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ABSTRACT

The museums of Philadelphia are noted for both their variety and their longevity. Some of these institutions have been present since before the American Revolution and reflect the continuity within a population for which education was always a predominant goal. Others have arisen over subsequent centuries in response to various needs. Some, such as the American Philosophical Society and the Fairmont Water Works, are eighteenth-century institutions that relatively lately acquired a more formal museum format. Colonial interest in natural history, mineralogy, and natural resources with collateral maps and papers makes them a prime resource for historians of geology. All of these institutions reflect the nature of the museum movement itself from often private or privileged collections to those both welcoming the public and serving as sturdy arms of education. Historians of geology will find maps, instruments, collections, books, and personal and government papers that are of much interest.

INTRODUCTION

When thinking about museums in the United States, probably one thinks first about the iconic museums on the National Mall in Washington, D.C., in New York, or in Boston. In Philadelphia, crowds are drawn to Independence Square and the historic area to learn about the American Revolution in the 1770s, but relatively few of those visitors go elsewhere. However, a closer look reveals a very lively scene for both visual and performing arts, as well as the continuation of more than two and a half centuries of scientific inquiries, supported by institutions that in many cases continue to survive. Philadelphia was the largest city in the new United States until 1790 when it was surpassed by New York City. Washington, D.C., didn’t exist until 1790. Yet in Philadelphia, far from the educational and institutional resources of Europe in the eighteenth century, institutions were established to address the scientific and educational needs of the young nation. This legacy is still part of the fabric of our history.

There was much curiosity about the natural history of the Americas on the part of settlers and those who remained in Europe and England. Parrish (2006, p. 6) noted “Because the development of modernity itself and of Enlightenment natural science in particular was so fueled by the European nations’ competitive drive to exploit, collect, catalog, and understand the material richness of the Americas, both American nature and the hybrid types of knowledge forged in the colonies were inseparable from that development.” The primary demands of economics and resources were and are connected to natural history through natural philosophy and geology, and the libraries and museums of Philadelphia have answered these needs from their inception. It is difficult to focus solely on museums because most are linked to and supported by their extensive libraries, which can be considered archives of human knowledge. Libraries are repositories of manuscripts, maps, memoires, diaries, and government papers, as well as books that complement published scientific papers. Some libraries also have artifact collections.

What we would now call the intellectual ferment in Philadelphia was very much the product of its time. It differed somewhat from European Enlightenment thought, particularly French, by the marked participation of artisans and the self-educated. The American Revolution itself was part of the mainstream of those ideas. This is not the place for an extended discussion of that enormous subject, but the effect was pervasive. As an example: “The new enthusiasm for scientific attainment voiced by Benjamin Franklin was a reflection of the Enlightenment flooding into the American colonies” (Hindle, 1956, p. 5). Hindle (1956, p. 5–6) also listed John Bartram’s (1699–1777) assessment of the population of the Philadelphia area as three groups: those concerned with laying up wealth; those who spent the proceeds; and those for whom it was necessary to work to provide for themselves and their families. It was the latter who had the curiosity to pursue their natural interests. That third group was notably present in Philadelphia, and its interests included education. The “City of Brotherly Love” also demonstrated more tolerance due, some references say, to the Quaker influence (which was less tolerant of deviation in its own members). This was fertile ground for the advancement of museums and other educational institutions.

Museums are collections of tangible objects that evolved from the curio cabinets that Pyenson and Sheets-Pyenson characterized as including the “odd, peculiar, and rare” (Pyenson and Sheets-Pyenson, 1999, p. 126). Collections had a long history by the eighteenth century, associated with the intellectual elites who sought to acquire objects worthy of systematic study or for amusement. Items might be included if they had relation to a larger group or could be fitted into the Great Chain of Being.1 The inquiring nature of the eighteenth century prompted continued interest in aids to empirical and experimental investigation, including objects and instruments designed for this purpose (Pyenson and Sheets-Pyenson, 1999, p. 128). Discoveries of new lands, with minerals and strange animals and plants, provided much to be examined and questioned, not only among natural philosophers but also by the curious public. Museums, as opposed to curio cabinets, were open to at least some portion of the public on a general basis rather than by private invitation. Philadelphia’s institutions and collections were part of the larger trend, but they are unusual in the United States in having arisen early and being persistent. Over the years, the borders between some of the Philadelphia institutions have become a bit blurred as objects have moved between them. All welcome visitors and researchers.

THE LIBRARY COMPANY

Museums and libraries serve not only the high-minded acquisition of knowledge but also the need for practical information or political advantage to be gained by delineating boundaries or documenting the availability of resources. This led to the founding of The Library Company (TLC) in 1731 by Benjamin Franklin and his junto of artisans whose political and intellectual discussions were constrained by lack of books. Private libraries were beyond their means because books were expensive and rare, and new works were slow to arrive from England and the Continent. Bookstores were then nearly nonexistent in Philadelphia. Because each member could afford only a few books, the first idea was for books to be pooled so that others could read them. When this was done, some books disappeared, and some were not treated carefully. A subscription library seemed to be the answer, and The Library Company was established at the instigation of Franklin.2 Each subscriber paid forty shillings to join and ten shillings annually. Ten directors and a treasurer were elected annually by the subscribers; the directors elected a secretary; and Articles of Agreement were drawn up to be binding on the members for 50 years (Lemay, 2005, p. 94). Franklin hoped for 50 members, but at first only 11 signed up. By fall of 1731, The Library Company reached 50 subscribers. Many of the first members were artisans, but soon wealthier colonists saw the advantages of membership.

There was little fiction in the library. Subjects eventually included history, religion, education, poetry, exploration, science, politics, and philosophy. Soon the highly educated and mathematically literate James Logan (1674–1751), once secretary to William Penn and later resident in Pennsylvania, weighed in with his willingness to consult on books to be purchased. Thomas Godfrey (1704–1749), inventor (at the same time as the British John Hadley [1682–1744]), of the doubly reflecting quadrant3, went with Franklin to discuss appropriate purchases with Logan. Peter Collinson (1694–1768), a British merchant with a great interest in botany, agreed to act as the agent for The Library Company. Books were purchased, and there were donations, notably from Logan. The collection grew quickly and, over the years, required larger spaces to house it. It served as the Library of Congress from 1774 until 1800 when the national government was often in Philadelphia. The Library Company was the largest public library in America until the 1860s. All the books are still available, and it is still a public library. One example of the riches to be found in The Library Company is the Loganian Library, the complete library of James Logan, which contains books from the fifteenth to the eighteenth centuries. From its inception, The Library Company’s holdings included works on natural history and extensive reports of exploration as well as virtually all available early books on science. Contact prior to a visit is advised so that materials can be ready.

The Library Company also has a collection of artifacts, but, over the years, many of those that might be expected in a natural history museum have disappeared or been lost, sold, or transferred. It has never strictly speaking been a museum in that it has never made its artifact collection freely open to the public. However, it is the repository of various pieces of equipment used in its members’ experiments, including Franklin’s and Ebenezer Kinnersley’s (1711–1788) apparatus for the famed work on electricity. Its telescope and microscope were frequently borrowed by members; the telescope was employed to observe the transits of Venus in 1761 and 1769. Some apparatus can still be seen in its sixth building on Locust Street, and the artifact collection can be searched online, in the Art and Artifacts section of the Web page, www.librarycompany.org/about. In addition to their ~570,000 books and other items, The Library Company’s 550 linear feet of manuscripts are available through the Historical Society of Pennsylvania, located next door. There is an extensive literature about The Library Company both printed and online. A source that places it within the context of the Philadelphia Enlightenment is Chapter 4, The Library Company, of The Life of Benjamin Franklin: Printer and Publisher, 1730–1747 (Lemay, 2005, p. 93–123).

THE HISTORICAL SOCIETY OF PENNSYLVANIA

In this accounting of resources available in Philadelphia, I would be remiss not to mention the Historical Society of Pennsylvania, although it is not a natural history museum and does not have artifacts. Founded in 1824, it is the repository of ~600,000 printed items and 21 million manuscript and graphic items (www.hsp.org/about-us). There is material from the people associated with early and continuing science in Philadelphia. It includes materials from the seventeenth through the twenty-first centuries, including maps and expedition and travel reports. These include the du Simitière collection (see below) as well as John Bartram’s (1699–1777) observations of 1751 on the climate, soils, and rivers of the region. As noted, it is next door to The Library Company and is a resource not to be missed.

THE AMERICAN PHILOSOPHICAL SOCIETY

The American Philosophical Society (APS) is unique in American history. Not an association only of the wealthy, elite, and educated, it was first founded in 1743 by Franklin and his group, who began mostly as artisans, as an outgrowth of their desire to learn from and discuss the ideas gleaned by way of The Library Company, other discussions, and correspondence.4 Despite its somewhat rocky start, it thrives today as a venerated scholarly organization with regular publications. And as W.J. Bell stated: “That the American Philosophical Society should have had a museum from its inception was implicit in its original character and purpose as an eighteenth-century academy” (Bell, 1967, p. 1). But soon the junto of artisans found it difficult to keep to the over-optimistic schedule of reading and reports, and it languished. The organization was revived in 1767 by some of the original members led by Dr. Thomas Bond (1712–1784), with Franklin as its president. By that time, another society with similar goals had been established; but after some friction, the two united to form the American Philosophical Society Held at Philadelphia for Promoting Usefull Knowledge (Orosz, 1990, p. 19). Artifacts and collections were donated from the beginning, members sending all manner of curiosities as well as maps, records, and instruments. Collections were sometimes moved or loaned, especially before Philosophical Hall was built in the period 1785 until 1789, after which the Society finally had sufficient space in which to meet and keep its artifacts.5 Over the years, members sent minerals, fossils, Indian artifacts, and botanical specimens and drawings to be observed and discussed in the meetings. Scientific instruments were donated, borrowed, and loaned to other institutions. Strictly speaking, the APS holdings didn’t qualify as a museum in the sense of being open to the public until long after its founding, at least as sponsored solely by APS. The space was shared by many Philadelphia institutions over the centuries, beginning with the Peale Philadelphia Museum at its inception (see below). The activities of the APS, including publishing, have continued since its 1767 reorganization. The current museum in Philosophical Hall opened as such in 2001. It has rotating exhibits drawing on its own resources and those of other groups such as The Library Company and The Academy of Natural Sciences, featuring scientific instruments, original manuscripts, rare books, works of art, and natural history specimens. In a series of exhibits on Thomas Jefferson’s America, the last in that series was titled “Gathering Voices, Thomas Jefferson and Native America.” The exhibit of 7 April to 30 December 2017, titled “Curious Revolutionaries: The Peales of Philadelphia,” brings the story of Philosophical Hall forward.

For historians of science, the other two collections of APS, held in two other buildings near the museum on Independence Square, are of great interest. One is the comprehensive library with holdings that date to the time of founding of APS (and before), including innumerable papers, correspondence, books, and maps from the personal libraries and donations of members and their families over more than two and a half centuries. The website lists the riches, some of the oldest somewhat unexpected to be in an American library dating from the eighteenth century. Among the notable is the Valentine Darwin collection of ~4800 volumes of the printed works of Charles Darwin in 23 languages. The APS also has the papers of G.G. Simpson. Access to the library is by appointment, but Web access is easy.

The other interest is the artifact collection. The APS museum can show only a small portion of the artifacts still in its possession. The remaining artifacts are kept in their third building at 431 Chestnut Street, with access by appointment. Bell (1967, p. 1–2) stated, “Thus the cabinet grew, without plan or even clear purpose, until in the middle of the nineteenth century it included an astonishing variety of articles, ranging from butterflies to the bones of mastodons, and from Inca pottery to a lock of General Jackson’s hair.” Now almost all of the paleontological, mineralogical, and ethnic collections have been transferred to other institutions, but APS continues to accept significant donations from members and others. The current collection may be investigated by following the “objects” link on the website. There is still an impressive collection of late eighteenth- and early nineteenth-century instruments that are of interest to historians of geology,6 particularly those having to do with mapping, locating longitude, and astronomy (see Figs. 1 and 2 for examples). Considering the size and weight of many of these instruments, it is difficult to think of them as portable and suitable for field use. One thing left out of many older reports of mapping and field work is the number of “assistants” required to carry them. Historians of science are most fortunate to have an institution such as APS that has preserved a record stretching from well before the inception of our country itself.

Figure 1.

Circumferenter or surveyor’s compass, 1796–1798 (Benjamin Rittenhouse and William Lukens Potts, makers). Courtesy of American Philosophical Society, in Philadelphia. Gift from Mrs. Thomas S. Gates, ~1950.

Figure 1.

Circumferenter or surveyor’s compass, 1796–1798 (Benjamin Rittenhouse and William Lukens Potts, makers). Courtesy of American Philosophical Society, in Philadelphia. Gift from Mrs. Thomas S. Gates, ~1950.

Figure 2.

Incomplete Theodolite, ca.1790. Benjamin Chandlee (maker). Courtesy of American Philosophical Society. Gift of Penrose Hoopes, 23 June 1975.

Figure 2.

Incomplete Theodolite, ca.1790. Benjamin Chandlee (maker). Courtesy of American Philosophical Society. Gift of Penrose Hoopes, 23 June 1975.

