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Book Chapter

STRATIGRAPHIC ARCHITECTURE OF THE FRASNIAN SOUTH JASPER BASIN, NORTH-CENTRAL ALBERTA FRONT RANGES

By
John A.W. Weissenberger
John A.W. Weissenberger
ATW Associates, 2427 Cherokee Drive NW, Calgary, Alberta, T2L 0X6, Canada e-mail: jweissenberger@shaw.ca
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Pak K. Wong
Pak K. Wong
Consultant, 2797 Dewdney Avenue, Victoria, BC, V8R 3M3, Canada
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Murray G. Gilhooly
Murray G. Gilhooly
Husky Energy, 707 8th Avenue SW, Calgary, Alberta, T2P 3G7, Canada
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Published:
January 01, 2017
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ABSTRACT

The South Jasper Basin was a major locus of carbonate deposition during the Frasnian, and its sedimentary record is extensively exposed in the Alberta Rocky Mountains. This study places many of its classic outcrops into a sequence stratigraphic framework for the first time. New descriptions of 18 outcrop sections, lateral tracing of stratigraphic geometries, and correlation to a regional sequence stratigraphic–biostratigraphic framework form the basis of the interpretations.

The sequence stratigraphic evolution of the study area consists of a second-order, transgressive–regressive depositional sequence, composed of eight composite (third-order) depositional sequences and their constituent high-frequency (fourth-order) sequences. One lowest Famennian third-order sequence is briefly described. The composite sequences are correlated from the northwestern margin of the Southesk Cairn carbonate complex at Toma Creek to time-equivalent strata exposed in the Nikanassin Range. Exposures in the Nikanassin Range include a carbonate shelf prograding southeast into the South Jasper Basin.

Stratigraphic architecture of the carbonate platforms was influenced by relative sea-level change within the second-order sequence and timing of basin fill in the Jasper Basin. Extensive euxinic shale deposition occurred in the mid-Frasnian, with its maximum extent coinciding with the second-order Maximum Flooding Surface (MFS), in the Woodbend 2.3 high-frequency sequence. Stratigraphic architecture generally follows the second-order trend, but significant deviations from that trend are observed at both the composite and high-frequency sequence scale. Basinally restricted wedges of shallow-water carbonate occur above third- and fourth-order sequence boundaries during the second-order transgression.

Slowing relative sea-level rise in the second-order highstand was reinforced by third- and fourth-order relative falls to produce complex stratigraphic architecture at the platform margins. Offlapping strata with basinally restricted shelf margin deposits and falling stage geometries are uniquely well exposed in the Nikanassin Range, allowing detailed reconstruction of sea-level fluctuations in the second-order highstand. Restricted marine circulation onto the carbonate platforms and basin filling in the late Frasnian coincided with extensive siliciclastic silt deposition in the study area. Silt was deposited during third- and fourth-order lowstands, bypassed into the basin and was reworked during intermittent inundation of the carbonate platforms.

INTRODUCTION

This paper re-examines an area of classic Frasnian carbonate outcrops and, for the first time, interprets them in a sequence stratigraphic context. The study area is important and was chosen for a number of reasons. First, the Toma Creek reef margin, facing into the South Jasper Basin, is one of only a handful in Alberta where the platform margin is fully exposed. The outcrop is also accessible enough for strata to be walked out from shelf to foreslope to basin. Second, in the Nikanassin Range, the shelf margin facing southeast into the South Jasper Basin is spectacularly exposed, and stratal geometries can be described in detail. Outcrops in the study area allow detailed description and reconstruction of the entire Frasnian interval exposed in the Alberta Rocky Mountains. The upper part of the second-order sequence is also much better exposed in the study area than in most other parts of the outcrop belt.

This study will demonstrate how the outcrops of the South Jasper Basin fit within the Givetian–Frasnian second-order depositional sequence of the Alberta Basin described by Wong et al. (1992) and Potma et al. (2001). The paper also presents correlations of the major Frasnian depositional sequences between the Southesk Cairn carbonate complex and the southern part of the coeval Jasper Basin strata. This is a companion paper to Wong et al. (2016b), which described the Frasnian Cline Channel area 70 km to the south, and it forms part of the regional Devonian interpretive framework summarized in a second paper by Wong et al. (2016a). These new data update and help refine the Frasnian surface/subsurface stratigraphic framework previously established by Potma et al. (2001).

Specific aspects of the strata that will be discussed include: retrogradational architecture in the mid-Frasnian, differences in High Frequency Sequence (HFS) stacking patterns between the southern and northern parts of the study area, and development of falling stage systems tract (FSST) architecture in the upper Frasnian. The nature of mixed carbonate–siliciclastic deposition in the late Frasnian will also be discussed, as well as significant small-scale deviations from the second-order sea-level trend.

