; Anderson and Martin, 1914; Anderson and Hanna, 1925, 1935), and Colombia (1927, 1928, 1929). He was also an avid collector of fossils and, in 1902, he began to transfer his invertebrate fossils to the Academy. Furthermore, as with the other Academy curators of his time, Anderson’s research office and the department’s collections were located in the building situated behind and connected by an enclosed bridge to the Academy’s new Market Street building (Fig. 2), which on the public ground floor (Fig. 3) had on display several excellent paleontology exhibits, including a reconstructed mammoth and a giant sloth, the two obtained from Ward’s Natural Science Establishment. There was also a considerable display of rocks and minerals from its own collections, many dating to the Whitney California geological survey period of the 1860s, during which time, Josiah Dwight Whitney (1819–1896), William Henry Brewer (1827–1910), and other members of the survey, participated in the activities of the fledgling California Academy of Natural Sciences (the Academy’s formal name prior to 1868).1

Figure 2.

California Academy of Sciences, Market Street building, 1890–1906 (California Academy of Sciences Archives).

Figure 2.

California Academy of Sciences, Market Street building, 1890–1906 (California Academy of Sciences Archives).

Figure 3.

Public exhibits on ground floor of Academy museum (California Academy of Sciences Archives).

Figure 3.

Public exhibits on ground floor of Academy museum (California Academy of Sciences Archives).

Unfortunately, as a result of the 18 April 1906 San Francisco earthquake and fire (Fig. 4), the Academy’s two buildings (Figs. 5 and 6) and nearly all of its prized possessions, research collections included, were lost. And though the event impacted much of the Academy’s activities, its curators nonetheless continued to pursue their research, mostly in temporary quarters located elsewhere in the city (Figs. 7 and 8; Gough Street, California Academy of Sciences), as did the Academy’s staff, who participated in the Academy’s 1905–1906 Galapagos expedition.

Figure 4.

Fire that swept downtown San Francisco, 18 April 1906 (California Academy of Sciences Archives).

Figure 4.

Fire that swept downtown San Francisco, 18 April 1906 (California Academy of Sciences Archives).

Figure 5.

Devastation wrought by the earthquake to the Academy’s Market Street buildings (the Academy’s museum and research quarters, left rear).

Figure 5.

Devastation wrought by the earthquake to the Academy’s Market Street buildings (the Academy’s museum and research quarters, left rear).

Figure 6.

Interior of the Academy’s museum building following the earthquake and fire that engulfed the building (California Academy of Sciences Archives).

Figure 6.

Interior of the Academy’s museum building following the earthquake and fire that engulfed the building (California Academy of Sciences Archives).

Figure 7.

The Academy’s temporary administrative quarters on Gough Street following the earthquake and fire (California Academy of Sciences Archives).

Figure 7.

The Academy’s temporary administrative quarters on Gough Street following the earthquake and fire (California Academy of Sciences Archives).

Figure 8.

Rebuilding the Academy’s temporary library housing materials donated by museums and other institutions worldwide (California Academy of Sciences Archives).

Figure 8.

Rebuilding the Academy’s temporary library housing materials donated by museums and other institutions worldwide (California Academy of Sciences Archives).

With respect to the Galapagos expedition, and more specifically with respect to geology and paleontology, 26-year-old Washington Ochsner (1879–1927) (Figs. 9A, 9B, and 10B) served as expedition geologist. Furthermore, as a result of his and his expedition companions’ efforts in the Galapagos, a substantial number of fossils were brought back, thereby initiating a new paleontological collection. Although Ochsner’s subsequent association with the Academy was limited, nonetheless, in collaboration with Academy life member and former curator, William Healey Dall (1845–1927) (Fig. 10A), he prepared an extensive review of Tertiary and Pleistocene mollusks of the Galapagos Islands, which was published posthumously for both in 1928.

Figure 9.

(A) Washington Ochsner before leaving for the Galapagos in 1905 (California Academy of Sciences Archives). (B) Page from Ochsner’s field notes, titled “Charles Island” (California Academy of Sciences Archives).

Figure 9.

(A) Washington Ochsner before leaving for the Galapagos in 1905 (California Academy of Sciences Archives). (B) Page from Ochsner’s field notes, titled “Charles Island” (California Academy of Sciences Archives).

Figure 10.

(A) William Healy Dall (portrait in Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences, 1928). (B) Washington Ochsner (portrait in Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences, 1928).

Figure 10.

(A) William Healy Dall (portrait in Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences, 1928). (B) Washington Ochsner (portrait in Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences, 1928).

POST–1906 EARTHQUAKE RECOVERY AND THE HANNA/HERTLEIN ERA TO 1969

The Academy (Fig. 11) relocated to Golden Gate Park, and in 1916 the first of several new buildings opened to the public. The building, which was named North American Hall and which housed public exhibits on the ground floor, also provided facilities for research and collections. At this time and for several decades thereafter, and apart from its new Steinhart Aquarium, which opened in 1923, academy public exhibits focused on dioramas of animals and their habitats, mostly North America and, in time and with the addition of African Hall, Africa. Otherwise, there was little relating to either fossils or geology except one wing in North American Hall (Figs. 12A and (12B) that was devoted exclusively to the display of hundreds of species of gems, minerals, and rocks, a near must in California considering its mining history, but one that also allowed visitors, with their own specimens in hand, to attempt identification of their precious holdings.

Figure 11.

Entrance to the first new building of the California Academy of Sciences that opened to the public in 1916 (California Academy of Sciences Archives).*

Figure 11.

Entrance to the first new building of the California Academy of Sciences that opened to the public in 1916 (California Academy of Sciences Archives).*

Figure 12.

(A) Mineral Hall wing in the newly opened North American Hall (California Academy of Sciences Archives). (B) Updated Mineral Hall, ca. 1990s (California Academy of Sciences Archives).

Figure 12.

(A) Mineral Hall wing in the newly opened North American Hall (California Academy of Sciences Archives). (B) Updated Mineral Hall, ca. 1990s (California Academy of Sciences Archives).

During the rebuilding period, research continued to flourish. In 1910, Anderson brought in Roy Ernest Dickerson (1877–1944; see Harris, 1944) (Fig. 13A), who served as curator of invertebrate paleontology and, for a brief time, as director of the Academy’s museum (1914), until his departure in 1919 for the Philippines and a future in petroleum geology. Dickerson was an active researcher with an interest in Tertiary faunal units on the Pacific Coast as well as the influence of early Tertiary climate on the faunas (1917a, 1917b, 1921, 1922).

Figure 13.

(A) Roy Ernest Dickerson (American Association of Petroleum Geologists ©1944, American Association of Petroleum Geologists Bulletin, v. 28, p. 888, reprinted by permission of the American Association of Petroleum Geologists, whose permission is required for further use). (B) G Dallas Hanna, ca. 1919 (California Academy of Sciences Archives).

Figure 13.