AMERICAN MUSEUM OF DU SIMITIÈRE

Among museums with natural history specimens that vie for status as the “earliest” in the United States was that of Pierre Eugène du Simitière (1737–1784); his museum opened in 1782 and closed in 1785. His paper collection was purchased by The Library Company, where it still resides. Orosz (1990, p. 2) pointed out that there were few models for hopeful museum originators. Most museums in Europe were extensions of the cabinets of the wealthy, with access limited to the well born or members of a scientific elite, mainly the same people. Du Simitière was a fascinating character, far better known in the Philadelphia of his day than he is today, a circumstance that has been remedied by the serious study by Gian Domenico Iachini (2012). A native of Switzerland, du Simitière settled permanently in Philadelphia in the early 1770s (Iachini, 2012, p. 135) after an extended stay in the West Indies and various domiciles in the colonies. He was a talented artist, who contributed to the design of the Great Seal of the United States as well as the seals of several states. In his travels, he had acquired very extensive collections of flora and fauna as well as ethnic materials, and he published quite widely on them. He was an astute observer and historian of the early colonies, having collected every book, pamphlet, and news article he could obtain. He became a corresponding member of the American Philosophical Society in 1768, before he moved permanently to Philadelphia (Bell, 1997, v.1, p. 504). He was elected a curator of the APS in 1776.7

During this time, while du Simitière tried, usually in vain, to attract financial support, many Philadelphians and other visitors were admitted to see the collection. Due to the large numbers of visitors, in 1782, he established regular hours and began to charge admission (Bell, 1997, p. 512), but he remained under constant financial pressure. The collections and their cataloging were his major interest, but he pursued many avenues to remain solvent. He classified his collections as “natural” and “artificial” as was typical in wünderkammern, or curio cabinets. The natural collection included marine and land productions, petrifications, and botanical specimens. Under artificial, he included antiquities, weapons, ornamental clothing of native peoples, and a collection of paintings (Orosz, 1990, p. 36). Despite publicity, there were never sufficient numbers of visitors. Du Simitière died in 1784, and his museum died quickly thereafter. His executors hoped that the APS would purchase it, but the APS declined, and the contents were put up to public sale. The majority of his books, manuscripts, and broadsides were purchased by The Library Company, while some became part of the collection at the Library of Congress, where they may still be seen (Bell, 1997, p. 513).

THE PHILADELPHIA MUSEUM

The Philadelphia Museum of Charles Willson Peale (1741–1827) is far better known than that of du Simitière for several reasons. Prominent among them is its much longer life as a natural history museum from 1786 until 1845. Peale opened his portrait-only studio to the public for two years before expanding it. It was housed in the APS Philosophical Hall from 1794 until 1810, which at that time was also his family’s home. Rather than being the collection of an individual or a small group seeking scientific knowledge, Charles Willson Peale’s museum was a commercial venture intended to provide income to support his family. It capitalized on the curiosity of the general public about natural history. Besides his noted portraits, the museum grew from a dried paddlefish and a badly preserved Angora cat to include thousands of specimens including fossils, quadrupeds, birds, reptiles, fish, shells, insects, and minerals (Schofield, 1989, p. 21). Influenced by Georges-Louis Leclerc, Comte de Buffon (1707–1788) and his well-known “Histoire Naturelle,” but not agreeing with him on the “degeneracy” of New World organisms, Peale attempted to display the world as organized by Linnaeus. His self-portrait in the museum shows a large room with many cases of specimens (Fig. 3). Schofield (1989, p. 21) stated: “In 1831, the museum contained 250 quadrupeds, 1,310 birds, more than 4,000 insects, 8,000 minerals, 1,044 shells, several hundred fish, more than 200 snakes, lizards, turtles and tortoises, and the major U.S. collection of fossil bones: it had become the primary resource for American natural history.”

Figure 3.

Charles Willson Peale: The Artist in His Museum, 1822. Courtesy of the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts, Philadelphia. Gift of Mrs. Sarah Harrison (The Joseph Harrison, Jr., Collection).

Figure 3.

Charles Willson Peale: The Artist in His Museum, 1822. Courtesy of the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts, Philadelphia. Gift of Mrs. Sarah Harrison (The Joseph Harrison, Jr., Collection).

Peale’s objective was to represent the whole world of living things in miniature. It was arranged to show the progression and relations of living beings, the animal, vegetable, and mineral kingdoms, all organized and classified so that the viewer “could come to understand the perfection of the Creator” (Orosz, 1990, p. 48). To this end, Peale and his family collected widely and constantly. Peale’s portraits became less popular among his wealthy patrons due to the politics of the American Revolution and those of the egalitarian movement in France, so expansion into a larger museum was likely to be more profitable. The museum had a period of great popularity and success through a number of moves. After C.W. Peale’s death, his heirs met with no success in seeking to acquire outside support for the museum, which went bankrupt in 1845. Its collections were sold in 1848. It appeared that “Peale’s enlightened notion of a museum as science education and spiritual inspiration for ‘everyman’ had become archaic” (Schofield, 1989, p. 32). Now museums were becoming the realm of the specialist who used collections to increase scientific knowledge. During the time of the Peale museum’s existence, it was a model of public access and education.

THE FAIRMONT WATER WORKS8

The Fairmont Water Works Interpretive Center is a different kind of museum but still of much interest to geologists. It is a National Historic Landmark, a Civil Engineering Landmark, and a National Mechanical Engineering Landmark. There are few places that provide a continuous story of such an important facet of city life, dependent on the natural environment. It did not achieve its current form as a repository of history and as an interpretive center until 2003, and it continues to expand. There must be few such institutions with salaries paid by an entity such as the Philadelphia Water Department itself (Karen Young, director, 2017, personal commun.).

In Philadelphia in the seventeenth century when William Penn’s (1644–1718) colony was established, it was noted that Pennsylvania had many sources of good and clean water. This changed as the city grew. Development of the Water Works was begun in the early nineteenth century with a bequest from Franklin himself. He had recognized the role of clean water in combatting yellow fever and other ills as wells and springs became contaminated. Franklin suggested the Wissahickon Creek as a source, but it was early recognized that its volume was insufficient at some times of year. The city turned to the engineer and architect, Benjamin Henry Latrobe (1764–1820), who suggested building a series of spruce and pine pipes to bring Schuylkill River water (then cleaner) from the natural fall line to the city. Even then, the Delaware River was contaminated due to its marshes and waste from sewers and ships. The first Centre Square Works was located in the center of the city, where City Hall is now. By 1801, “63 homes, four breweries, and a sugar refinery” were supplied (www.newjersey.gov/drbc/eduweb/special/fairmont). As the city grew, so did the need for water.

The city’s need for water quickly outgrew that first attempt. Latrobe’s student, Frederick Graff (1775–1847), was a hydraulic engineer who oversaw expansion and designed the buildings for many years, followed by his son in the same position. The dam on the falls of the Schuylkill River had been built in 1819, with water sent to the reservoir up the hill where the Philadelphia Art Museum now stands. From pumps powered by steam to turbines, always expanding, the fascinating history of this, one of the first municipal water systems in the United States (Fig. 4: the Water Works in 1905), as well as that of the entire watershed can be learned at the Fairmont Water Works Interpretive Center. An early map showed the many creeks in the city area, most of which are now sewers. Over the years, the concerns for adequate and uncontaminated water paralleled ours today. The engineering problems were constant. While the Wissahickon Creek (higher in elevation and less flow) was inadequate, the Schuykill River had the problem of high tides that led to slack water that would not turn the turbines (Fig. 5). The Fairmont Water Works stopped operating as such in 1909, but it has remained an integral part of the story of Philadelphia. The subsequent story of the site, including an aquarium, a swimming pool, and various restaurants, may be investigated on Philadelphia websites as well as at the Water Works (see Fig. 6 for a 2016 view). It now serves innumerable school classes and the public with programs that emphasize not only water supply and treatment but also the ecology of the immediate area, the river, and that of the entire watershed. A fish camera (2009) in the fish ladder installed in 1979 fascinates visitors and enables studies of migrating fish.

Figure 4.

Fairmont Water Works, 1905. Courtesy of Library of Congress (Historic American Engineering Record) and City of Philadelphia Archives.

Figure 4.

Fairmont Water Works, 1905. Courtesy of Library of Congress (Historic American Engineering Record) and City of Philadelphia Archives.

Figure 5.

Fairmont Water Works, interior of New Mill House, showing two of the three Jonval turbines, ca. 1876. Courtesy Fairmont Park Historic Resource Archives, Philadelphia Parks and Recreation.

Figure 5.

Fairmont Water Works, interior of New Mill House, showing two of the three Jonval turbines, ca. 1876. Courtesy Fairmont Park Historic Resource Archives, Philadelphia Parks and Recreation.

Figure 6.

Fairmont Water Works, August 2016. Courtesy of A. Leonard Pundt.

Figure 6.

Fairmont Water Works, August 2016. Courtesy of A. Leonard Pundt.

THE ACADEMY OF NATURAL SCIENCES AT DREXEL UNIVERSITY

The Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia (ANSP), now a component of Drexel University, was founded in 1812 by a group of amateur naturalists who aimed for a “rational disposal of leisure moments” and “the advancement and diffusion of useful, liberal, human knowledge” (www.ansp.org.about/press-room/releases/2012/brief-history-academy-science/, p. 1). Unlike the Peale museum, it was not founded with public education in mind, and it had a long existence before the development of exhibits. It has been called the oldest natural sciences institution in the Western Hemisphere,9 but clearly that has been challenged by the institutions discussed earlier. The Charleston Museum is probably the earliest (Ewan, 1976, p. 209). The initiation of the Academy of Sciences in 1812 was not unlike the other institutions. The group of men who came together to form it were not from the first families of Philadelphia but were emerging professionals—an apothecary, a dentist, a physician and chemist, a chemical manufacturer, a distiller, another physician, and an aspiring naturalist (Orosz, 1990, p. 101). At first, the group appeared to have formed more for social than scientific reasons, with requirements for gentlemanly manners. However, they soon bought the extensive mineral collection of Adam Seybert (1773–1825) and began a series of public lectures, open to those who could pay ten dollars (Orosz, 1990, p. 103). The Seybert collection is still in this museum, in its original cabinet. William Maclure’s (1763–1840) election to the presidency, from 1817 until 1840, brought his generous financial support and, with his colleagues, much more scientific credibility.

The Academy continued to buy natural history collections, but despite Maclure’s support, by the 1820s, it was in debt. In addition, Maclure’s and others’ commitment to public education led the museum to be opened to the public in 1828 on a limited basis, very few hours of the week, and required paid tickets signed by a member (Orosz, 1990, p. 122). However, in the 1840s, the tide shifted again with the death of Maclure and loss of enthusiasm for his ideal of public education. Emphasis reverted to research by professionals (Orosz, 1990, p. 145). Dr. Joseph Leidy (1823–1891), who practiced medicine but is best known now as a paleontologist, was prominent among the Academy’s scientists. Active in many Philadelphia science institutions, he was elected to the Academy in 1845, was soon appointed librarian, served as a curator, then chairman of the board of curators, and finally twice as president of the Academy (Osborn, 1913, p. 343). Leidy’s deep paleontological knowledge was demonstrated when he collaborated with Benjamin Waterhouse Hawkins in the first articulated dinosaur skeleton display, the enormous Hadrosaurus foulkii in 1868 (Peck and Stroud, 2012, p. 137–140). Leidy brought a high level of science to the institution, but his advancement led to controversy because he embodied professionalism and research, not the public education that Maclure had supported. During his tenure, “the curators were reduced to the status of guards rather than teachers” (Orosz, 1990, p. 148). Leidy must later have extended the scope of his commitment to science, because, in 1885, he took a position with the Wagner Free Institute of Science, where the founding principle was to advance science education—more about that later.

The dichotomy continued to play out at the ANSP, reflecting shifts in the rest of the museum world in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. As at many current natural history museums, the Academy now supports both a full program of public education and a highly regarded research staff. There are notable collections of fossils, shells, fish, birds, grasshoppers and crickets, and an outstanding library of illustrated natural history volumes and ANSP publications. Special treasures, such as fossils collected by Mary Anning, one of William Smith’s iconic geologic maps of 1815, plus maps by John Pinkerton and Maclure himself, as well as the extensive library, are still accessible. The bones of Hadrosaurus foulkii, the first nearly complete dinosaur fossil found in the United States, are still in the collection, along with a model. Discovered in New Jersey in 1858, it is notable for Leidy’s recognition that it was bipedal, a first for dinosaurs. The library is searchable online, while in the library reading room there are examples from the broad range of materials in storage. Research continues in many areas, and school children and the general public flock to see the dinosaurs and other displays, while also participating in the educational programs.

THE WAGNER FREE INSTITUTE OF SCIENCE

The Wagner Free Institute of Science is a must-see destination for anyone serious about the history and trajectory over time of natural history museums. Perhaps it is the emphasis on education combined with the exhibition of marvels as earlier emphasized by Peale that explains its long history and survival. Located in north Philadelphia near Temple University and accessible from the historic area by the 33 bus, the museum occupies the building constructed for it in 1865 (Fig. 7). William Wagner (1796–1885) collected natural history specimens from his childhood and strongly believed that everyone should have free education in the sciences. To expand the lectures, he first gave from his home. Wagner and his wife founded the Wagner Free Institute as a free adult science education institution in 1855, starting in a public hall with hired lecturers. Later he opened his own hall and museum, the building now a National Historic Landmark that still houses it. Groups of school children come for lectures in the original hall, home to lectures by luminaries such as Joseph Leidy, Edward D. Cope (1840–1897), and Margaret Mead (1901–1978) among many others, before going up to see the exhibits.

Figure 7.

Woodcut, ca. 1865, Wagner Free Institute Museum. Courtesy, Archives, Wagner Free Institute of Science.

Figure 7.