Geological and Physiographic Setting

From the late Givetian through earliest Famennian, the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin (WCSB) was located on the western margin of the North American craton. Tectonically, the region was a distal foreland basin (Root 2001).

The WCSB was dominated by carbonate deposition (Fig. 1), with the upper Devonian Alberta Basin having been in the trade wind belt, within 20° of the equator (Blakey 2011). Numerous reefs and carbonate platforms developed within the basin or were attached to low-relief landmasses. The latter include the ancestral Canadian Shield to the east and the Peace River Arch on the northwest edge of the craton, both of which acted as siliciclastic source areas. Another structural high, the West Alberta Ridge or Arch, ran roughly parallel to the cratonic margin and was exposed until the early Frasnian. Root (2001) described this ridge as the forebulge of the Devonian Antler orogen. Increased subsidence during the early Frasnian (Bond and Kominz 1991) resulted in the West Alberta Ridge being transgressed, forming the foundation for several large carbonate complexes in the present study area.

The dominant wind direction was from the northeast (Stoakes 1980), consistent with a northeast–southwest orientation of the paleo-equator (Witzke and Heckel 1988). Currents flowed clockwise (Witze and Heckel 1988, p. 386), typically resulting in off-bank sediment transport on the eastern side of the basin. Dominant current direction influenced the distribution of extrabasinal siliciclastic material deposited in the basin and the stratal architecture of the platform margins—largely backstepping and/or aggradational in the west and progradational in the east (Wendte et al. 1990). Workum (1983) postulated that the depositional geometries at individual platform margins were strongly influenced by the amount of local antecedent basin fill.

The Frasnian section of the study area consists of two carbonate complexes, the large Southesk Cairn and the smaller Miette. These are separated by the southern part of the deeper-water Jasper Basin (Fig. 2), which was connected by a seaway to the Wild River and West Shale Basins (now) wholly in the Alberta subsurface.

Laramide tectonism affected all these strata, so that the western part of what is now Alberta was buried under a thick foreland basin succession. East-directed thrust faulting then carried the Devonian section to surface in a series of thin-skinned thrust sheets. The strata of the Southesk Cairn and Miette complexes are exposed mainly on the east–northeast eroded edges of these thrust sheets.

Frasnian Depositional Environments and Lithofacies

Facies of Frasnian strata in the Alberta Basin and their environment of deposition have been extensively studied, notably by Klovan (1964), Wendte (1994), and Whalen et al. (2000). In the current study, we recognize 20 major depositional lithofacies (Table 1). The lithofacies distribution on a steep-sided margin profile is illustrated on Figure 3. Table 1 also provides the color scheme and legend for the interpreted outcrop illustrations and cross sections discussed herein.

Frasnian carbonate platforms in Alberta, and reefal strata specifically, were dominated by a stromatoporoid–rugose coral fauna. Tidal flats developed in the shallowest parts of platforms, including both crinkly laminated and fenestral mudstones. These grade into burrowed mudstones dominated by Amphipora, with bulbous stromatoporoids in (deeper) areas of the platform with open-marine circulation. The platform margin consisted of massive and abraded stromatoporoids and skeletal sands, grainy peloidal–skeletal sand flows, and muddy lithologies with in situ faunas of colonial and branching rugose and tabulate corals, as well as tabular to lamellar stromatoporoids. The deepest foreslope to basin deposits were dominated by crinoids and brachiopods in an argillaceous carbonate matrix, while shale composition varied from organic (euxinic) to illitic. Siliciclastic sediment in the study area is limited to airborne silts and silts to fine sands—either on the platform or bypassed into the basin during depositional hiatuses.

Correct identification of the illustrated lithofacies and description of their lateral and vertical relationships are essential in building a sequence stratigraphic framework. The relative bathymetries of the lithofacies (first estimated by Wendte and Stoakes 1982) allow discrimination of normal (gradational) versus abrupt/abnormal facies contacts.

The lower parts of the Frasnian shallow-water and foreslope strata in the study area are dolomitized, while basinal lithologies are typically limestone. The upper Frasnian sequences are often only partly dolomitized, typically the mud-sized, finely crystalline matrix, while the grains remain limestone. A discussion of Devonian dolomitization can be found in Potma et al. (2001, 2002). For the sake of brevity, the prefix “dolo” is omitted from the descriptions here, with discussion of mineralogy provided only where necessary.