(A) Roy Ernest Dickerson (American Association of Petroleum Geologists ©1944, American Association of Petroleum Geologists Bulletin, v. 28, p. 888, reprinted by permission of the American Association of Petroleum Geologists, whose permission is required for further use). (B) G Dallas Hanna, ca. 1919 (California Academy of Sciences Archives).

But before leaving the Academy in 1919, Anderson and Dickerson attracted G Dallas Hanna (1887–1970) (Figs. 13B and 14A), who had diverse research interests that ranged from mammals of the Pribilof Islands, recent and fossil mollusks (e.g., Hanna, 1923, 1966), descriptive geology (e.g., Hanna and Hertlein, 1927; Hanna, 1930, 1952) and stratigraphy, the great Alaskan earthquake (1964), and oil seeps (Hanna, 1963), indeed even insects of the Pribilof Islands (Hanna et al., 1921), but with an overall abiding interest in microfossils, notably diatoms, their diversity as well as their use in establishing stratigraphic relationships (Hanna, 1927, 1932, 1970, et seq.; Hanna and Brigger, 1966). Hanna married Margaret Hughes (Fig. 14B), née Moore, who had in the late 1920s and early 1930s served as Joseph Cushman’s lead foraminifera artist. The two Hannas served the Academy for many years, and Margaret, not surprisingly, was most supportive of Dallas Hanna’s micropaleontological and stratigraphic studies as well his interests in such diverse matters as producing binocular and periscope lenses for the U.S. Navy during World War II, in-house construction of the Academy’s planetarium projector, and in-house offset color printing for Academy scientific publications.

Figure 14.

(A) G Dallas Hanna, ca. mid-1950s (California Academy of Sciences Archives). (B) Margaret Hanna (California Academy of Sciences Archives).

Figure 14.

(A) G Dallas Hanna, ca. mid-1950s (California Academy of Sciences Archives). (B) Margaret Hanna (California Academy of Sciences Archives).

In 1929, Hanna and his then new departmental associate, Leo George Hertlein (1898–1972; see Addicott, 1970) (Fig. 15A), launched an aggressive program of research in micropaleontology and invertebrate paleontology and stratigraphy, though Hertlein’s attention was mostly directed to Tertiary marine mollusks of California and the Galapagos Islands (e.g., 1925, 1939, 1963, 1968, 1972) and regional paleontology (e.g., Hertlein and Jordan, 1927).

Figure 15.

(A) Leo George Hertlein (California Academy of Sciences Archives). (B) George Gester (American Association of Petroleum Geologists ©1960, American Association of Petroleum Geologists Bulletin, v. 44, p. 374, reprinted by permission of the AAPG, whose permission is required for further use).

Figure 15.

(A) Leo George Hertlein (California Academy of Sciences Archives). (B) George Gester (American Association of Petroleum Geologists ©1960, American Association of Petroleum Geologists Bulletin, v. 44, p. 374, reprinted by permission of the AAPG, whose permission is required for further use).

But both Hanna and Hertlein were supportive of regional geology investigations, and in this they attracted colleagues who signed on as research associates in the then Department of Paleontology, notably geologist and civil engineer, George Gester (1884–1959; see Moody, 1960) (Fig. 15B), at the time chief geologist for Standard Oil of California, but who continued his Academy association and explorations as a geologist after his retirement (e.g., Gester, 1962 [posthumously published]), Carl Grunsky (1855–1934), and Allyn Smith (1893–1976; see Emerson, 1977) (Fig. 16A), then head of personnel for the Pacific Telephone Company.

Figure 16.

(A) Allyn G. Smith (California Academy of Sciences Archives). (B) Robert C. Miller (California Academy of Sciences Archives).

Figure 16.

(A) Allyn G. Smith (California Academy of Sciences Archives). (B) Robert C. Miller (California Academy of Sciences Archives).

Apart from his research associate appointment in geology and paleontology, Grunsky served as Academy president from 1914 to 1931, and then in 1932, he succeeded Barton Warren Evermann (1853–1932) as director of the Academy’s museum and Steinhart Aquarium. According to Hanna, although Grunsky’s scientific contributions were negligible, he did preside over meetings with sensitivity and a good understanding of both people and matters being discussed.

Allyn Smith (see Miller, 1977; Kellogg, 1986), on the other hand, was appointed research associate in malacology in 1939, and following his retirement from the telephone company in 1954, he came to the Academy as research malacologist and assistant to the Academy’s director and marine biologist, Robert C. Miller (Fig. 16B). Then, in 1960, he was appointed associate curator of invertebrate zoology and paleontology, and from 1963 to 1972, department chair. Smith managed to publish more than 100 papers covering his studies on recent and fossil snails and chitons, among them the section on “Amphineura” in the Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology (1960), as well as contributions on Paleozoic and Mesozoic mollusks (e.g., Smith et al., 1968, 1971), including two summary catalogs with bibliographies, one in 1973, Fossil Chitons from the Mesozoic, and a second in [Smith and Hoare] 1987, Paleozoic Polyplacophora.

At this point, we must emphasize that for Academy curators in paleontology, geology, and invertebrate zoology, the distinction among the fields had long since blurred; indeed they were seen as interdependent, and, as we well know today, they collectively provide the breadth of understanding required to deal with past and present phylogenetic, ecological, and biogeographic relationships as well as, indeed, historical geological events. Thus, as one peruses their publications, one finds that the Hanna, Hertlein, and Smith paleontological studies are interspersed with treatments of extant invertebrates, mostly molluscan, and microfossils.

Furthermore, and although implied but not dealt with specifically, the research curator staff of geology and paleontology engaged in field work throughout their careers at the Academy. Much was done locally and throughout California, but more lengthy excursions took place too, notably to Mexico, as for example the California Academy of Sciences expeditions to the Gulf of California in 1921, the Revillagigedo Islands in 1925, the 1953 six-week Orca Expedition sponsored by the Sefton Foundation to investigate the faunas, floras, and geology of the islands in the Gulf of California, and not long afterward, the Bechtel Foundation sponsored at least two field excursions to Baja California, one of two months duration in 1958, to Baja California del Sur, the second in 1961 to the Vizcaiño Desert region. In each case, a member or members of the Academy’s geology and paleontology group participated, e.g., Galapagos, Hertlein; Gulf of California, Hanna; Revillagigedo Islands, Hertlein; Orca Expedition, Hanna; Bechtel Foundation, Baja California del Sur, Smith. There were other travels, including Alaska, which held a special place in Hanna’s heart for while in his youthful prime, he traveled by dogsled roundtrip from Bristol Bay to Iditarod.

In 1967, Victor Zullo (1936–1993; see Newman et al., 1994) (Fig. 17A) joined the Academy’s staff as curator of invertebrate zoology and geology during the administration of botanical cactaceaologist George Lindsay (Fig. 17B), a strong supporter of basic research at the Academy. Zullo’s fascination with Cenozoic barnacles and biostratigraphy resulted in at least 15 publications during his Academy tenure, capped by the coauthored treatment of Cirripedia (Newman et al., 1969) in the Treatise of Invertebrate Paleontology. But Zullo’s tenure at the Academy was short-lived, for in 1971, he left to join the faculty of the University of North Carolina.