Woodcut, ca. 1865, Wagner Free Institute Museum. Courtesy, Archives, Wagner Free Institute of Science.

More than 100,000 specimens of minerals, fossils, shells, insects, birds, mammals, etc., are displayed in their original cases (Fig. 8). Objects collected by Wagner, Leidy, Cope, and others, remain. When Wagner died in 1885, the board of trustees appointed Joseph Leidy to lead the educational and scientific programs, which were much expanded to include field expeditions. Leidy reorganized the museum systematically so that viewers progressed from examining simpler to more complex organisms. As the educational program flourished, the Wagners opened the first branch of the Philadelphia public library system in 1892, requiring an expansion of the original building. The Transactions of the Wagner Free Institute of Science were published from 1886 until 1944. During that time and for a period afterwards, the library participated in an exchange of publications with many other institutions. The library contains not only William Wagner’s book collection dating to the seventeenth century but also a very strong representation of major nineteenth-century science books (Lynn Dorwaldt, librarian, 29 January 2017, personal commun.). This quintessential Victorian natural history museum is open to the public and constitutes a valuable resource for historians of geology and science in general. The exhibits and their associated library embody the history of the natural history museum movement and its relation to education over a period of more than 150 years.

Figure 8.

The Wagner Free Institute of Science Exhibition Hall. Photograph by David Graham. Courtesy, Archives, Wagner Free Institute of Science

Figure 8.

The Wagner Free Institute of Science Exhibition Hall. Photograph by David Graham. Courtesy, Archives, Wagner Free Institute of Science

THE MUSEUM AND LIBRARY OF THE CHEMICAL HERITAGE FOUNDATION

Of much more recent origin and narrower focus, the museum of the Chemical Heritage Foundation holds much of interest: in addition to displays explaining links between matter, materials, chemical principles, and our daily lives, there are iconic instruments, an eclectic collection of paintings related to chemistry, and a library of famed books from alchemy to those of modern chemistry.10 The museum was opened in 2008 to document not only the instrumentation involved in making major discoveries but also to show the progress of chemistry through the ages. Major more recent instrumentation occupies the center of the museum, while a sequential exhibit of rare books and apparatus is displayed around the outside walls and progresses up the stairs to show how chemistry advanced through the centuries. This includes some mention of mineralogy. The gallery of alchemical paintings, many rare and old, can best be viewed with a guide who points out the significance of their content. The paintings show many operations and equipment that were instrumental in identifying minerals and their reactions by means of laboratory work and experiments.

MORE MUSEUMS

I have no way of knowing if there are more museums per capita in Philadelphia than in other cities. Even the number to choose from for a population of museum-goers is not clear.11 Each year that number is swelled by thousands of tourists with an appetite for museums and history. New museums, such as the Museum of the American Revolution, are still opening (19 April 2017). The Mütter Museum of the College of Physicians of Philadelphia was opened in 1863, and it thrives today as a leading example of Victorian displays of medical specimens, with popular educational programs. It began with Dr. Thomas Dent Mütter’s (1811–1859) collection of 1700 anatomical specimens, still in their original display cases despite a move in 1909. The Athenaeum of Philadelphia originally opened in 1814 and has undergone many changes over the years. Its museum includes historical objects, but it is a major repository of architectural information. Another institution with a history that began in revolutionary times is the University of Pennsylvania. Its museum was founded in 1887, emphasizing archaeological exhibits. One of the two David Rittenhouse orreries is exhibited in the Van Pelt-Dietrick Library Center at the University. Founded in 1824, the Franklin Institute has become an excellent, very popular teaching establishment, mainly committed to connecting the public with the mechanical arts but sometimes with the history of science in general. About its inception in 1824, Greene remarked (1976, p. 7): “In no other institution in Philadelphia or elsewhere in the nation was there as strong a working interaction between scientists, technologists, educators, and men of business and industry.” The Association of American Geologists was organized in 1840, meeting in the Franklin Institute lecture hall. The Marvin Samson Center for the History of Pharmacy displays artifacts from five centuries of pharmacy. The Philadelphia History Museum was founded in 1938 and offers many exhibits and artifacts relating to the city’s history. Besides these larger institutions, there are many smaller venues, often the preserved homes or places of business of eminent people. I’m sure this does not exhaust the list.

CONCLUSIONS

What could have led to the proliferation and persistence of museums and their related libraries and archives in Philadelphia? The largest city in what became the United States of America at the time of the Revolution, its population has long since been surpassed by that of other cities. The national government has been in Washington, the District of Columbia, between Maryland and Virginia, since 1800. In the beginning, the habit of curiosity was embedded in eighteenth-century thought, serviced by the Royal Society and the web of activities it engendered (Parrish, 2006, p. 64) as well as the pervasive ideas of the Enlightenment. There was much interest in natural plants, minerals, and animals, both by themselves and as used by Native American peoples. Pennsylvania and its city, Philadelphia, were founded by William Penn as a Quaker colony tolerant of different modes of worship. Hindle (1976) pointed out the importance of the Quaker influence, with their tradition of self-sufficiency, self-government, and emphasis on education. The commitment to progress was strong. Greene (1976, p. 203) noted the absence of cabinets and libraries of natural history in colonial times, except in Boston and Philadelphia. The success of Benjamin Franklin (1706–1790) and others as printers indicates that there were readers—not a universal attribute of colonists on what was the frontier. American education and schooling achieved a higher level of importance than in England, where family and position were premier (Rosencrantz, 1976, p. 346). As mentioned in the note about the Franklin Institute, all classes of citizens came together for mutual education, shifting from traditional elites in favor of free thinkers.

As pointed out, a few Philadelphia museums kept to the “pure” natural history format. But from the establishment of the American Philosophical Society by a group of artisans, not scholars, there was much interest in technology as well. Scientific principles were sought after and valued for explanation and solution of practical problems. With advanced schools unavailable or economically out of reach, many of the “Revolutionary” scientists used self-education to a degree that seems astonishing today. The long success of Peale’s museum and the initiation and persistence of many others demonstrate the desire for education. Another example is the story of the Fairmont Water Works, a public utility, as connected to the history of Philadelphia. Franklin and others recognized the relation of pervasive illnesses to the water supply. Technology provided a way to raise the level of river water so that it would flow through pipes in the city. The science came later, linking yellow fever transmission to mosquitos. This story in natural history, illustrating the feedback between science and technology, is encapsulated at the Fairmont Water Works.

The lack of formal education was addressed early. By 1740, there was a movement to establish a charity school. Franklin circulated a proposal for a more comprehensive school in 1749. Unlike other early educational institutions, it would train not only the clergy but would teach the arts as well as practical skills. This became the College of Pennsylvania, which, with additions, became the University of Pennsylvania in 1779. As one would expect, the complex story of its growth is well documented. About Peale’s museum, Schofield (1989, p. 22) noted: “Transitions in American popular culture are, for example, to be traced in the museum’s changes from a Jeffersonian deistic temple for the religion of humanity, to a Philadelphia resort of family and polite society entertainment, to its ultimate, ambiguous, incarnation as a failing competitor of P.T. Barnum’s Jacksonian theater of the absurd.” But as time went on, the museums and other institutions of Philadelphia have continued to provide service to the community according to their mandates, both casual and more formal, for the very young through postgraduates, as well as the entire age range of curious people pursuing multiple lines of interest. Today, the museums of Philadelphia continue the “democratization” of education that began before the American Revolution, maintaining the values of Logan, Colden, Franklin, Rittenhouse, Maclure, Wagner, and others of earlier times. Shachtman (2014, p. 188) pointed out that by the time of Thomas Jefferson’s (1743–1826) presidency, there was an underpinning of scientific advances and educational resources that allowed a well-educated populace to advance themselves and the country through the application of their intellects. I will let Jefferson, President of the United States and long-time president of the APS, have the last word on museums:

In the particular enterprises for museums, we have seen the populous and wealthy cities of Boston and New York unable to found or maintain such an institution. The feeble condition of that in each of these places sufficiently proves this. In Philadelphia alone, has this attempt succeeded to a good degree. It has been owing there to a measure of zeal and perseverance in an individual rarely equaled; to a population, crowded, wealthy, and more than usually addicted to the pursuit of knowledge. (Hindle, 1976, p. 210, as quoted from an 1807 Jefferson letter)

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

Part of the pleasure of working on this paper has been the opportunity to meet the people who work in these institutions. Many thanks to Mary Grace Wahl, associate director for collections and exhibitions for APS, for a wonderful two hours examining eighteenth-century scientific instruments in their storage room. These instruments rarely see the light of day unless they become part of an exhibit in the museum. Similarly, Susan Glassman, director, and Lynn Dorwaldt, librarian, were generous with their time and knowledge about the history and current activities of the Wagner Free Institute of Science. At the Fairmont Water Works, long-time friend and environmental educator, Vivian Williams, showed me all activities, inside and out, and introduced me to the director, Karen Young, and the property manager, Garrett Selby, who filled me in on the current state of both the administration and the physical plant as well as future plans for the Water Works. At the Center for the History of Chemistry, Ann Elizabeth Wiener, museum operations manager, shared her extensive knowledge of the symbolism of the alchemical painting collection. Alexander Till at the Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts and Len Pundt and Adam Levine at the Philadelphia Water Department were most helpful in facilitating use of images from their collections. From previous visits, Geological Society of America owes a debt of gratitude to Dr. Ted Daeschler, president and CEO of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Drexel University, as well as to Jim Green, librarian, of The Library Company, for enabling our visits and sharing their expertise. I’m grateful to the two reviewers, Dr. Roger Thomas and an anonymous reviewer, who both provided valued insights and information. And always, thanks to Gary Rosenberg for his editorial abilities and his patience.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

Part of the pleasure of working on this paper has been the opportunity to meet the people who work in these institutions. Many thanks to Mary Grace Wahl, associate director for collections and exhibitions for APS, for a wonderful two hours examining eighteenth-century scientific instruments in their storage room. These instruments rarely see the light of day unless they become part of an exhibit in the museum. Similarly, Susan Glassman, director, and Lynn Dorwaldt, librarian, were generous with their time and knowledge about the history and current activities of the Wagner Free Institute of Science. At the Fairmont Water Works, long-time friend and environmental educator, Vivian Williams, showed me all activities, inside and out, and introduced me to the director, Karen Young, and the property manager, Garrett Selby, who filled me in on the current state of both the administration and the physical plant as well as future plans for the Water Works. At the Center for the History of Chemistry, Ann Elizabeth Wiener, museum operations manager, shared her extensive knowledge of the symbolism of the alchemical painting collection. Alexander Till at the Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts and Len Pundt and Adam Levine at the Philadelphia Water Department were most helpful in facilitating use of images from their collections. From previous visits, Geological Society of America owes a debt of gratitude to Dr. Ted Daeschler, president and CEO of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Drexel University, as well as to Jim Green, librarian, of The Library Company, for enabling our visits and sharing their expertise. I’m grateful to the two reviewers, Dr. Roger Thomas and an anonymous reviewer, who both provided valued insights and information. And always, thanks to Gary Rosenberg for his editorial abilities and his patience.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

Part of the pleasure of working on this paper has been the opportunity to meet the people who work in these institutions. Many thanks to Mary Grace Wahl, associate director for collections and exhibitions for APS, for a wonderful two hours examining eighteenth-century scientific instruments in their storage room. These instruments rarely see the light of day unless they become part of an exhibit in the museum. Similarly, Susan Glassman, director, and Lynn Dorwaldt, librarian, were generous with their time and knowledge about the history and current activities of the Wagner Free Institute of Science. At the Fairmont Water Works, long-time friend and environmental educator, Vivian Williams, showed me all activities, inside and out, and introduced me to the director, Karen Young, and the property manager, Garrett Selby, who filled me in on the current state of both the administration and the physical plant as well as future plans for the Water Works. At the Center for the History of Chemistry, Ann Elizabeth Wiener, museum operations manager, shared her extensive knowledge of the symbolism of the alchemical painting collection. Alexander Till at the Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts and Len Pundt and Adam Levine at the Philadelphia Water Department were most helpful in facilitating use of images from their collections. From previous visits, Geological Society of America owes a debt of gratitude to Dr. Ted Daeschler, president and CEO of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Drexel University, as well as to Jim Green, librarian, of The Library Company, for enabling our visits and sharing their expertise. I’m grateful to the two reviewers, Dr. Roger Thomas and an anonymous reviewer, who both provided valued insights and information. And always, thanks to Gary Rosenberg for his editorial abilities and his patience.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

Part of the pleasure of working on this paper has been the opportunity to meet the people who work in these institutions. Many thanks to Mary Grace Wahl, associate director for collections and exhibitions for APS, for a wonderful two hours examining eighteenth-century scientific instruments in their storage room. These instruments rarely see the light of day unless they become part of an exhibit in the museum. Similarly, Susan Glassman, director, and Lynn Dorwaldt, librarian, were generous with their time and knowledge about the history and current activities of the Wagner Free Institute of Science. At the Fairmont Water Works, long-time friend and environmental educator, Vivian Williams, showed me all activities, inside and out, and introduced me to the director, Karen Young, and the property manager, Garrett Selby, who filled me in on the current state of both the administration and the physical plant as well as future plans for the Water Works. At the Center for the History of Chemistry, Ann Elizabeth Wiener, museum operations manager, shared her extensive knowledge of the symbolism of the alchemical painting collection. Alexander Till at the Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts and Len Pundt and Adam Levine at the Philadelphia Water Department were most helpful in facilitating use of images from their collections. From previous visits, Geological Society of America owes a debt of gratitude to Dr. Ted Daeschler, president and CEO of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Drexel University, as well as to Jim Green, librarian, of The Library Company, for enabling our visits and sharing their expertise. I’m grateful to the two reviewers, Dr. Roger Thomas and an anonymous reviewer, who both provided valued insights and information. And always, thanks to Gary Rosenberg for his editorial abilities and his patience.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

Part of the pleasure of working on this paper has been the opportunity to meet the people who work in these institutions. Many thanks to Mary Grace Wahl, associate director for collections and exhibitions for APS, for a wonderful two hours examining eighteenth-century scientific instruments in their storage room. These instruments rarely see the light of day unless they become part of an exhibit in the museum. Similarly, Susan Glassman, director, and Lynn Dorwaldt, librarian, were generous with their time and knowledge about the history and current activities of the Wagner Free Institute of Science. At the Fairmont Water Works, long-time friend and environmental educator, Vivian Williams, showed me all activities, inside and out, and introduced me to the director, Karen Young, and the property manager, Garrett Selby, who filled me in on the current state of both the administration and the physical plant as well as future plans for the Water Works. At the Center for the History of Chemistry, Ann Elizabeth Wiener, museum operations manager, shared her extensive knowledge of the symbolism of the alchemical painting collection. Alexander Till at the Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts and Len Pundt and Adam Levine at the Philadelphia Water Department were most helpful in facilitating use of images from their collections. From previous visits, Geological Society of America owes a debt of gratitude to Dr. Ted Daeschler, president and CEO of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Drexel University, as well as to Jim Green, librarian, of The Library Company, for enabling our visits and sharing their expertise. I’m grateful to the two reviewers, Dr. Roger Thomas and an anonymous reviewer, who both provided valued insights and information. And always, thanks to Gary Rosenberg for his editorial abilities and his patience.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

Part of the pleasure of working on this paper has been the opportunity to meet the people who work in these institutions. Many thanks to Mary Grace Wahl, associate director for collections and exhibitions for APS, for a wonderful two hours examining eighteenth-century scientific instruments in their storage room. These instruments rarely see the light of day unless they become part of an exhibit in the museum. Similarly, Susan Glassman, director, and Lynn Dorwaldt, librarian, were generous with their time and knowledge about the history and current activities of the Wagner Free Institute of Science. At the Fairmont Water Works, long-time friend and environmental educator, Vivian Williams, showed me all activities, inside and out, and introduced me to the director, Karen Young, and the property manager, Garrett Selby, who filled me in on the current state of both the administration and the physical plant as well as future plans for the Water Works. At the Center for the History of Chemistry, Ann Elizabeth Wiener, museum operations manager, shared her extensive knowledge of the symbolism of the alchemical painting collection. Alexander Till at the Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts and Len Pundt and Adam Levine at the Philadelphia Water Department were most helpful in facilitating use of images from their collections. From previous visits, Geological Society of America owes a debt of gratitude to Dr. Ted Daeschler, president and CEO of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Drexel University, as well as to Jim Green, librarian, of The Library Company, for enabling our visits and sharing their expertise. I’m grateful to the two reviewers, Dr. Roger Thomas and an anonymous reviewer, who both provided valued insights and information. And always, thanks to Gary Rosenberg for his editorial abilities and his patience.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

Part of the pleasure of working on this paper has been the opportunity to meet the people who work in these institutions. Many thanks to Mary Grace Wahl, associate director for collections and exhibitions for APS, for a wonderful two hours examining eighteenth-century scientific instruments in their storage room. These instruments rarely see the light of day unless they become part of an exhibit in the museum. Similarly, Susan Glassman, director, and Lynn Dorwaldt, librarian, were generous with their time and knowledge about the history and current activities of the Wagner Free Institute of Science. At the Fairmont Water Works, long-time friend and environmental educator, Vivian Williams, showed me all activities, inside and out, and introduced me to the director, Karen Young, and the property manager, Garrett Selby, who filled me in on the current state of both the administration and the physical plant as well as future plans for the Water Works. At the Center for the History of Chemistry, Ann Elizabeth Wiener, museum operations manager, shared her extensive knowledge of the symbolism of the alchemical painting collection. Alexander Till at the Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts and Len Pundt and Adam Levine at the Philadelphia Water Department were most helpful in facilitating use of images from their collections. From previous visits, Geological Society of America owes a debt of gratitude to Dr. Ted Daeschler, president and CEO of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Drexel University, as well as to Jim Green, librarian, of The Library Company, for enabling our visits and sharing their expertise. I’m grateful to the two reviewers, Dr. Roger Thomas and an anonymous reviewer, who both provided valued insights and information. And always, thanks to Gary Rosenberg for his editorial abilities and his patience.

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Bell
,
W.J.
, Jr.
,
1967
,
A Cabinet of Curiosities: Five Episodes in the Evolution of American Museums: Charlottesville
 ,
Virginia
,
University Press of Virginia
, p.
1
34
.
Bell
,
W.J.
, Jr.
,
1997
,
Patriot-Improvers: Biographical Sketches of Members of the American Philosophical Society
:
Philadelphia, Memoirs of the American Philosophical Society
 ,
2
vols.,
531
p.
Ewan
,
J.
,
1976
,
The growth of learned and scientific societies in the Southeastern United States to 1860
, in
Oleson
,
A.
, and
Brown
,
S.C.
, eds.,
The Pursuit of Knowledge in the Early American Republic: American Scientific Societies from Colonial Times to the Civil War
 :
Baltimore
,
Johns Hopkins Press
, p.
208
218
.
Greene
,
J.C.
,
1976
,
Science and the public in the age of Jefferson
, in
Hindle
,
B.
, ed.,
Early American Science
 :
New York
,
Science History Publications
, p.
201
213
.
Hindle
,
B.
,
1956
,
Pursuit of Science in Revolutionary America, 1735-1789
:
Chapel Hill
,
University of North Carolina Press
,
410
p.
Hindle
,
B.
,
1976
,
The Quaker background and science in colonial Philadelphia
, in
Hindle
,
B.
, ed.,
Early American Science
 :
New York
,
Science History Publications
, p.
173
180
.
Iachini
,
G.D.
,
2012
,
Pierre Eugene du Simitière and the first American national museum
:
Royal Society of Arts Journal
 , v.
23
, p.
131
159
.
Lemay
,
J.A.L.
,
2005
,
The Life of Benjamin Franklin: Printer and Publisher
:
Philadelphia
,
University of Pennsylvania Press
, v.
2
, p.
1730
1747
.
Orosz
,
J.J.
,
1990
,
Curators and Culture: The Museum Movement in America, 1740–1870
:
Tuscaloosa
,
University of Alabama Press
, v. 14,
304
p., https://doi.org/10.2307/2078829.
Osborn
,
H.F.
,
1913
,
Biographical memoir of Joseph Leidy (1823–1891)
:
Washington, D.C., National Academy of Sciences Biographical Memoirs
 , v.
7
, p.
335
396
.
Parrish
,
S.S.
,
2006
,
American Curiosity: Cultures of Natural History in the Colonial British Atlantic World
:
Chapel Hill
,
University of North Carolina Press
,
321
p.
Peck
,
R.M.
, and
Stroud
,
P.T.
,
2012
,
A Glorious Enterprise: The Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia and the Making of American Science
:
Philadelphia
,
University of Pennsylvania Press
,
437
p.
Pyenson
,
L.
, and
Sheets-Pyenson
,
S.
,
1999
,
Servants of Nature: A History of Scientific Institutions, Enterprises and Sensibilities
:
New York
,
W.W. Norton and Company
,
496
p.
Rosencrantz
,
B.G.
,
1976
,
Early American learned societies as informants on our past
, in
Oleson
,
A.
, and
Brown
,
S.C.
, eds.,
The Pursuit of Knowledge in the Early American Republic: American Scientific Societies from Colonial Times to the Civil War
 :
Baltimore
,
Johns Hopkins Press
, p.
345
354
.
Schofield
,
R.E.
,
1989
,
The science education of an enlightened entrepreneur: Charles Willson Peale and his Philadelphia Museum, 1784–1827
:
American Studies, with American Studies International
 , v.
30
, no.
2
, p.
21
40
.
Shachtman
,
T.
,
2014
,
Gentlemen Scientists and Revolutionaries: The Founding Fathers in the Age of Enlightenment
 :
New York
,
Palgrave/Macmillan
,
256
p.

REFERENCES CITED

Bell
,
W.J.
, Jr.
,
1967
,
A Cabinet of Curiosities: Five Episodes in the Evolution of American Museums: Charlottesville
 ,
Virginia
,
University Press of Virginia
, p.
1
34
.
Bell
,
W.J.
, Jr.
,
1997
,
Patriot-Improvers: Biographical Sketches of Members of the American Philosophical Society
:
Philadelphia, Memoirs of the American Philosophical Society
 ,
2
vols.,
531
p.
Ewan
,
J.
,
1976
,
The growth of learned and scientific societies in the Southeastern United States to 1860
, in
Oleson
,
A.
, and
Brown
,
S.C.
, eds.,
The Pursuit of Knowledge in the Early American Republic: American Scientific Societies from Colonial Times to the Civil War
 :
Baltimore
,
Johns Hopkins Press
, p.
208
218
.
Greene
,
J.C.
,
1976
,
Science and the public in the age of Jefferson
, in
Hindle
,
B.
, ed.,
Early American Science
 :
New York
,
Science History Publications
, p.
201
213
.
Hindle
,
B.
,
1956
,
Pursuit of Science in Revolutionary America, 1735-1789
:
Chapel Hill
,
University of North Carolina Press
,
410
p.
Hindle
,
B.
,
1976
,
The Quaker background and science in colonial Philadelphia
, in
Hindle
,
B.
, ed.,
Early American Science
 :
New York
,
Science History Publications
, p.
173
180
.
Iachini
,
G.D.
,
2012
,
Pierre Eugene du Simitière and the first American national museum
:
Royal Society of Arts Journal
 , v.
23
, p.
131
159
.
Lemay
,
J.A.L.
,
2005
,
The Life of Benjamin Franklin: Printer and Publisher
:
Philadelphia
,
University of Pennsylvania Press
, v.
2
, p.
1730
1747
.
Orosz
,
J.J.
,
1990
,
Curators and Culture: The Museum Movement in America, 1740–1870
:
Tuscaloosa
,
University of Alabama Press
, v. 14,
304
p., https://doi.org/10.2307/2078829.
Osborn
,
H.F.
,
1913
,
Biographical memoir of Joseph Leidy (1823–1891)
:
Washington, D.C., National Academy of Sciences Biographical Memoirs
 , v.
7
, p.
335
396
.
Parrish
,
S.S.
,
2006
,
American Curiosity: Cultures of Natural History in the Colonial British Atlantic World
:
Chapel Hill
,
University of North Carolina Press
,
321
p.
Peck
,
R.M.
, and
Stroud
,
P.T.
,
2012
,
A Glorious Enterprise: The Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia and the Making of American Science
:
Philadelphia
,
University of Pennsylvania Press
,
437
p.
Pyenson
,
L.
, and
Sheets-Pyenson
,
S.
,
1999
,
Servants of Nature: A History of Scientific Institutions, Enterprises and Sensibilities
:
New York
,
W.W. Norton and Company
,
496
p.
Rosencrantz
,
B.G.
,
1976
,
Early American learned societies as informants on our past
, in
Oleson
,
A.
, and
Brown
,
S.C.
, eds.,
The Pursuit of Knowledge in the Early American Republic: American Scientific Societies from Colonial Times to the Civil War
 :
Baltimore
,
Johns Hopkins Press
, p.
345
354
.
Schofield
,
R.E.
,
1989
,
The science education of an enlightened entrepreneur: Charles Willson Peale and his Philadelphia Museum, 1784–1827
:
American Studies, with American Studies International
 , v.
30
, no.
2
, p.
21
40
.
Shachtman
,
T.
,
2014
,
Gentlemen Scientists and Revolutionaries: The Founding Fathers in the Age of Enlightenment
 :
New York
,
Palgrave/Macmillan
,
256
p.