Figure 17.

(A) Victor Zullo (left) appearing on the TV program Science in Action, ca. 1969, with program host Earl S. Herald (right), then superintendent of the Academy’s Steinhart Aquarium (California Academy of Sciences Archives). (B) George E. Lindsay, Academy director (California Academy of Sciences Archives).

Figure 17.

(A) Victor Zullo (left) appearing on the TV program Science in Action, ca. 1969, with program host Earl S. Herald (right), then superintendent of the Academy’s Steinhart Aquarium (California Academy of Sciences Archives). (B) George E. Lindsay, Academy director (California Academy of Sciences Archives).

POST–G DALLAS HANNA AND LEO G. HERTLEIN PERIOD, 1970–2016

In 1970, G Dallas Hanna died, and he was soon followed by the passing of Leo Hertlein in 1972. But before the latter event, and shortly after Victor Zullo’s departure, the Academy acquired the services of Peter U. Rodda in 1971 (Fig. 18A), who at the time was with the University of Texas in Austin. A year later, in 1973, Welton Lee (1973) (Fig. 18B), an invertebrate zoologist, was brought in, and he and Rodda were destined to play significant roles in greatly expanding the Academy’s invertebrate research collections, recent and fossil. Additionally, Rodda became deeply committed to the Academy’s public outreach activities in both geology and paleontology. And in this he would be strongly supported by Ian Campbell (1899–1978) (Fig. 19A), who, having served a lengthy term as professor of geology at California Institute of Technology, became not only California State Geologist but also an Academy research associate, trustee, and, in due course, its president. Campbell was not unappreciative of the parts played by Rodda and others in advancing the Academy’s stature in research and public outreach, including temporaries, such as Sam Van Landingham (1935–2013) (Fig. 19B), who had come to the Academy as research diatomist, ca. 1973–1978. At the time, Sam had already published the first of his eight-volume catalogue of fossil and recent genera and species of diatoms, to which he added the additional volumes at a steady pace (1967–1979).

Figure 18.

(A) Peter U. Rodda (photograph by A. Leviton, 2000). (B) Welton Lee (California Academy of Sciences Archives).

Figure 18.

(A) Peter U. Rodda (photograph by A. Leviton, 2000). (B) Welton Lee (California Academy of Sciences Archives).

Figure 19.

(A) Ian Campbell (California Academy of Sciences Archives). (B) Sam Van Landingham (California Academy of Sciences Archives).

Figure 19.

(A) Ian Campbell (California Academy of Sciences Archives). (B) Sam Van Landingham (California Academy of Sciences Archives).

Returning to Peter Rodda, he played a seminal role in conceptualizing and overseeing the development of a new Academy Hall, Life through Time, with its remarkable, almost living exhibits (Fig. 20). Regretfully, Rodda’s time was so thoroughly subsumed by this that his own research with Mesozoic ammonites suffered. But the new hall turned out to be a stunning success. It must be noted that in the planning of the new facility, Rodda did have the support of departmental staff, one of whom, mineralogist Jean DeMouthe (1949–2017) (Fig. 21A), had come to the Academy in 1973 as a curatorial assistant but rapidly rose to become senior collections manager of the Academy’s extensive and ever-growing geology and paleontology collections (Fig. 21B). DeMouthe was also a registered geologist in California and acting county geologist for San Mateo County as well as adjunct professor at San Francisco State University. As one might expect for a mineralogist, her publications and public outreach activities strongly favor minerals (e.g., DeMouthe, 1989, 1990, 1991, 2005) but not exclusively because she was extremely interested in reaching out to the public of all ages through publication (DeMouthe, 1994, 1999) and lectures, as well as her eclectic interests (DeMouthe, 1977).

Figure 20.

Exhibit in Life Through Time hall, ca. 1990 (California Academy of Sciences Archives).

Figure 20.

Exhibit in Life Through Time hall, ca. 1990 (California Academy of Sciences Archives).

Figure 21.

(A) Jean DeMouthe (photograph by A. Leviton, 2016). (B) Earth Sciences Collections at the California Academy of Sciences, ca. 1985.

Figure 21.

(A) Jean DeMouthe (photograph by A. Leviton, 2016). (B) Earth Sciences Collections at the California Academy of Sciences, ca. 1985.

Also, not long after the loss of G Dallas Hanna and the departure of Van Landingham, and in continued recognition of the hugely important research potential of the Academy’s collection of microfossils, notably diatoms, in 1989, the Academy attracted John Patrick Kociolek (Fig. 22A), Pat to his friends and colleagues, and his erstwhile associate and postdoctoral fellow, Elisabeth Fourtanier (Fig. 22B) (1993–1997), who thoroughly enjoyed reaching out to the public and talking about diatoms. Pat was especially interested in the taxonomy and phylogeny of diatoms, with notable interest in living freshwater diatoms but also in the historical events that impacted them in both space and time. Apart from taxonomic and broader biological studies, the two indulged in a collaborative effort to produce a massive catalogue of diatom names, bibliography, and associated data, worldwide and across time. Regretfully, only the first two volumes of the catalog were completed and published (Fourtanier and Kociolek, 2009a, 2009b) because of other distractions, namely that following an initial several years of research and an assortment of relatively light administrative duties, in 1998 Kociolek was asked to take on the responsibility of executive director of the Academy, in which capacity he served until his departure in 2007 for the University of Colorado.

Figure 22.

(A) John Patrick Kociolek (photograph by A. Leviton, 2004). (B) Elisabeth Fourtanier and public visitors to diatom laboratory at the Academy (California Academy of Sciences Archives).

Figure 22.

(A) John Patrick Kociolek (photograph by A. Leviton, 2004). (B) Elisabeth Fourtanier and public visitors to diatom laboratory at the Academy (California Academy of Sciences Archives).

With Patrick’s commitment to administration, and with the loss of two curators in invertebrate zoology and paleontology, the Academy sought a couple of rising stars to fill the vacancies. Thus, in 1990, it acquired two talented scientists, Gary C. Williams (Fig. 23A) and Richard Mooi (Fig. 23B). Williams’ research centered on the systematics, biogeography, and evolutionary biology of octocorallian coelenterates, but he also had a penchant for the history of science (Williams, 1997, 2007, 2008) as well as for travel to exotic places, not the least of which have been his excursions in the Andes of South America, backpacking from the Andean crest into the Amazon Basin of Bolivia, also traveling the length of the Andes to Tierra del Fuego, but also studies in South Africa, the Philippines, and elsewhere. Richard J. Mooi’s echinoderm research spans the range of paleontology, zoology, and ecology (e.g., Mooi, 1989, 1990, 2001; Mooi and David, 1997; Mooi et al., 2000), but he is also a dedicated teacher. Indeed, in the mid-1990s, Mooi became involved in the direction of the Academy’s “Summer Systematics Institute” (Figs. 24A and 24B), now a National Science Foundation–sponsored program, in which students, selected by application from across the United States, spend a summer in study of the fundamentals of systematics, including methodologies, for both fossil and Recent organisms, and the most current applications for data gathering and analysis, thus providing a unique research participation experience.