REFERENCES CITED

Bell
,
W.J.
, Jr.
,
1967
,
A Cabinet of Curiosities: Five Episodes in the Evolution of American Museums: Charlottesville
 ,
Virginia
,
University Press of Virginia
, p.
1
34
.
Bell
,
W.J.
, Jr.
,
1997
,
Patriot-Improvers: Biographical Sketches of Members of the American Philosophical Society
:
Philadelphia, Memoirs of the American Philosophical Society
 ,
2
vols.,
531
p.
Ewan
,
J.
,
1976
,
The growth of learned and scientific societies in the Southeastern United States to 1860
, in
Oleson
,
A.
, and
Brown
,
S.C.
, eds.,
The Pursuit of Knowledge in the Early American Republic: American Scientific Societies from Colonial Times to the Civil War
 :
Baltimore
,
Johns Hopkins Press
, p.
208
218
.
Greene
,
J.C.
,
1976
,
Science and the public in the age of Jefferson
, in
Hindle
,
B.
, ed.,
Early American Science
 :
New York
,
Science History Publications
, p.
201
213
.
Hindle
,
B.
,
1956
,
Pursuit of Science in Revolutionary America, 1735-1789
:
Chapel Hill
,
University of North Carolina Press
,
410
p.
Hindle
,
B.
,
1976
,
The Quaker background and science in colonial Philadelphia
, in
Hindle
,
B.
, ed.,
Early American Science
 :
New York
,
Science History Publications
, p.
173
180
.
Iachini
,
G.D.
,
2012
,
Pierre Eugene du Simitière and the first American national museum
:
Royal Society of Arts Journal
 , v.
23
, p.
131
159
.
Lemay
,
J.A.L.
,
2005
,
The Life of Benjamin Franklin: Printer and Publisher
:
Philadelphia
,
University of Pennsylvania Press
, v.
2
, p.
1730
1747
.
Orosz
,
J.J.
,
1990
,
Curators and Culture: The Museum Movement in America, 1740–1870
:
Tuscaloosa
,
University of Alabama Press
, v. 14,
304
p., https://doi.org/10.2307/2078829.
Osborn
,
H.F.
,
1913
,
Biographical memoir of Joseph Leidy (1823–1891)
:
Washington, D.C., National Academy of Sciences Biographical Memoirs
 , v.
7
, p.
335
396
.
Parrish
,
S.S.
,
2006
,
American Curiosity: Cultures of Natural History in the Colonial British Atlantic World
:
Chapel Hill
,
University of North Carolina Press
,
321
p.
Peck
,
R.M.
, and
Stroud
,
P.T.
,
2012
,
A Glorious Enterprise: The Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia and the Making of American Science
:
Philadelphia
,
University of Pennsylvania Press
,
437
p.
Pyenson
,
L.
, and
Sheets-Pyenson
,
S.
,
1999
,
Servants of Nature: A History of Scientific Institutions, Enterprises and Sensibilities
:
New York
,
W.W. Norton and Company
,
496
p.
Rosencrantz
,
B.G.
,
1976
,
Early American learned societies as informants on our past
, in
Oleson
,
A.
, and
Brown
,
S.C.
, eds.,
The Pursuit of Knowledge in the Early American Republic: American Scientific Societies from Colonial Times to the Civil War
 :
Baltimore
,
Johns Hopkins Press
, p.
345
354
.
Schofield
,
R.E.
,
1989
,
The science education of an enlightened entrepreneur: Charles Willson Peale and his Philadelphia Museum, 1784–1827
:
American Studies, with American Studies International
 , v.
30
, no.
2
, p.
21
40
.
Shachtman
,
T.
,
2014
,
Gentlemen Scientists and Revolutionaries: The Founding Fathers in the Age of Enlightenment
 :
New York
,
Palgrave/Macmillan
,
256
p.

REFERENCES CITED

Bell
,
W.J.
, Jr.
,
1967
,
A Cabinet of Curiosities: Five Episodes in the Evolution of American Museums: Charlottesville
 ,
Virginia
,
University Press of Virginia
, p.
1
34
.
Bell
,
W.J.
, Jr.
,
1997
,
Patriot-Improvers: Biographical Sketches of Members of the American Philosophical Society
:
Philadelphia, Memoirs of the American Philosophical Society
 ,
2
vols.,
531
p.
Ewan
,
J.
,
1976
,
The growth of learned and scientific societies in the Southeastern United States to 1860
, in
Oleson
,
A.
, and
Brown
,
S.C.
, eds.,
The Pursuit of Knowledge in the Early American Republic: American Scientific Societies from Colonial Times to the Civil War
 :
Baltimore
,
Johns Hopkins Press
, p.
208
218
.
Greene
,
J.C.
,
1976
,
Science and the public in the age of Jefferson
, in
Hindle
,
B.
, ed.,
Early American Science
 :
New York
,
Science History Publications
, p.
201
213
.
Hindle
,
B.
,
1956
,
Pursuit of Science in Revolutionary America, 1735-1789
:
Chapel Hill
,
University of North Carolina Press
,
410
p.
Hindle
,
B.
,
1976
,
The Quaker background and science in colonial Philadelphia
, in
Hindle
,
B.
, ed.,
Early American Science
 :
New York
,
Science History Publications
, p.
173
180
.
Iachini
,
G.D.
,
2012
,
Pierre Eugene du Simitière and the first American national museum
:
Royal Society of Arts Journal
 , v.
23
, p.
131
159
.
Lemay
,
J.A.L.
,
2005
,
The Life of Benjamin Franklin: Printer and Publisher
:
Philadelphia
,
University of Pennsylvania Press
, v.
2
, p.
1730
1747
.
Orosz
,
J.J.
,
1990
,
Curators and Culture: The Museum Movement in America, 1740–1870
:
Tuscaloosa
,
University of Alabama Press
, v. 14,
304
p., https://doi.org/10.2307/2078829.
Osborn
,
H.F.
,
1913
,
Biographical memoir of Joseph Leidy (1823–1891)
:
Washington, D.C., National Academy of Sciences Biographical Memoirs
 , v.
7
, p.
335
396
.
Parrish
,
S.S.
,
2006
,
American Curiosity: Cultures of Natural History in the Colonial British Atlantic World
:
Chapel Hill
,
University of North Carolina Press
,
321
p.
Peck
,
R.M.
, and
Stroud
,
P.T.
,
2012
,
A Glorious Enterprise: The Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia and the Making of American Science
:
Philadelphia
,
University of Pennsylvania Press
,
437
p.
Pyenson
,
L.
, and
Sheets-Pyenson
,
S.
,
1999
,
Servants of Nature: A History of Scientific Institutions, Enterprises and Sensibilities
:
New York
,
W.W. Norton and Company
,
496
p.
Rosencrantz
,
B.G.
,
1976
,
Early American learned societies as informants on our past
, in
Oleson
,
A.
, and
Brown
,
S.C.
, eds.,
The Pursuit of Knowledge in the Early American Republic: American Scientific Societies from Colonial Times to the Civil War
 :
Baltimore
,
Johns Hopkins Press
, p.
345
354
.
Schofield
,
R.E.
,
1989
,
The science education of an enlightened entrepreneur: Charles Willson Peale and his Philadelphia Museum, 1784–1827
:
American Studies, with American Studies International
 , v.
30
, no.
2
, p.
21
40
.
Shachtman
,
T.
,
2014
,
Gentlemen Scientists and Revolutionaries: The Founding Fathers in the Age of Enlightenment
 :
New York
,
Palgrave/Macmillan
,
256
p.

REFERENCES CITED

Bell
,
W.J.
, Jr.
,
1967
,
A Cabinet of Curiosities: Five Episodes in the Evolution of American Museums: Charlottesville
 ,
Virginia
,
University Press of Virginia
, p.
1
34
.
Bell
,
W.J.
, Jr.
,
1997
,
Patriot-Improvers: Biographical Sketches of Members of the American Philosophical Society
:
Philadelphia, Memoirs of the American Philosophical Society
 ,
2
vols.,
531
p.
Ewan
,
J.
,
1976
,
The growth of learned and scientific societies in the Southeastern United States to 1860
, in
Oleson
,
A.
, and
Brown
,
S.C.
, eds.,
The Pursuit of Knowledge in the Early American Republic: American Scientific Societies from Colonial Times to the Civil War
 :
Baltimore
,
Johns Hopkins Press
, p.
208
218
.
Greene
,
J.C.
,
1976
,
Science and the public in the age of Jefferson
, in
Hindle
,
B.
, ed.,
Early American Science
 :
New York
,
Science History Publications
, p.
201
213
.
Hindle
,
B.
,
1956
,
Pursuit of Science in Revolutionary America, 1735-1789
:
Chapel Hill
,
University of North Carolina Press
,
410
p.
Hindle
,
B.
,
1976
,
The Quaker background and science in colonial Philadelphia
, in
Hindle
,
B.
, ed.,
Early American Science
 :
New York
,
Science History Publications
, p.
173
180
.
Iachini
,
G.D.
,
2012
,
Pierre Eugene du Simitière and the first American national museum
:
Royal Society of Arts Journal
 , v.
23
, p.
131
159
.
Lemay
,
J.A.L.
,
2005
,
The Life of Benjamin Franklin: Printer and Publisher
:
Philadelphia
,
University of Pennsylvania Press
, v.
2
, p.
1730
1747
.
Orosz
,
J.J.
,
1990
,
Curators and Culture: The Museum Movement in America, 1740–1870
:
Tuscaloosa
,
University of Alabama Press
, v. 14,
304
p., https://doi.org/10.2307/2078829.
Osborn
,
H.F.
,
1913
,
Biographical memoir of Joseph Leidy (1823–1891)
:
Washington, D.C., National Academy of Sciences Biographical Memoirs
 , v.
7
, p.
335
396
.
Parrish
,
S.S.
,
2006
,
American Curiosity: Cultures of Natural History in the Colonial British Atlantic World
:
Chapel Hill
,
University of North Carolina Press
,
321
p.
Peck
,
R.M.
, and
Stroud
,
P.T.
,
2012
,
A Glorious Enterprise: The Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia and the Making of American Science
:
Philadelphia
,
University of Pennsylvania Press
,
437
p.
Pyenson
,
L.
, and
Sheets-Pyenson
,
S.
,
1999
,
Servants of Nature: A History of Scientific Institutions, Enterprises and Sensibilities
:
New York
,
W.W. Norton and Company
,
496
p.
Rosencrantz
,
B.G.
,
1976
,
Early American learned societies as informants on our past
, in
Oleson
,
A.
, and
Brown
,
S.C.
, eds.,
The Pursuit of Knowledge in the Early American Republic: American Scientific Societies from Colonial Times to the Civil War
 :
Baltimore
,
Johns Hopkins Press
, p.
345
354
.
Schofield
,
R.E.
,
1989
,
The science education of an enlightened entrepreneur: Charles Willson Peale and his Philadelphia Museum, 1784–1827
:
American Studies, with American Studies International
 , v.
30
, no.
2
, p.
21
40
.
Shachtman
,
T.
,
2014
,
Gentlemen Scientists and Revolutionaries: The Founding Fathers in the Age of Enlightenment
 :
New York
,
Palgrave/Macmillan
,
256
p.