Figure 23.

(A) Gary C. Williams (photograph by A. Leviton, 2002). (B) Richard Mooi (photograph by A. Leviton, 2016).

Figure 23.

(A) Gary C. Williams (photograph by A. Leviton, 2002). (B) Richard Mooi (photograph by A. Leviton, 2016).

Figure 24.

Students at the Summer Systematic Institute, (A) in the classroom working on an echinoderm phylogeny and (B) in the invertebrate zoology and geology collection room (photograph by R. Mooi). (C) Peter Roopnarine (photograph by A. Leviton, 2016).

Figure 24.

Students at the Summer Systematic Institute, (A) in the classroom working on an echinoderm phylogeny and (B) in the invertebrate zoology and geology collection room (photograph by R. Mooi). (C) Peter Roopnarine (photograph by A. Leviton, 2016).

Then, two years after Peter Rodda’s retirement in 1997, the paleontology and geology staff was further enhanced by the 1999 arrival of Peter D. Roopnarine (Fig. 24C), whose interests in paleobiogeography, mass extinctions, paleocommunity dynamics, evolutionary ecology, and related topics, as well as teaching, have resulted in a significant output of research as well as an enthusiastic cluster of students who participate in research activities in invertebrate zoology and paleontology. Of particular interest are Roopnarine’s mathematical modeling of paleocommunity collapse during mass extinctions, morphological response of bivalve taxa to paleocommunity composition, ecological modeling of paleocommunity food webs, all impacting community structure, survival and/or collapse across time, and how deep-time web reconstructions can serve as analogs for the present (e.g., Roopnarine, 2001a, 2001b, 2006; Roopnarine et al., 1998; Roopnarine and Angielczyk, 2015; Roopnarine and Dineen, 2017).

Like other major natural history museums throughout the world that have responded to the exciting developments in the earth and other natural sciences, the Academy has seen a rebirth of its public outreach programs. But there was another major interruption in the Academy’s physical being. In 1989, following California’s Loma Prieta earthquake, its buildings were deemed seismically unsafe; thus a second round of demolition and new construction began. In 2008, a new “Academy” building (Fig. 25) opened to the public, and except for one building of the older complex, African Hall, the new facility incorporated a different genre of exhibits, which, aside from the dome housing a living tropical rainforest, a greatly expanded aquarium, and its ever popular planetarium, now allowed for rapid response to new events in the natural sciences. In the area of earth sciences, the Academy is committed to informing its visitors about earthquakes, California’s biggest fear, addressing such matters as global plate distributions, the underlying tectonics of plate movements (Figs. 26A and 26B), and the surficial paleobiological impacts thereof, as well as how to prepare for and respond to the ever-present likelihood of serious local earthquakes (Figs. 27 and 28). There is even a special rumble room for visitors to sense the intensity of the shaking that can occur.

Figure 25.

Newly constructed building of the California Academy of Sciences in Golden Gate Park, 2008 (California Academy of Sciences Archives).

Figure 25.

Newly constructed building of the California Academy of Sciences in Golden Gate Park, 2008 (California Academy of Sciences Archives).

Figure 26.

(A) Globe delimiting plate boundaries on public exhibit (photograph by A. Leviton, 2016). (B) Fault exhibit at one time on public display at the Academy (California Academy of Sciences Archives).

Figure 26.

(A) Globe delimiting plate boundaries on public exhibit (photograph by A. Leviton, 2016). (B) Fault exhibit at one time on public display at the Academy (California Academy of Sciences Archives).

Figure 27.

Exhibit displaying items to have in the home in the event of an area-wide earthquake occurrence (photograph by A. Leviton, 2016).

Figure 27.

Exhibit displaying items to have in the home in the event of an area-wide earthquake occurrence (photograph by A. Leviton, 2016).

Figure 28.

Exhibit displaying food and related items to have in the home in the event of an area-wide earthquake occurrence (photograph by A. Leviton, 2016).

Figure 28.

Exhibit displaying food and related items to have in the home in the event of an area-wide earthquake occurrence (photograph by A. Leviton, 2016).

Of course, main-floor exhibits tend to be less stable nowadays so that in due course it can be expected that the Academy’s earthquake exhibits will give way to other exciting but not necessarily geological presentations.

But all is not lost because though initially seemingly deemphasized in its recent exhibits, in 2016 the Academy opened a completely redesigned hall (Fig. 29) devoted to rocks, minerals, and gems, here too benefiting from the knowledgeable input of geology collections manager, Jean DeMouthe. Once again the public’s rock-hound enthusiasts will also be accommodated.

Figure 29.

Design drawing of newly opened gem and mineral hall at the Academy (2016) (California Academy of Sciences Archives).

Figure 29.

Design drawing of newly opened gem and mineral hall at the Academy (2016) (California Academy of Sciences Archives).

SUMMARY

The research role of museums, whether in the biological or geosciences, is not often readily apparent to the public. Yet, natural history museums, worldwide, like the Academy, draw upon their research scientists and associates to create exhibits and other programs that convey current understandings of the background science in their public outreach and education programs. With respect to the Academy, from its formative years in the nineteenth century to the present day, it has reached out to the public with vital information about earthquakes, biodiversity, evolution, habitat degradation, and climate, much of which is based upon research done by its staff and close associates. Also, not immediately apparent are the financial aspects of the public outreach programs that enable the public to make credible decisions relating to family and other activities, in the Academy’s case, dating back to the 1868 Hayward earthquake when Academy President James Blake served as chair of the San Francisco Chamber of Commerce’s Earthquake Committee, which was established to understand the nature of the event and its future implications. But equally important, museums such as the Academy foster collaboration among the neontologists, geologists, and paleontologists, in field and laboratory research, as well as in the development of exhibits, thus helping to blur the boundaries among the subdisciplines of science and to exemplify the value of interdisciplinary research leading to improved educational experiences in our schools as well as to greater public awareness of the place of science in our lives. Indeed, the Academy’s integration of a living tropical rainforest in close proximity to its paleontological and geological exhibits as well as its novel citizen scientists program in field research, both locally and in foreign countries, serve as important role models for the future development of museums.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

We take this opportunity to thank our friends and colleagues who are or have been associated with the California Academy of Sciences for sharing their knowledge of Academy activities in geology and paleontology with us. We especially want to take note of Kelly Jensen, digitization specialist in the Academy’s Library and Archives, Yolanda Bustos, former Academy archivist, and Rebekah Kim, current Academy archivist, for ferreting out a number of the images we present here, also Dr. Peter U. Rodda, who provided a copy of an unpublished memorial he had written relating to Margaret Hanna, and Gary C. Williams, who had a file of manuscript notes by Dr. Rodda and others relating to the history of the Department of Invertebrate Zoology and Geology, and Paula Sillman of the American Association of Petroleum Geologists, who most kindly gave permission to reproduce two portraits published in the American Association of Petroleum Geologists Bulletin. We also acknowledge with appreciation Dr. Peter Roopnarine, who kindly critiqued this manuscript, as did Drs. Gary Williams and Jean DeMouthe. We also express our appreciation to two anonymous reviewers for their comments that assuredly helped improve the overall presentation and to Dr. Gary Rosenberg, who not only offered specific recommendations for the improvement of our manuscript but who also patiently guided us through the GSA editorial maze. Despite the best intentions of our colleagues mentioned above, the authors remain fully responsible for all errors of commission or omission herein.

At this point, we must also offer a word of explanation relating to the absence of additional details about our individual investigators and their accomplishments. For the past three years, the Academy archives have for the most part been unavailable because of a mold infestation in the library and specimen collection rooms throughout the institution. The process of cleaning up and rendering materials safe from deterioration required much material to be moved offsite while structural and other changes are being made to the onsite storage areas. We deeply regret having to limit our discussions to memories and materials at hand, but we do hope there are adequate indications included herein to excite the imaginations of our history-oriented colleagues.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

We take this opportunity to thank our friends and colleagues who are or have been associated with the California Academy of Sciences for sharing their knowledge of Academy activities in geology and paleontology with us. We especially want to take note of Kelly Jensen, digitization specialist in the Academy’s Library and Archives, Yolanda Bustos, former Academy archivist, and Rebekah Kim, current Academy archivist, for ferreting out a number of the images we present here, also Dr. Peter U. Rodda, who provided a copy of an unpublished memorial he had written relating to Margaret Hanna, and Gary C. Williams, who had a file of manuscript notes by Dr. Rodda and others relating to the history of the Department of Invertebrate Zoology and Geology, and Paula Sillman of the American Association of Petroleum Geologists, who most kindly gave permission to reproduce two portraits published in the American Association of Petroleum Geologists Bulletin. We also acknowledge with appreciation Dr. Peter Roopnarine, who kindly critiqued this manuscript, as did Drs. Gary Williams and Jean DeMouthe. We also express our appreciation to two anonymous reviewers for their comments that assuredly helped improve the overall presentation and to Dr. Gary Rosenberg, who not only offered specific recommendations for the improvement of our manuscript but who also patiently guided us through the GSA editorial maze. Despite the best intentions of our colleagues mentioned above, the authors remain fully responsible for all errors of commission or omission herein.

At this point, we must also offer a word of explanation relating to the absence of additional details about our individual investigators and their accomplishments. For the past three years, the Academy archives have for the most part been unavailable because of a mold infestation in the library and specimen collection rooms throughout the institution. The process of cleaning up and rendering materials safe from deterioration required much material to be moved offsite while structural and other changes are being made to the onsite storage areas. We deeply regret having to limit our discussions to memories and materials at hand, but we do hope there are adequate indications included herein to excite the imaginations of our history-oriented colleagues.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

We take this opportunity to thank our friends and colleagues who are or have been associated with the California Academy of Sciences for sharing their knowledge of Academy activities in geology and paleontology with us. We especially want to take note of Kelly Jensen, digitization specialist in the Academy’s Library and Archives, Yolanda Bustos, former Academy archivist, and Rebekah Kim, current Academy archivist, for ferreting out a number of the images we present here, also Dr. Peter U. Rodda, who provided a copy of an unpublished memorial he had written relating to Margaret Hanna, and Gary C. Williams, who had a file of manuscript notes by Dr. Rodda and others relating to the history of the Department of Invertebrate Zoology and Geology, and Paula Sillman of the American Association of Petroleum Geologists, who most kindly gave permission to reproduce two portraits published in the American Association of Petroleum Geologists Bulletin. We also acknowledge with appreciation Dr. Peter Roopnarine, who kindly critiqued this manuscript, as did Drs. Gary Williams and Jean DeMouthe. We also express our appreciation to two anonymous reviewers for their comments that assuredly helped improve the overall presentation and to Dr. Gary Rosenberg, who not only offered specific recommendations for the improvement of our manuscript but who also patiently guided us through the GSA editorial maze. Despite the best intentions of our colleagues mentioned above, the authors remain fully responsible for all errors of commission or omission herein.

At this point, we must also offer a word of explanation relating to the absence of additional details about our individual investigators and their accomplishments. For the past three years, the Academy archives have for the most part been unavailable because of a mold infestation in the library and specimen collection rooms throughout the institution. The process of cleaning up and rendering materials safe from deterioration required much material to be moved offsite while structural and other changes are being made to the onsite storage areas. We deeply regret having to limit our discussions to memories and materials at hand, but we do hope there are adequate indications included herein to excite the imaginations of our history-oriented colleagues.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

We take this opportunity to thank our friends and colleagues who are or have been associated with the California Academy of Sciences for sharing their knowledge of Academy activities in geology and paleontology with us. We especially want to take note of Kelly Jensen, digitization specialist in the Academy’s Library and Archives, Yolanda Bustos, former Academy archivist, and Rebekah Kim, current Academy archivist, for ferreting out a number of the images we present here, also Dr. Peter U. Rodda, who provided a copy of an unpublished memorial he had written relating to Margaret Hanna, and Gary C. Williams, who had a file of manuscript notes by Dr. Rodda and others relating to the history of the Department of Invertebrate Zoology and Geology, and Paula Sillman of the American Association of Petroleum Geologists, who most kindly gave permission to reproduce two portraits published in the American Association of Petroleum Geologists Bulletin. We also acknowledge with appreciation Dr. Peter Roopnarine, who kindly critiqued this manuscript, as did Drs. Gary Williams and Jean DeMouthe. We also express our appreciation to two anonymous reviewers for their comments that assuredly helped improve the overall presentation and to Dr. Gary Rosenberg, who not only offered specific recommendations for the improvement of our manuscript but who also patiently guided us through the GSA editorial maze. Despite the best intentions of our colleagues mentioned above, the authors remain fully responsible for all errors of commission or omission herein.