REFERENCES CITED

Bell
,
W.J.
, Jr.
,
1967
,
A Cabinet of Curiosities: Five Episodes in the Evolution of American Museums: Charlottesville
 ,
Virginia
,
University Press of Virginia
, p.
1
34
.
Bell
,
W.J.
, Jr.
,
1997
,
Patriot-Improvers: Biographical Sketches of Members of the American Philosophical Society
:
Philadelphia, Memoirs of the American Philosophical Society
 ,
2
vols.,
531
p.
Ewan
,
J.
,
1976
,
The growth of learned and scientific societies in the Southeastern United States to 1860
, in
Oleson
,
A.
, and
Brown
,
S.C.
, eds.,
The Pursuit of Knowledge in the Early American Republic: American Scientific Societies from Colonial Times to the Civil War
 :
Baltimore
,
Johns Hopkins Press
, p.
208
218
.
Greene
,
J.C.
,
1976
,
Science and the public in the age of Jefferson
, in
Hindle
,
B.
, ed.,
Early American Science
 :
New York
,
Science History Publications
, p.
201
213
.
Hindle
,
B.
,
1956
,
Pursuit of Science in Revolutionary America, 1735-1789
:
Chapel Hill
,
University of North Carolina Press
,
410
p.
Hindle
,
B.
,
1976
,
The Quaker background and science in colonial Philadelphia
, in
Hindle
,
B.
, ed.,
Early American Science
 :
New York
,
Science History Publications
, p.
173
180
.
Iachini
,
G.D.
,
2012
,
Pierre Eugene du Simitière and the first American national museum
:
Royal Society of Arts Journal
 , v.
23
, p.
131
159
.
Lemay
,
J.A.L.
,
2005
,
The Life of Benjamin Franklin: Printer and Publisher
:
Philadelphia
,
University of Pennsylvania Press
, v.
2
, p.
1730
1747
.
Orosz
,
J.J.
,
1990
,
Curators and Culture: The Museum Movement in America, 1740–1870
:
Tuscaloosa
,
University of Alabama Press
, v. 14,
304
p., https://doi.org/10.2307/2078829.
Osborn
,
H.F.
,
1913
,
Biographical memoir of Joseph Leidy (1823–1891)
:
Washington, D.C., National Academy of Sciences Biographical Memoirs
 , v.
7
, p.
335
396
.
Parrish
,
S.S.
,
2006
,
American Curiosity: Cultures of Natural History in the Colonial British Atlantic World
:
Chapel Hill
,
University of North Carolina Press
,
321
p.
Peck
,
R.M.
, and
Stroud
,
P.T.
,
2012
,
A Glorious Enterprise: The Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia and the Making of American Science
:
Philadelphia
,
University of Pennsylvania Press
,
437
p.
Pyenson
,
L.
, and
Sheets-Pyenson
,
S.
,
1999
,
Servants of Nature: A History of Scientific Institutions, Enterprises and Sensibilities
:
New York
,
W.W. Norton and Company
,
496
p.
Rosencrantz
,
B.G.
,
1976
,
Early American learned societies as informants on our past
, in
Oleson
,
A.
, and
Brown
,
S.C.
, eds.,
The Pursuit of Knowledge in the Early American Republic: American Scientific Societies from Colonial Times to the Civil War
 :
Baltimore
,
Johns Hopkins Press
, p.
345
354
.
Schofield
,
R.E.
,
1989
,
The science education of an enlightened entrepreneur: Charles Willson Peale and his Philadelphia Museum, 1784–1827
:
American Studies, with American Studies International
 , v.
30
, no.
2
, p.
21
40
.
Shachtman
,
T.
,
2014
,
Gentlemen Scientists and Revolutionaries: The Founding Fathers in the Age of Enlightenment
 :
New York
,
Palgrave/Macmillan
,
256
p.
1
This is the idea, advanced in one form or another since antiquity, that nature is arranged hierarchically by small gradations from the simplest matter, through plants, animals, humanity, and angels, to the Creator. The gradation continued through each category with, for example, one more complex plant being “higher” than a simpler one. Dr. R. Thomas (July 2017, personal commun.) has pointed out Mark Dion’s installation, which spoofs the Great Chain, at the Wadsworth Atheneum Museum of Art in Hartford, Connecticut.
2
There is a very extensive literature about Franklin with great detail about founding The Library Company (TLC).
3
A doubly reflecting quadrant, essentially an octant, is a navigation device that measures the height of the sun or stars above the horizon to find geographic position.
4
It has been pointed out that by the time the American Philosophical Society (APS) was begun, Franklin, at least, had joined the prior group (Roger Thomas, 2017, personal commun.). Thomas also suggested that the APS was the progenitor of a think tank—an excellent insight.
5
The story of Philosophical Hall is complex and well covered in many references.
6
I spent a delightful several hours looking at them with the curator, Mary Grace Wahl.
7
His position in the American Revolution was complicated by the fact he was not clearly an American citizen, and he also entertained British officers when they occupied Philadelphia.
8
The history of the Water Works began as a public utility. It didn’t become an educational source until 2003.
9
The American Philosophical Society (APS) embraced science in the tradition of natural philosophy. By the time APS was established, natural science had been formally differentiated as a distinct branch of knowledge.
10
It must be noted that in December 2015, the Chemical Heritage Foundation merged with the Life Sciences Foundation, based in California, and was dedicated to the history and heritage of biotechnology. As of 1 February 2018, they have merged and become the Science History Institute.
11
There are four major art museums, in each of which there are works with some geological significance.
1
This is the idea, advanced in one form or another since antiquity, that nature is arranged hierarchically by small gradations from the simplest matter, through plants, animals, humanity, and angels, to the Creator. The gradation continued through each category with, for example, one more complex plant being “higher” than a simpler one. Dr. R. Thomas (July 2017, personal commun.) has pointed out Mark Dion’s installation, which spoofs the Great Chain, at the Wadsworth Atheneum Museum of Art in Hartford, Connecticut.
2
There is a very extensive literature about Franklin with great detail about founding The Library Company (TLC).
3
A doubly reflecting quadrant, essentially an octant, is a navigation device that measures the height of the sun or stars above the horizon to find geographic position.
4
It has been pointed out that by the time the American Philosophical Society (APS) was begun, Franklin, at least, had joined the prior group (Roger Thomas, 2017, personal commun.). Thomas also suggested that the APS was the progenitor of a think tank—an excellent insight.
5
The story of Philosophical Hall is complex and well covered in many references.
6
I spent a delightful several hours looking at them with the curator, Mary Grace Wahl.
7
His position in the American Revolution was complicated by the fact he was not clearly an American citizen, and he also entertained British officers when they occupied Philadelphia.
8
The history of the Water Works began as a public utility. It didn’t become an educational source until 2003.
9
The American Philosophical Society (APS) embraced science in the tradition of natural philosophy. By the time APS was established, natural science had been formally differentiated as a distinct branch of knowledge.
10
It must be noted that in December 2015, the Chemical Heritage Foundation merged with the Life Sciences Foundation, based in California, and was dedicated to the history and heritage of biotechnology. As of 1 February 2018, they have merged and become the Science History Institute.
11
There are four major art museums, in each of which there are works with some geological significance.
1
This is the idea, advanced in one form or another since antiquity, that nature is arranged hierarchically by small gradations from the simplest matter, through plants, animals, humanity, and angels, to the Creator. The gradation continued through each category with, for example, one more complex plant being “higher” than a simpler one. Dr. R. Thomas (July 2017, personal commun.) has pointed out Mark Dion’s installation, which spoofs the Great Chain, at the Wadsworth Atheneum Museum of Art in Hartford, Connecticut.
2
There is a very extensive literature about Franklin with great detail about founding The Library Company (TLC).
3
A doubly reflecting quadrant, essentially an octant, is a navigation device that measures the height of the sun or stars above the horizon to find geographic position.
4
It has been pointed out that by the time the American Philosophical Society (APS) was begun, Franklin, at least, had joined the prior group (Roger Thomas, 2017, personal commun.). Thomas also suggested that the APS was the progenitor of a think tank—an excellent insight.
5
The story of Philosophical Hall is complex and well covered in many references.
6
I spent a delightful several hours looking at them with the curator, Mary Grace Wahl.
7
His position in the American Revolution was complicated by the fact he was not clearly an American citizen, and he also entertained British officers when they occupied Philadelphia.
8
The history of the Water Works began as a public utility. It didn’t become an educational source until 2003.
9
The American Philosophical Society (APS) embraced science in the tradition of natural philosophy. By the time APS was established, natural science had been formally differentiated as a distinct branch of knowledge.
10
It must be noted that in December 2015, the Chemical Heritage Foundation merged with the Life Sciences Foundation, based in California, and was dedicated to the history and heritage of biotechnology. As of 1 February 2018, they have merged and become the Science History Institute.
11
There are four major art museums, in each of which there are works with some geological significance.
1
This is the idea, advanced in one form or another since antiquity, that nature is arranged hierarchically by small gradations from the simplest matter, through plants, animals, humanity, and angels, to the Creator. The gradation continued through each category with, for example, one more complex plant being “higher” than a simpler one. Dr. R. Thomas (July 2017, personal commun.) has pointed out Mark Dion’s installation, which spoofs the Great Chain, at the Wadsworth Atheneum Museum of Art in Hartford, Connecticut.
2
There is a very extensive literature about Franklin with great detail about founding The Library Company (TLC).
3
A doubly reflecting quadrant, essentially an octant, is a navigation device that measures the height of the sun or stars above the horizon to find geographic position.
4
It has been pointed out that by the time the American Philosophical Society (APS) was begun, Franklin, at least, had joined the prior group (Roger Thomas, 2017, personal commun.). Thomas also suggested that the APS was the progenitor of a think tank—an excellent insight.
5
The story of Philosophical Hall is complex and well covered in many references.
6
I spent a delightful several hours looking at them with the curator, Mary Grace Wahl.
7
His position in the American Revolution was complicated by the fact he was not clearly an American citizen, and he also entertained British officers when they occupied Philadelphia.
8
The history of the Water Works began as a public utility. It didn’t become an educational source until 2003.
9
The American Philosophical Society (APS) embraced science in the tradition of natural philosophy. By the time APS was established, natural science had been formally differentiated as a distinct branch of knowledge.
10
It must be noted that in December 2015, the Chemical Heritage Foundation merged with the Life Sciences Foundation, based in California, and was dedicated to the history and heritage of biotechnology. As of 1 February 2018, they have merged and become the Science History Institute.
11
There are four major art museums, in each of which there are works with some geological significance.
1
This is the idea, advanced in one form or another since antiquity, that nature is arranged hierarchically by small gradations from the simplest matter, through plants, animals, humanity, and angels, to the Creator. The gradation continued through each category with, for example, one more complex plant being “higher” than a simpler one. Dr. R. Thomas (July 2017, personal commun.) has pointed out Mark Dion’s installation, which spoofs the Great Chain, at the Wadsworth Atheneum Museum of Art in Hartford, Connecticut.
2
There is a very extensive literature about Franklin with great detail about founding The Library Company (TLC).
3
A doubly reflecting quadrant, essentially an octant, is a navigation device that measures the height of the sun or stars above the horizon to find geographic position.
4
It has been pointed out that by the time the American Philosophical Society (APS) was begun, Franklin, at least, had joined the prior group (Roger Thomas, 2017, personal commun.). Thomas also suggested that the APS was the progenitor of a think tank—an excellent insight.
5
The story of Philosophical Hall is complex and well covered in many references.
6
I spent a delightful several hours looking at them with the curator, Mary Grace Wahl.
7
His position in the American Revolution was complicated by the fact he was not clearly an American citizen, and he also entertained British officers when they occupied Philadelphia.
8
The history of the Water Works began as a public utility. It didn’t become an educational source until 2003.
9
The American Philosophical Society (APS) embraced science in the tradition of natural philosophy. By the time APS was established, natural science had been formally differentiated as a distinct branch of knowledge.
10
It must be noted that in December 2015, the Chemical Heritage Foundation merged with the Life Sciences Foundation, based in California, and was dedicated to the history and heritage of biotechnology. As of 1 February 2018, they have merged and become the Science History Institute.
11
There are four major art museums, in each of which there are works with some geological significance.
1
This is the idea, advanced in one form or another since antiquity, that nature is arranged hierarchically by small gradations from the simplest matter, through plants, animals, humanity, and angels, to the Creator. The gradation continued through each category with, for example, one more complex plant being “higher” than a simpler one. Dr. R. Thomas (July 2017, personal commun.) has pointed out Mark Dion’s installation, which spoofs the Great Chain, at the Wadsworth Atheneum Museum of Art in Hartford, Connecticut.
2
There is a very extensive literature about Franklin with great detail about founding The Library Company (TLC).
3
A doubly reflecting quadrant, essentially an octant, is a navigation device that measures the height of the sun or stars above the horizon to find geographic position.
4
It has been pointed out that by the time the American Philosophical Society (APS) was begun, Franklin, at least, had joined the prior group (Roger Thomas, 2017, personal commun.). Thomas also suggested that the APS was the progenitor of a think tank—an excellent insight.
5
The story of Philosophical Hall is complex and well covered in many references.
6
I spent a delightful several hours looking at them with the curator, Mary Grace Wahl.
7
His position in the American Revolution was complicated by the fact he was not clearly an American citizen, and he also entertained British officers when they occupied Philadelphia.
8
The history of the Water Works began as a public utility. It didn’t become an educational source until 2003.
9
The American Philosophical Society (APS) embraced science in the tradition of natural philosophy. By the time APS was established, natural science had been formally differentiated as a distinct branch of knowledge.
10
It must be noted that in December 2015, the Chemical Heritage Foundation merged with the Life Sciences Foundation, based in California, and was dedicated to the history and heritage of biotechnology. As of 1 February 2018, they have merged and become the Science History Institute.
11
There are four major art museums, in each of which there are works with some geological significance.
1
This is the idea, advanced in one form or another since antiquity, that nature is arranged hierarchically by small gradations from the simplest matter, through plants, animals, humanity, and angels, to the Creator. The gradation continued through each category with, for example, one more complex plant being “higher” than a simpler one. Dr. R. Thomas (July 2017, personal commun.) has pointed out Mark Dion’s installation, which spoofs the Great Chain, at the Wadsworth Atheneum Museum of Art in Hartford, Connecticut.
2
There is a very extensive literature about Franklin with great detail about founding The Library Company (TLC).
3
A doubly reflecting quadrant, essentially an octant, is a navigation device that measures the height of the sun or stars above the horizon to find geographic position.
4
It has been pointed out that by the time the American Philosophical Society (APS) was begun, Franklin, at least, had joined the prior group (Roger Thomas, 2017, personal commun.). Thomas also suggested that the APS was the progenitor of a think tank—an excellent insight.
5
The story of Philosophical Hall is complex and well covered in many references.
6
I spent a delightful several hours looking at them with the curator, Mary Grace Wahl.
7
His position in the American Revolution was complicated by the fact he was not clearly an American citizen, and he also entertained British officers when they occupied Philadelphia.
8
The history of the Water Works began as a public utility. It didn’t become an educational source until 2003.
9
The American Philosophical Society (APS) embraced science in the tradition of natural philosophy. By the time APS was established, natural science had been formally differentiated as a distinct branch of knowledge.
10
It must be noted that in December 2015, the Chemical Heritage Foundation merged with the Life Sciences Foundation, based in California, and was dedicated to the history and heritage of biotechnology. As of 1 February 2018, they have merged and become the Science History Institute.
11
There are four major art museums, in each of which there are works with some geological significance.

Figures & Tables

Figure 1.

Circumferenter or surveyor’s compass, 1796–1798 (Benjamin Rittenhouse and William Lukens Potts, makers). Courtesy of American Philosophical Society, in Philadelphia. Gift from Mrs. Thomas S. Gates, ~1950.

Figure 1.

Circumferenter or surveyor’s compass, 1796–1798 (Benjamin Rittenhouse and William Lukens Potts, makers). Courtesy of American Philosophical Society, in Philadelphia. Gift from Mrs. Thomas S. Gates, ~1950.

Figure 2.

Incomplete Theodolite, ca.1790. Benjamin Chandlee (maker). Courtesy of American Philosophical Society. Gift of Penrose Hoopes, 23 June 1975.

Figure 2.

Incomplete Theodolite, ca.1790. Benjamin Chandlee (maker). Courtesy of American Philosophical Society. Gift of Penrose Hoopes, 23 June 1975.

Figure 3.

Charles Willson Peale: The Artist in His Museum, 1822. Courtesy of the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts, Philadelphia. Gift of Mrs. Sarah Harrison (The Joseph Harrison, Jr., Collection).

Figure 3.

Charles Willson Peale: The Artist in His Museum, 1822. Courtesy of the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts, Philadelphia. Gift of Mrs. Sarah Harrison (The Joseph Harrison, Jr., Collection).

Figure 4.

Fairmont Water Works, 1905. Courtesy of Library of Congress (Historic American Engineering Record) and City of Philadelphia Archives.

Figure 4.

Fairmont Water Works, 1905. Courtesy of Library of Congress (Historic American Engineering Record) and City of Philadelphia Archives.

Figure 5.

Fairmont Water Works, interior of New Mill House, showing two of the three Jonval turbines, ca. 1876. Courtesy Fairmont Park Historic Resource Archives, Philadelphia Parks and Recreation.

Figure 5.