At this point, we must also offer a word of explanation relating to the absence of additional details about our individual investigators and their accomplishments. For the past three years, the Academy archives have for the most part been unavailable because of a mold infestation in the library and specimen collection rooms throughout the institution. The process of cleaning up and rendering materials safe from deterioration required much material to be moved offsite while structural and other changes are being made to the onsite storage areas. We deeply regret having to limit our discussions to memories and materials at hand, but we do hope there are adequate indications included herein to excite the imaginations of our history-oriented colleagues.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

We take this opportunity to thank our friends and colleagues who are or have been associated with the California Academy of Sciences for sharing their knowledge of Academy activities in geology and paleontology with us. We especially want to take note of Kelly Jensen, digitization specialist in the Academy’s Library and Archives, Yolanda Bustos, former Academy archivist, and Rebekah Kim, current Academy archivist, for ferreting out a number of the images we present here, also Dr. Peter U. Rodda, who provided a copy of an unpublished memorial he had written relating to Margaret Hanna, and Gary C. Williams, who had a file of manuscript notes by Dr. Rodda and others relating to the history of the Department of Invertebrate Zoology and Geology, and Paula Sillman of the American Association of Petroleum Geologists, who most kindly gave permission to reproduce two portraits published in the American Association of Petroleum Geologists Bulletin. We also acknowledge with appreciation Dr. Peter Roopnarine, who kindly critiqued this manuscript, as did Drs. Gary Williams and Jean DeMouthe. We also express our appreciation to two anonymous reviewers for their comments that assuredly helped improve the overall presentation and to Dr. Gary Rosenberg, who not only offered specific recommendations for the improvement of our manuscript but who also patiently guided us through the GSA editorial maze. Despite the best intentions of our colleagues mentioned above, the authors remain fully responsible for all errors of commission or omission herein.

At this point, we must also offer a word of explanation relating to the absence of additional details about our individual investigators and their accomplishments. For the past three years, the Academy archives have for the most part been unavailable because of a mold infestation in the library and specimen collection rooms throughout the institution. The process of cleaning up and rendering materials safe from deterioration required much material to be moved offsite while structural and other changes are being made to the onsite storage areas. We deeply regret having to limit our discussions to memories and materials at hand, but we do hope there are adequate indications included herein to excite the imaginations of our history-oriented colleagues.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

We take this opportunity to thank our friends and colleagues who are or have been associated with the California Academy of Sciences for sharing their knowledge of Academy activities in geology and paleontology with us. We especially want to take note of Kelly Jensen, digitization specialist in the Academy’s Library and Archives, Yolanda Bustos, former Academy archivist, and Rebekah Kim, current Academy archivist, for ferreting out a number of the images we present here, also Dr. Peter U. Rodda, who provided a copy of an unpublished memorial he had written relating to Margaret Hanna, and Gary C. Williams, who had a file of manuscript notes by Dr. Rodda and others relating to the history of the Department of Invertebrate Zoology and Geology, and Paula Sillman of the American Association of Petroleum Geologists, who most kindly gave permission to reproduce two portraits published in the American Association of Petroleum Geologists Bulletin. We also acknowledge with appreciation Dr. Peter Roopnarine, who kindly critiqued this manuscript, as did Drs. Gary Williams and Jean DeMouthe. We also express our appreciation to two anonymous reviewers for their comments that assuredly helped improve the overall presentation and to Dr. Gary Rosenberg, who not only offered specific recommendations for the improvement of our manuscript but who also patiently guided us through the GSA editorial maze. Despite the best intentions of our colleagues mentioned above, the authors remain fully responsible for all errors of commission or omission herein.

At this point, we must also offer a word of explanation relating to the absence of additional details about our individual investigators and their accomplishments. For the past three years, the Academy archives have for the most part been unavailable because of a mold infestation in the library and specimen collection rooms throughout the institution. The process of cleaning up and rendering materials safe from deterioration required much material to be moved offsite while structural and other changes are being made to the onsite storage areas. We deeply regret having to limit our discussions to memories and materials at hand, but we do hope there are adequate indications included herein to excite the imaginations of our history-oriented colleagues.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

We take this opportunity to thank our friends and colleagues who are or have been associated with the California Academy of Sciences for sharing their knowledge of Academy activities in geology and paleontology with us. We especially want to take note of Kelly Jensen, digitization specialist in the Academy’s Library and Archives, Yolanda Bustos, former Academy archivist, and Rebekah Kim, current Academy archivist, for ferreting out a number of the images we present here, also Dr. Peter U. Rodda, who provided a copy of an unpublished memorial he had written relating to Margaret Hanna, and Gary C. Williams, who had a file of manuscript notes by Dr. Rodda and others relating to the history of the Department of Invertebrate Zoology and Geology, and Paula Sillman of the American Association of Petroleum Geologists, who most kindly gave permission to reproduce two portraits published in the American Association of Petroleum Geologists Bulletin. We also acknowledge with appreciation Dr. Peter Roopnarine, who kindly critiqued this manuscript, as did Drs. Gary Williams and Jean DeMouthe. We also express our appreciation to two anonymous reviewers for their comments that assuredly helped improve the overall presentation and to Dr. Gary Rosenberg, who not only offered specific recommendations for the improvement of our manuscript but who also patiently guided us through the GSA editorial maze. Despite the best intentions of our colleagues mentioned above, the authors remain fully responsible for all errors of commission or omission herein.

At this point, we must also offer a word of explanation relating to the absence of additional details about our individual investigators and their accomplishments. For the past three years, the Academy archives have for the most part been unavailable because of a mold infestation in the library and specimen collection rooms throughout the institution. The process of cleaning up and rendering materials safe from deterioration required much material to be moved offsite while structural and other changes are being made to the onsite storage areas. We deeply regret having to limit our discussions to memories and materials at hand, but we do hope there are adequate indications included herein to excite the imaginations of our history-oriented colleagues.

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1
“… January 13 [1868], when the Academy’s new constitution was slightly amended and again adopted for a while. The new constitution provided that the name of the society should be the ‘California Academy of Sciences’ dropping the word ‘Natural’ of the old title. Its object was to be ‘the promotion of science,’ and ‘this was to be accomplished by the holding of meetings for scientific intercourse and discussion, by the reading and publication of papers containing original contributions to science, by the establishment of a museum and library, and by other suitable means.” (from the Minute Books [of the Academy meetings], 6 January 1868–2 January 1872; see page 95 in Leviton and Aldrich, 1997, Theodore Henry Hittell’s The California Academy of Sciences, 1853–1906, Memoirs of the California Academy of Sciences, 22.
*
Editor’s note: A different image of the building appeared in the version of this chapter published online on 13 April 2018.
1
“… January 13 [1868], when the Academy’s new constitution was slightly amended and again adopted for a while. The new constitution provided that the name of the society should be the ‘California Academy of Sciences’ dropping the word ‘Natural’ of the old title. Its object was to be ‘the promotion of science,’ and ‘this was to be accomplished by the holding of meetings for scientific intercourse and discussion, by the reading and publication of papers containing original contributions to science, by the establishment of a museum and library, and by other suitable means.” (from the Minute Books [of the Academy meetings], 6 January 1868–2 January 1872; see page 95 in Leviton and Aldrich, 1997, Theodore Henry Hittell’s The California Academy of Sciences, 1853–1906, Memoirs of the California Academy of Sciences, 22.
*
Editor’s note: A different image of the building appeared in the version of this chapter published online on 13 April 2018.
1
“… January 13 [1868], when the Academy’s new constitution was slightly amended and again adopted for a while. The new constitution provided that the name of the society should be the ‘California Academy of Sciences’ dropping the word ‘Natural’ of the old title. Its object was to be ‘the promotion of science,’ and ‘this was to be accomplished by the holding of meetings for scientific intercourse and discussion, by the reading and publication of papers containing original contributions to science, by the establishment of a museum and library, and by other suitable means.” (from the Minute Books [of the Academy meetings], 6 January 1868–2 January 1872; see page 95 in Leviton and Aldrich, 1997, Theodore Henry Hittell’s The California Academy of Sciences, 1853–1906, Memoirs of the California Academy of Sciences, 22.
*
Editor’s note: A different image of the building appeared in the version of this chapter published online on 13 April 2018.
1
“… January 13 [1868], when the Academy’s new constitution was slightly amended and again adopted for a while. The new constitution provided that the name of the society should be the ‘California Academy of Sciences’ dropping the word ‘Natural’ of the old title. Its object was to be ‘the promotion of science,’ and ‘this was to be accomplished by the holding of meetings for scientific intercourse and discussion, by the reading and publication of papers containing original contributions to science, by the establishment of a museum and library, and by other suitable means.” (from the Minute Books [of the Academy meetings], 6 January 1868–2 January 1872; see page 95 in Leviton and Aldrich, 1997, Theodore Henry Hittell’s The California Academy of Sciences, 1853–1906, Memoirs of the California Academy of Sciences, 22.
*
Editor’s note: A different image of the building appeared in the version of this chapter published online on 13 April 2018.
1
“… January 13 [1868], when the Academy’s new constitution was slightly amended and again adopted for a while. The new constitution provided that the name of the society should be the ‘California Academy of Sciences’ dropping the word ‘Natural’ of the old title. Its object was to be ‘the promotion of science,’ and ‘this was to be accomplished by the holding of meetings for scientific intercourse and discussion, by the reading and publication of papers containing original contributions to science, by the establishment of a museum and library, and by other suitable means.” (from the Minute Books [of the Academy meetings], 6 January 1868–2 January 1872; see page 95 in Leviton and Aldrich, 1997, Theodore Henry Hittell’s The California Academy of Sciences, 1853–1906, Memoirs of the California Academy of Sciences, 22.
*
Editor’s note: A different image of the building appeared in the version of this chapter published online on 13 April 2018.
1
“… January 13 [1868], when the Academy’s new constitution was slightly amended and again adopted for a while. The new constitution provided that the name of the society should be the ‘California Academy of Sciences’ dropping the word ‘Natural’ of the old title. Its object was to be ‘the promotion of science,’ and ‘this was to be accomplished by the holding of meetings for scientific intercourse and discussion, by the reading and publication of papers containing original contributions to science, by the establishment of a museum and library, and by other suitable means.” (from the Minute Books [of the Academy meetings], 6 January 1868–2 January 1872; see page 95 in Leviton and Aldrich, 1997, Theodore Henry Hittell’s The California Academy of Sciences, 1853–1906, Memoirs of the California Academy of Sciences, 22.
*
Editor’s note: A different image of the building appeared in the version of this chapter published online on 13 April 2018.
1
“… January 13 [1868], when the Academy’s new constitution was slightly amended and again adopted for a while. The new constitution provided that the name of the society should be the ‘California Academy of Sciences’ dropping the word ‘Natural’ of the old title. Its object was to be ‘the promotion of science,’ and ‘this was to be accomplished by the holding of meetings for scientific intercourse and discussion, by the reading and publication of papers containing original contributions to science, by the establishment of a museum and library, and by other suitable means.” (from the Minute Books [of the Academy meetings], 6 January 1868–2 January 1872; see page 95 in Leviton and Aldrich, 1997, Theodore Henry Hittell’s The California Academy of Sciences, 1853–1906, Memoirs of the California Academy of Sciences, 22.
*
Editor’s note: A different image of the building appeared in the version of this chapter published online on 13 April 2018.

Figures & Tables

Figure 1.

(A) George Davidson (California Academy of Sciences Archives). (B) Frank Marion Anderson (California Academy of Sciences Archives).

Figure 1.

(A) George Davidson (California Academy of Sciences Archives). (B) Frank Marion Anderson (California Academy of Sciences Archives).

Figure 2.

California Academy of Sciences, Market Street building, 1890–1906 (California Academy of Sciences Archives).

Figure 2.

California Academy of Sciences, Market Street building, 1890–1906 (California Academy of Sciences Archives).

Figure 3.

Public exhibits on ground floor of Academy museum (California Academy of Sciences Archives).

Figure 3.

Public exhibits on ground floor of Academy museum (California Academy of Sciences Archives).

Figure 4.

Fire that swept downtown San Francisco, 18 April 1906 (California Academy of Sciences Archives).

Figure 4.

Fire that swept downtown San Francisco, 18 April 1906 (California Academy of Sciences Archives).

Figure 5.

Devastation wrought by the earthquake to the Academy’s Market Street buildings (the Academy’s museum and research quarters, left rear).

Figure 5.

Devastation wrought by the earthquake to the Academy’s Market Street buildings (the Academy’s museum and research quarters, left rear).

Figure 6.

Interior of the Academy’s museum building following the earthquake and fire that engulfed the building (California Academy of Sciences Archives).

Figure 6.

Interior of the Academy’s museum building following the earthquake and fire that engulfed the building (California Academy of Sciences Archives).

Figure 7.

The Academy’s temporary administrative quarters on Gough Street following the earthquake and fire (California Academy of Sciences Archives).

Figure 7.

The Academy’s temporary administrative quarters on Gough Street following the earthquake and fire (California Academy of Sciences Archives).

Figure 8.

Rebuilding the Academy’s temporary library housing materials donated by museums and other institutions worldwide (California Academy of Sciences Archives).

Figure 8.

Rebuilding the Academy’s temporary library housing materials donated by museums and other institutions worldwide (California Academy of Sciences Archives).

Figure 9.

(A) Washington Ochsner before leaving for the Galapagos in 1905 (California Academy of Sciences Archives). (B) Page from Ochsner’s field notes, titled “Charles Island” (California Academy of Sciences Archives).

Figure 9.

(A) Washington Ochsner before leaving for the Galapagos in 1905 (California Academy of Sciences Archives). (B) Page from Ochsner’s field notes, titled “Charles Island” (California Academy of Sciences Archives).

Figure 10.

(A) William Healy Dall (portrait in Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences, 1928). (B) Washington Ochsner (portrait in Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences, 1928).

Figure 10.

(A) William Healy Dall (portrait in Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences, 1928). (B) Washington Ochsner (portrait in Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences, 1928).

Figure 11.

Entrance to the first new building of the California Academy of Sciences that opened to the public in 1916 (California Academy of Sciences Archives).*

Figure 11.