Fairmont Water Works, interior of New Mill House, showing two of the three Jonval turbines, ca. 1876. Courtesy Fairmont Park Historic Resource Archives, Philadelphia Parks and Recreation.

Figure 6.

Fairmont Water Works, August 2016. Courtesy of A. Leonard Pundt.

Figure 6.

Fairmont Water Works, August 2016. Courtesy of A. Leonard Pundt.

Figure 7.

Woodcut, ca. 1865, Wagner Free Institute Museum. Courtesy, Archives, Wagner Free Institute of Science.

Figure 7.

Woodcut, ca. 1865, Wagner Free Institute Museum. Courtesy, Archives, Wagner Free Institute of Science.

Figure 8.

The Wagner Free Institute of Science Exhibition Hall. Photograph by David Graham. Courtesy, Archives, Wagner Free Institute of Science

Figure 8.

The Wagner Free Institute of Science Exhibition Hall. Photograph by David Graham. Courtesy, Archives, Wagner Free Institute of Science

Contents

References

REFERENCES CITED

Bell
,
W.J.
, Jr.
,
1967
,
A Cabinet of Curiosities: Five Episodes in the Evolution of American Museums: Charlottesville
 ,
Virginia
,
University Press of Virginia
, p.
1
34
.
Bell
,
W.J.
, Jr.
,
1997
,
Patriot-Improvers: Biographical Sketches of Members of the American Philosophical Society
:
Philadelphia, Memoirs of the American Philosophical Society
 ,
2
vols.,
531
p.
Ewan
,
J.
,
1976
,
The growth of learned and scientific societies in the Southeastern United States to 1860
, in
Oleson
,
A.
, and
Brown
,
S.C.
, eds.,
The Pursuit of Knowledge in the Early American Republic: American Scientific Societies from Colonial Times to the Civil War
 :
Baltimore
,
Johns Hopkins Press
, p.
208
218
.
Greene
,
J.C.
,
1976
,
Science and the public in the age of Jefferson
, in
Hindle
,
B.
, ed.,
Early American Science
 :
New York
,
Science History Publications
, p.
201
213
.
Hindle
,
B.
,
1956
,
Pursuit of Science in Revolutionary America, 1735-1789
:
Chapel Hill
,
University of North Carolina Press
,
410
p.
Hindle
,
B.
,
1976
,
The Quaker background and science in colonial Philadelphia
, in
Hindle
,
B.
, ed.,
Early American Science
 :
New York
,
Science History Publications
, p.
173
180
.
Iachini
,
G.D.
,
2012
,
Pierre Eugene du Simitière and the first American national museum
:
Royal Society of Arts Journal
 , v.
23
, p.
131
159
.
Lemay
,
J.A.L.
,
2005
,
The Life of Benjamin Franklin: Printer and Publisher
:
Philadelphia
,
University of Pennsylvania Press
, v. 2, p.
1730
1747
.
Orosz
,
J.J.
,
1990
,
Curators and Culture: The Museum Movement in America, 1740–1870
:
Tuscaloosa
,
University of Alabama Press
, v. 14,
304
p., https://doi.org/10.2307/2078829.
Osborn
,
H.F.
,
1913
,
Biographical memoir of Joseph Leidy (1823–1891)
:
Washington, D.C., National Academy of Sciences Biographical Memoirs
 , v.
7
, p.
335
396
.
Parrish
,
S.S.
,
2006
,
American Curiosity: Cultures of Natural History in the Colonial British Atlantic World
:
Chapel Hill
,
University of North Carolina Press
,
321
p.
Peck
,
R.M.
, and
Stroud
,
P.T.
,
2012
,
A Glorious Enterprise: The Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia and the Making of American Science
:
Philadelphia
,
University of Pennsylvania Press
,
437
p.
Pyenson
,
L.
, and
Sheets-Pyenson
,
S.
,
1999
,
Servants of Nature: A History of Scientific Institutions, Enterprises and Sensibilities
:
New York
,
W.W. Norton and Company
,
496
p.
Rosencrantz
,
B.G.
,
1976
,
Early American learned societies as informants on our past
, in
Oleson
,
A.
, and
Brown
,
S.C.
, eds.,
The Pursuit of Knowledge in the Early American Republic: American Scientific Societies from Colonial Times to the Civil War
 :
Baltimore
,
Johns Hopkins Press
, p.
345
354
.
Schofield
,
R.E.
,
1989
,
The science education of an enlightened entrepreneur: Charles Willson Peale and his Philadelphia Museum, 1784–1827
:
American Studies, with American Studies International
 , v.
30
, no.
2
, p.
21
40
.
Shachtman
,
T.
,
2014
,
Gentlemen Scientists and Revolutionaries: The Founding Fathers in the Age of Enlightenment
 :
New York
,
Palgrave/Macmillan
,
256
p.

REFERENCES CITED

Bell
,
W.J.
, Jr.
,
1967
,
A Cabinet of Curiosities: Five Episodes in the Evolution of American Museums: Charlottesville
 ,
Virginia
,
University Press of Virginia
, p.
1
34
.
Bell
,
W.J.
, Jr.
,
1997
,
Patriot-Improvers: Biographical Sketches of Members of the American Philosophical Society
:
Philadelphia, Memoirs of the American Philosophical Society
 ,
2
vols.,
531
p.
Ewan
,
J.
,
1976
,
The growth of learned and scientific societies in the Southeastern United States to 1860
, in
Oleson
,
A.
, and
Brown
,
S.C.
, eds.,
The Pursuit of Knowledge in the Early American Republic: American Scientific Societies from Colonial Times to the Civil War
 :
Baltimore
,
Johns Hopkins Press
, p.
208
218
.
Greene
,
J.C.
,
1976
,
Science and the public in the age of Jefferson
, in
Hindle
,
B.
, ed.,
Early American Science
 :
New York
,
Science History Publications
, p.
201
213
.
Hindle
,
B.
,
1956
,
Pursuit of Science in Revolutionary America, 1735-1789
:
Chapel Hill
,
University of North Carolina Press
,
410
p.
Hindle
,
B.
,
1976
,
The Quaker background and science in colonial Philadelphia
, in
Hindle
,
B.
, ed.,
Early American Science
 :
New York
,
Science History Publications
, p.
173
180
.
Iachini
,
G.D.
,
2012
,
Pierre Eugene du Simitière and the first American national museum
:
Royal Society of Arts Journal
 , v.
23
, p.
131
159
.
Lemay
,
J.A.L.
,
2005
,
The Life of Benjamin Franklin: Printer and Publisher
:
Philadelphia
,
University of Pennsylvania Press
, v.
2
, p.
1730
1747
.
Orosz
,
J.J.
,
1990
,
Curators and Culture: The Museum Movement in America, 1740–1870
:
Tuscaloosa
,
University of Alabama Press
, v. 14,
304
p., https://doi.org/10.2307/2078829.
Osborn
,
H.F.
,
1913
,
Biographical memoir of Joseph Leidy (1823–1891)
:
Washington, D.C., National Academy of Sciences Biographical Memoirs
 , v.
7
, p.
335
396
.
Parrish
,
S.S.
,
2006
,
American Curiosity: Cultures of Natural History in the Colonial British Atlantic World
:
Chapel Hill
,
University of North Carolina Press
,
321
p.
Peck
,
R.M.
, and
Stroud
,
P.T.
,
2012
,
A Glorious Enterprise: The Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia and the Making of American Science
:
Philadelphia
,
University of Pennsylvania Press
,
437
p.
Pyenson
,
L.
, and
Sheets-Pyenson
,
S.
,
1999
,
Servants of Nature: A History of Scientific Institutions, Enterprises and Sensibilities
:
New York
,
W.W. Norton and Company
,
496
p.
Rosencrantz
,
B.G.
,
1976
,
Early American learned societies as informants on our past
, in
Oleson
,
A.
, and
Brown
,
S.C.
, eds.,
The Pursuit of Knowledge in the Early American Republic: American Scientific Societies from Colonial Times to the Civil War
 :
Baltimore
,
Johns Hopkins Press
, p.
345
354
.
Schofield
,
R.E.
,
1989
,
The science education of an enlightened entrepreneur: Charles Willson Peale and his Philadelphia Museum, 1784–1827
:
American Studies, with American Studies International
 , v.
30
, no.
2
, p.
21
40
.
Shachtman
,
T.
,
2014
,
Gentlemen Scientists and Revolutionaries: The Founding Fathers in the Age of Enlightenment
 :
New York
,
Palgrave/Macmillan
,
256
p.

REFERENCES CITED

Bell
,
W.J.
, Jr.
,
1967
,
A Cabinet of Curiosities: Five Episodes in the Evolution of American Museums: Charlottesville
 ,
Virginia
,
University Press of Virginia
, p.
1
34
.
Bell
,
W.J.
, Jr.
,
1997
,
Patriot-Improvers: Biographical Sketches of Members of the American Philosophical Society
:
Philadelphia, Memoirs of the American Philosophical Society
 ,
2
vols.,
531
p.
Ewan
,
J.
,
1976
,
The growth of learned and scientific societies in the Southeastern United States to 1860
, in
Oleson
,
A.
, and
Brown
,
S.C.
, eds.,
The Pursuit of Knowledge in the Early American Republic: American Scientific Societies from Colonial Times to the Civil War
 :
Baltimore
,
Johns Hopkins Press
, p.
208
218
.
Greene
,
J.C.
,
1976
,
Science and the public in the age of Jefferson
, in
Hindle
,
B.
, ed.,
Early American Science
 :
New York
,
Science History Publications
, p.
201
213
.
Hindle
,
B.
,
1956
,
Pursuit of Science in Revolutionary America, 1735-1789
:
Chapel Hill
,
University of North Carolina Press
,
410
p.
Hindle
,
B.
,
1976
,
The Quaker background and science in colonial Philadelphia
, in
Hindle
,
B.
, ed.,
Early American Science
 :
New York
,
Science History Publications
, p.
173
180
.
Iachini
,
G.D.
,
2012
,
Pierre Eugene du Simitière and the first American national museum
:
Royal Society of Arts Journal
 , v.
23
, p.
131
159
.
Lemay
,
J.A.L.
,
2005
,
The Life of Benjamin Franklin: Printer and Publisher
:
Philadelphia
,
University of Pennsylvania Press
, v.
2
, p.
1730
1747
.
Orosz
,
J.J.
,
1990
,
Curators and Culture: The Museum Movement in America, 1740–1870
:
Tuscaloosa
,
University of Alabama Press
, v. 14,
304
p., https://doi.org/10.2307/2078829.
Osborn
,
H.F.
,
1913
,
Biographical memoir of Joseph Leidy (1823–1891)
:
Washington, D.C., National Academy of Sciences Biographical Memoirs
 , v.
7
, p.
335
396
.
Parrish
,
S.S.
,
2006
,
American Curiosity: Cultures of Natural History in the Colonial British Atlantic World
:
Chapel Hill
,
University of North Carolina Press
,
321
p.
Peck
,
R.M.
, and
Stroud
,
P.T.
,
2012
,
A Glorious Enterprise: The Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia and the Making of American Science
:
Philadelphia
,
University of Pennsylvania Press
,
437
p.
Pyenson
,
L.
, and
Sheets-Pyenson
,
S.
,
1999
,
Servants of Nature: A History of Scientific Institutions, Enterprises and Sensibilities
:
New York
,
W.W. Norton and Company
,
496
p.
Rosencrantz
,
B.G.
,
1976
,
Early American learned societies as informants on our past
, in
Oleson
,
A.
, and
Brown
,
S.C.
, eds.,
The Pursuit of Knowledge in the Early American Republic: American Scientific Societies from Colonial Times to the Civil War
 :
Baltimore
,
Johns Hopkins Press
, p.
345
354
.
Schofield
,
R.E.
,
1989
,
The science education of an enlightened entrepreneur: Charles Willson Peale and his Philadelphia Museum, 1784–1827
:
American Studies, with American Studies International
 , v.
30
, no.
2
, p.
21
40
.
Shachtman
,
T.
,
2014
,
Gentlemen Scientists and Revolutionaries: The Founding Fathers in the Age of Enlightenment
 :
New York
,
Palgrave/Macmillan
,
256
p.