Entrance to the first new building of the California Academy of Sciences that opened to the public in 1916 (California Academy of Sciences Archives).*

Figure 12.

(A) Mineral Hall wing in the newly opened North American Hall (California Academy of Sciences Archives). (B) Updated Mineral Hall, ca. 1990s (California Academy of Sciences Archives).

Figure 12.

(A) Mineral Hall wing in the newly opened North American Hall (California Academy of Sciences Archives). (B) Updated Mineral Hall, ca. 1990s (California Academy of Sciences Archives).

Figure 13.

(A) Roy Ernest Dickerson (American Association of Petroleum Geologists ©1944, American Association of Petroleum Geologists Bulletin, v. 28, p. 888, reprinted by permission of the American Association of Petroleum Geologists, whose permission is required for further use). (B) G Dallas Hanna, ca. 1919 (California Academy of Sciences Archives).

Figure 13.

(A) Roy Ernest Dickerson (American Association of Petroleum Geologists ©1944, American Association of Petroleum Geologists Bulletin, v. 28, p. 888, reprinted by permission of the American Association of Petroleum Geologists, whose permission is required for further use). (B) G Dallas Hanna, ca. 1919 (California Academy of Sciences Archives).

Figure 14.

(A) G Dallas Hanna, ca. mid-1950s (California Academy of Sciences Archives). (B) Margaret Hanna (California Academy of Sciences Archives).

Figure 14.

(A) G Dallas Hanna, ca. mid-1950s (California Academy of Sciences Archives). (B) Margaret Hanna (California Academy of Sciences Archives).

Figure 15.

(A) Leo George Hertlein (California Academy of Sciences Archives). (B) George Gester (American Association of Petroleum Geologists ©1960, American Association of Petroleum Geologists Bulletin, v. 44, p. 374, reprinted by permission of the AAPG, whose permission is required for further use).

Figure 15.

(A) Leo George Hertlein (California Academy of Sciences Archives). (B) George Gester (American Association of Petroleum Geologists ©1960, American Association of Petroleum Geologists Bulletin, v. 44, p. 374, reprinted by permission of the AAPG, whose permission is required for further use).

Figure 16.

(A) Allyn G. Smith (California Academy of Sciences Archives). (B) Robert C. Miller (California Academy of Sciences Archives).

Figure 16.

(A) Allyn G. Smith (California Academy of Sciences Archives). (B) Robert C. Miller (California Academy of Sciences Archives).

Figure 17.

(A) Victor Zullo (left) appearing on the TV program Science in Action, ca. 1969, with program host Earl S. Herald (right), then superintendent of the Academy’s Steinhart Aquarium (California Academy of Sciences Archives). (B) George E. Lindsay, Academy director (California Academy of Sciences Archives).

Figure 17.

(A) Victor Zullo (left) appearing on the TV program Science in Action, ca. 1969, with program host Earl S. Herald (right), then superintendent of the Academy’s Steinhart Aquarium (California Academy of Sciences Archives). (B) George E. Lindsay, Academy director (California Academy of Sciences Archives).

Figure 18.

(A) Peter U. Rodda (photograph by A. Leviton, 2000). (B) Welton Lee (California Academy of Sciences Archives).

Figure 18.

(A) Peter U. Rodda (photograph by A. Leviton, 2000). (B) Welton Lee (California Academy of Sciences Archives).

Figure 19.

(A) Ian Campbell (California Academy of Sciences Archives). (B) Sam Van Landingham (California Academy of Sciences Archives).

Figure 19.

(A) Ian Campbell (California Academy of Sciences Archives). (B) Sam Van Landingham (California Academy of Sciences Archives).

Figure 20.

Exhibit in Life Through Time hall, ca. 1990 (California Academy of Sciences Archives).

Figure 20.

Exhibit in Life Through Time hall, ca. 1990 (California Academy of Sciences Archives).

Figure 21.

(A) Jean DeMouthe (photograph by A. Leviton, 2016). (B) Earth Sciences Collections at the California Academy of Sciences, ca. 1985.

Figure 21.

(A) Jean DeMouthe (photograph by A. Leviton, 2016). (B) Earth Sciences Collections at the California Academy of Sciences, ca. 1985.

Figure 22.

(A) John Patrick Kociolek (photograph by A. Leviton, 2004). (B) Elisabeth Fourtanier and public visitors to diatom laboratory at the Academy (California Academy of Sciences Archives).

Figure 22.

(A) John Patrick Kociolek (photograph by A. Leviton, 2004). (B) Elisabeth Fourtanier and public visitors to diatom laboratory at the Academy (California Academy of Sciences Archives).

Figure 23.

(A) Gary C. Williams (photograph by A. Leviton, 2002). (B) Richard Mooi (photograph by A. Leviton, 2016).

Figure 23.

(A) Gary C. Williams (photograph by A. Leviton, 2002). (B) Richard Mooi (photograph by A. Leviton, 2016).

Figure 24.

Students at the Summer Systematic Institute, (A) in the classroom working on an echinoderm phylogeny and (B) in the invertebrate zoology and geology collection room (photograph by R. Mooi). (C) Peter Roopnarine (photograph by A. Leviton, 2016).

Figure 24.

Students at the Summer Systematic Institute, (A) in the classroom working on an echinoderm phylogeny and (B) in the invertebrate zoology and geology collection room (photograph by R. Mooi). (C) Peter Roopnarine (photograph by A. Leviton, 2016).

Figure 25.

Newly constructed building of the California Academy of Sciences in Golden Gate Park, 2008 (California Academy of Sciences Archives).

Figure 25.

Newly constructed building of the California Academy of Sciences in Golden Gate Park, 2008 (California Academy of Sciences Archives).

Figure 26.

(A) Globe delimiting plate boundaries on public exhibit (photograph by A. Leviton, 2016). (B) Fault exhibit at one time on public display at the Academy (California Academy of Sciences Archives).

Figure 26.

(A) Globe delimiting plate boundaries on public exhibit (photograph by A. Leviton, 2016). (B) Fault exhibit at one time on public display at the Academy (California Academy of Sciences Archives).

Figure 27.

Exhibit displaying items to have in the home in the event of an area-wide earthquake occurrence (photograph by A. Leviton, 2016).

Figure 27.

Exhibit displaying items to have in the home in the event of an area-wide earthquake occurrence (photograph by A. Leviton, 2016).

Figure 28.

Exhibit displaying food and related items to have in the home in the event of an area-wide earthquake occurrence (photograph by A. Leviton, 2016).

Figure 28.

Exhibit displaying food and related items to have in the home in the event of an area-wide earthquake occurrence (photograph by A. Leviton, 2016).

Figure 29.

Design drawing of newly opened gem and mineral hall at the Academy (2016) (California Academy of Sciences Archives).

Figure 29.

Design drawing of newly opened gem and mineral hall at the Academy (2016) (California Academy of Sciences Archives).

Contents

References

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