REFERENCES CITED

Bell
,
W.J.
, Jr.
,
1967
,
A Cabinet of Curiosities: Five Episodes in the Evolution of American Museums: Charlottesville
 ,
Virginia
,
University Press of Virginia
, p.
1
34
.
Bell
,
W.J.
, Jr.
,
1997
,
Patriot-Improvers: Biographical Sketches of Members of the American Philosophical Society
:
Philadelphia, Memoirs of the American Philosophical Society
 ,
2
vols.,
531
p.
Ewan
,
J.
,
1976
,
The growth of learned and scientific societies in the Southeastern United States to 1860
, in
Oleson
,
A.
, and
Brown
,
S.C.
, eds.,
The Pursuit of Knowledge in the Early American Republic: American Scientific Societies from Colonial Times to the Civil War
 :
Baltimore
,
Johns Hopkins Press
, p.
208
218
.
Greene
,
J.C.
,
1976
,
Science and the public in the age of Jefferson
, in
Hindle
,
B.
, ed.,
Early American Science
 :
New York
,
Science History Publications
, p.
201
213
.
Hindle
,
B.
,
1956
,
Pursuit of Science in Revolutionary America, 1735-1789
:
Chapel Hill
,
University of North Carolina Press
,
410
p.
Hindle
,
B.
,
1976
,
The Quaker background and science in colonial Philadelphia
, in
Hindle
,
B.
, ed.,
Early American Science
 :
New York
,
Science History Publications
, p.
173
180
.
Iachini
,
G.D.
,
2012
,
Pierre Eugene du Simitière and the first American national museum
:
Royal Society of Arts Journal
 , v.
23
, p.
131
159
.
Lemay
,
J.A.L.
,
2005
,
The Life of Benjamin Franklin: Printer and Publisher
:
Philadelphia
,
University of Pennsylvania Press
, v.
2
, p.
1730
1747
.
Orosz
,
J.J.
,
1990
,
Curators and Culture: The Museum Movement in America, 1740–1870
:
Tuscaloosa
,
University of Alabama Press
, v. 14,
304
p., https://doi.org/10.2307/2078829.
Osborn
,
H.F.
,
1913
,
Biographical memoir of Joseph Leidy (1823–1891)
:
Washington, D.C., National Academy of Sciences Biographical Memoirs
 , v.
7
, p.
335
396
.
Parrish
,
S.S.
,
2006
,
American Curiosity: Cultures of Natural History in the Colonial British Atlantic World
:
Chapel Hill
,
University of North Carolina Press
,
321
p.
Peck
,
R.M.
, and
Stroud
,
P.T.
,
2012
,
A Glorious Enterprise: The Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia and the Making of American Science
:
Philadelphia
,
University of Pennsylvania Press
,
437
p.
Pyenson
,
L.
, and
Sheets-Pyenson
,
S.
,
1999
,
Servants of Nature: A History of Scientific Institutions, Enterprises and Sensibilities
:
New York
,
W.W. Norton and Company
,
496
p.
Rosencrantz
,
B.G.
,
1976
,
Early American learned societies as informants on our past
, in
Oleson
,
A.
, and
Brown
,
S.C.
, eds.,
The Pursuit of Knowledge in the Early American Republic: American Scientific Societies from Colonial Times to the Civil War
 :
Baltimore
,
Johns Hopkins Press
, p.
345
354
.
Schofield
,
R.E.
,
1989
,
The science education of an enlightened entrepreneur: Charles Willson Peale and his Philadelphia Museum, 1784–1827
:
American Studies, with American Studies International
 , v.
30
, no.
2
, p.
21
40
.
Shachtman
,
T.
,
2014
,
Gentlemen Scientists and Revolutionaries: The Founding Fathers in the Age of Enlightenment
 :
New York
,
Palgrave/Macmillan
,
256
p.

REFERENCES CITED

Bell
,
W.J.
, Jr.
,
1967
,
A Cabinet of Curiosities: Five Episodes in the Evolution of American Museums: Charlottesville
 ,
Virginia
,
University Press of Virginia
, p.
1
34
.
Bell
,
W.J.
, Jr.
,
1997
,
Patriot-Improvers: Biographical Sketches of Members of the American Philosophical Society
:
Philadelphia, Memoirs of the American Philosophical Society
 ,
2
vols.,
531
p.
Ewan
,
J.
,
1976
,
The growth of learned and scientific societies in the Southeastern United States to 1860
, in
Oleson
,
A.
, and
Brown
,
S.C.
, eds.,
The Pursuit of Knowledge in the Early American Republic: American Scientific Societies from Colonial Times to the Civil War
 :
Baltimore
,
Johns Hopkins Press
, p.
208
218
.
Greene
,
J.C.
,
1976
,
Science and the public in the age of Jefferson
, in
Hindle
,
B.
, ed.,
Early American Science
 :
New York
,
Science History Publications
, p.
201
213
.
Hindle
,
B.
,
1956
,
Pursuit of Science in Revolutionary America, 1735-1789
:
Chapel Hill
,
University of North Carolina Press
,
410
p.
Hindle
,
B.
,
1976
,
The Quaker background and science in colonial Philadelphia
, in
Hindle
,
B.
, ed.,
Early American Science
 :
New York
,
Science History Publications
, p.
173
180
.
Iachini
,
G.D.
,
2012
,
Pierre Eugene du Simitière and the first American national museum
:
Royal Society of Arts Journal
 , v.
23
, p.
131
159
.
Lemay
,
J.A.L.
,
2005
,
The Life of Benjamin Franklin: Printer and Publisher
:
Philadelphia
,
University of Pennsylvania Press
, v.
2
, p.
1730
1747
.
Orosz
,
J.J.
,
1990
,
Curators and Culture: The Museum Movement in America, 1740–1870
:
Tuscaloosa
,
University of Alabama Press
, v. 14,
304
p., https://doi.org/10.2307/2078829.
Osborn
,
H.F.
,
1913
,
Biographical memoir of Joseph Leidy (1823–1891)
:
Washington, D.C., National Academy of Sciences Biographical Memoirs
 , v.
7
, p.
335
396
.
Parrish
,
S.S.
,
2006
,
American Curiosity: Cultures of Natural History in the Colonial British Atlantic World
:
Chapel Hill
,
University of North Carolina Press
,
321
p.
Peck
,
R.M.
, and
Stroud
,
P.T.
,
2012
,
A Glorious Enterprise: The Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia and the Making of American Science
:
Philadelphia
,
University of Pennsylvania Press
,
437
p.
Pyenson
,
L.
, and
Sheets-Pyenson
,
S.
,
1999
,
Servants of Nature: A History of Scientific Institutions, Enterprises and Sensibilities
:
New York
,
W.W. Norton and Company
,
496
p.
Rosencrantz
,
B.G.
,
1976
,
Early American learned societies as informants on our past
, in
Oleson
,
A.
, and
Brown
,
S.C.
, eds.,
The Pursuit of Knowledge in the Early American Republic: American Scientific Societies from Colonial Times to the Civil War
 :
Baltimore
,
Johns Hopkins Press
, p.
345
354
.
Schofield
,
R.E.
,
1989
,
The science education of an enlightened entrepreneur: Charles Willson Peale and his Philadelphia Museum, 1784–1827
:
American Studies, with American Studies International
 , v.
30
, no.
2
, p.
21
40
.
Shachtman
,
T.
,
2014
,
Gentlemen Scientists and Revolutionaries: The Founding Fathers in the Age of Enlightenment
 :
New York
,
Palgrave/Macmillan
,
256
p.

REFERENCES CITED

Bell
,
W.J.
, Jr.
,
1967
,
A Cabinet of Curiosities: Five Episodes in the Evolution of American Museums: Charlottesville
 ,
Virginia
,
University Press of Virginia
, p.
1
34
.
Bell
,
W.J.
, Jr.
,
1997
,
Patriot-Improvers: Biographical Sketches of Members of the American Philosophical Society
:
Philadelphia, Memoirs of the American Philosophical Society
 ,
2
vols.,
531
p.
Ewan
,
J.
,
1976
,
The growth of learned and scientific societies in the Southeastern United States to 1860
, in
Oleson
,
A.
, and
Brown
,
S.C.
, eds.,
The Pursuit of Knowledge in the Early American Republic: American Scientific Societies from Colonial Times to the Civil War
 :
Baltimore
,
Johns Hopkins Press
, p.
208
218
.
Greene
,
J.C.
,
1976
,
Science and the public in the age of Jefferson
, in
Hindle
,
B.
, ed.,
Early American Science
 :
New York
,
Science History Publications
, p.
201
213
.
Hindle
,
B.
,
1956
,
Pursuit of Science in Revolutionary America, 1735-1789
:
Chapel Hill
,
University of North Carolina Press
,
410
p.
Hindle
,
B.
,
1976
,
The Quaker background and science in colonial Philadelphia
, in
Hindle
,
B.
, ed.,
Early American Science
 :
New York
,
Science History Publications
, p.
173
180
.
Iachini
,
G.D.
,
2012
,
Pierre Eugene du Simitière and the first American national museum
:
Royal Society of Arts Journal
 , v.
23
, p.
131
159
.
Lemay
,
J.A.L.
,
2005
,
The Life of Benjamin Franklin: Printer and Publisher
:
Philadelphia
,
University of Pennsylvania Press
, v.
2
, p.
1730
1747
.
Orosz
,
J.J.
,
1990
,
Curators and Culture: The Museum Movement in America, 1740–1870
:
Tuscaloosa
,
University of Alabama Press
, v. 14,
304
p., https://doi.org/10.2307/2078829.
Osborn
,
H.F.
,
1913
,
Biographical memoir of Joseph Leidy (1823–1891)
:
Washington, D.C., National Academy of Sciences Biographical Memoirs
 , v.
7
, p.
335
396
.
Parrish
,
S.S.
,
2006
,
American Curiosity: Cultures of Natural History in the Colonial British Atlantic World
:
Chapel Hill
,
University of North Carolina Press
,
321
p.
Peck
,
R.M.
, and
Stroud
,
P.T.
,
2012
,
A Glorious Enterprise: The Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia and the Making of American Science
:
Philadelphia
,
University of Pennsylvania Press
,
437
p.
Pyenson
,
L.
, and
Sheets-Pyenson
,
S.
,
1999
,
Servants of Nature: A History of Scientific Institutions, Enterprises and Sensibilities
:
New York
,
W.W. Norton and Company
,
496
p.
Rosencrantz
,
B.G.
,
1976
,
Early American learned societies as informants on our past
, in
Oleson
,
A.
, and
Brown
,
S.C.
, eds.,
The Pursuit of Knowledge in the Early American Republic: American Scientific Societies from Colonial Times to the Civil War
 :
Baltimore
,
Johns Hopkins Press
, p.
345
354
.
Schofield
,
R.E.
,
1989
,
The science education of an enlightened entrepreneur: Charles Willson Peale and his Philadelphia Museum, 1784–1827
:
American Studies, with American Studies International
 , v.
30
, no.
2
, p.
21
40
.
Shachtman
,
T.
,
2014
,
Gentlemen Scientists and Revolutionaries: The Founding Fathers in the Age of Enlightenment
 :
New York
,
Palgrave/Macmillan
,
256
p.

REFERENCES CITED

Bell
,
W.J.
, Jr.
,
1967
,
A Cabinet of Curiosities: Five Episodes in the Evolution of American Museums: Charlottesville
 ,
Virginia
,
University Press of Virginia
, p.
1
34
.
Bell
,
W.J.
, Jr.
,
1997
,
Patriot-Improvers: Biographical Sketches of Members of the American Philosophical Society
:
Philadelphia, Memoirs of the American Philosophical Society
 ,
2
vols.,
531
p.
Ewan
,
J.
,
1976
,
The growth of learned and scientific societies in the Southeastern United States to 1860
, in
Oleson
,
A.
, and
Brown
,
S.C.
, eds.,
The Pursuit of Knowledge in the Early American Republic: American Scientific Societies from Colonial Times to the Civil War
 :
Baltimore
,
Johns Hopkins Press
, p.
208
218
.
Greene
,
J.C.
,
1976
,
Science and the public in the age of Jefferson
, in
Hindle
,
B.
, ed.,
Early American Science
 :
New York
,
Science History Publications
, p.
201
213
.
Hindle
,
B.
,
1956
,
Pursuit of Science in Revolutionary America, 1735-1789
:
Chapel Hill
,
University of North Carolina Press
,
410
p.
Hindle
,
B.
,
1976
,
The Quaker background and science in colonial Philadelphia
, in
Hindle
,
B.
, ed.,
Early American Science
 :
New York
,
Science History Publications
, p.
173
180
.
Iachini
,
G.D.
,
2012
,
Pierre Eugene du Simitière and the first American national museum
:
Royal Society of Arts Journal
 , v.
23
, p.
131
159
.
Lemay
,
J.A.L.
,
2005
,
The Life of Benjamin Franklin: Printer and Publisher
:
Philadelphia
,
University of Pennsylvania Press
, v.
2
, p.
1730
1747
.
Orosz
,
J.J.
,
1990
,
Curators and Culture: The Museum Movement in America, 1740–1870
:
Tuscaloosa
,
University of Alabama Press
, v. 14,
304
p., https://doi.org/10.2307/2078829.
Osborn
,
H.F.
,
1913
,
Biographical memoir of Joseph Leidy (1823–1891)
:
Washington, D.C., National Academy of Sciences Biographical Memoirs
 , v.
7
, p.
335
396
.
Parrish
,
S.S.
,
2006
,
American Curiosity: Cultures of Natural History in the Colonial British Atlantic World
:
Chapel Hill
,
University of North Carolina Press
,
321
p.
Peck
,
R.M.
, and
Stroud
,
P.T.
,
2012
,
A Glorious Enterprise: The Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia and the Making of American Science
:
Philadelphia
,
University of Pennsylvania Press
,
437
p.
Pyenson
,
L.
, and
Sheets-Pyenson
,
S.
,
1999
,
Servants of Nature: A History of Scientific Institutions, Enterprises and Sensibilities
:
New York
,
W.W. Norton and Company
,
496
p.
Rosencrantz
,
B.G.
,
1976
,
Early American learned societies as informants on our past
, in
Oleson
,
A.
, and
Brown
,
S.C.
, eds.,
The Pursuit of Knowledge in the Early American Republic: American Scientific Societies from Colonial Times to the Civil War
 :
Baltimore
,
Johns Hopkins Press
, p.
345
354
.
Schofield
,
R.E.
,
1989
,
The science education of an enlightened entrepreneur: Charles Willson Peale and his Philadelphia Museum, 1784–1827
:
American Studies, with American Studies International
 , v.
30
, no.
2
, p.
21
40
.
Shachtman
,
T.
,
2014
,
Gentlemen Scientists and Revolutionaries: The Founding Fathers in the Age of Enlightenment
 :
New York
,
Palgrave/Macmillan
,
256
p.

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