Stratigraphic Terminology

Late Givetian to Famennian age strata are exposed in the Rocky Mountains of Alberta in an extension of the hydrocarbon-bearing basin to the east. However, separate lithostratigraphic nomenclature for the outcrops and for the subsurface formations have been used (Fig. 4). In the manner of Taylor (1957) and Workum (1978), from 1989 onward, we apply the subsurface stratigraphic nomenclature across the entire province, including the outcrop belt. The regional correlation of time lines—composite and high-frequency sequences and their bounding surfaces, integrated with conodont biostratigraphy—supports the use of one basic set of lithostratigraphic terms across the basin. We provide a discussion of this usage in Wong et al. (2016a).

The cycle hierarchy terminology of Kerans and Fitchen (1995) and Kerans and Kempter (2002) is used herein. This hierarchy proposes that high-frequency cycles (cycles) combine to form cycle sets, while cycle sets combine to form high-frequency sequences (HFSs). HFSs in turn form the building blocks of composite sequences (CSs). Cycle sets form the transgressive and regressive segments within HFSs.

This scheme attempts to be descriptive rather than assign specific durations to different levels of cycle hierarchy. However, an estimate of their durations is: cycles = fifth, HFS = fourth, and CS = third (sensu Mitchum and Van Wagoner 1991). Systems tracts are used to describe the component strata deposited during a full cycle of sea-level rise and fall (recent discussion in Catuneanu et al. 2011).

The evolution of systems tract nomenclature between 1988 and 2000 is summarized in figures 3 and 4 of Catuneanu et al. (2011). We use the following terms to describe the succession of systems tracts associated with a full cycle of relative sea-level rise and fall: lowstand (= lowstand wedge), transgressive, highstand (= early highstand), and falling stage (= lowstand fan, late highstand, forced regressive wedge) system tracts. Equivalent terms are in brackets. The systems tract nomenclature used herein was derived from the following sources: Posamentier and Vail (1988), Van Wagoner et al. (1990), Hunt and Tucker (1992), and Plint and Nummedal (2000). In the current usage, the sequence boundary marks the end of falling relative sea level, capping either the highstand systems tract (HST) or FSST (when developed).

Previous Work

The discovery of a significant Devonian oil field at Leduc in 1947 prompted extensive regional mapping in the Front Ranges by industry (e.g., Fox and Darling 1947, Fox 1951) and government (deWit and McLaren 1950, McLaren 1955).

Fig. 1.

—Palinspastically restored paleogeographic map of the Leduc Formation reefs of Alberta and adjacent British Columbia. The reef distribution approximately represents Woodbend Composite Sequence 3 deposition. The present study area is indicated. Line of section C-C is illustrated on Figure 24; G-G is illustrated on Figure 4.

Fig. 1.

—Palinspastically restored paleogeographic map of the Leduc Formation reefs of Alberta and adjacent British Columbia. The reef distribution approximately represents Woodbend Composite Sequence 3 deposition. The present study area is indicated. Line of section C-C is illustrated on Figure 24; G-G is illustrated on Figure 4.

Fig. 2.

—Distribution of Frasnian outcrops in the present study area, southern Jasper Basin, Alberta. Lines of section are illustrated on the following figures: A–A′ on Figures 5 and 9; B–B′ on Figures 13a, 13b, and 23; C–C on Figure 24.

Fig. 2.

—Distribution of Frasnian outcrops in the present study area, southern Jasper Basin, Alberta. Lines of section are illustrated on the following figures: A–A′ on Figures 5 and 9; B–B′ on Figures 13a, 13b, and 23; C–C on Figure 24.

Early geological mapping in the Jasper area was undertaken by Raymond (1930). Detailed description of the Devonian reef complexes in the area was first published by MacKenzie (1965a, 1965b, 1969) on the northern margin of the Southesk Cairn, and Mountjoy (1965) at Miette. Further descriptions of the Toma Creek margin (Southesk Cairn complex) were presented by Weissenberger and McIlreath (1989), Shields and Hedinger (1990), and Shields and Geldsetzer (1992). Hedinger and Workum (1989a, 1989b) and Workum and Hedinger (1992) described several localities in the South Jasper Basin, including the late Frasnian progradational carbonates at the Nikanassin Range.

Weissenberger et al. (1992) and Potma et al. (2001) presented a sequence stratigraphic interpretation of outcrops south of the present study area. Van Buchem et al. (1996) presented a sequence stratigraphic interpretation of the southwest margin of the Miette reef complex, northwest of our study area. This was further described and expanded by Whalen et al. (2000), Day and Whalen (2005), and Whalen and Day (2008). Results of our work in the current study area were presented in Weissenberger et al. (2013, 2014).

Data and Methodology

The present study builds on this earlier work by applying detailed facies and high-resolution sequence stratigraphic analysis to correlate outcrops in the South Jasper Basin of west-central Alberta. Eighteen measured sections (Appendix 1) along the Rocky Mountain Front Range between Nomad Creek and Sphinx Mountain (Fig. 2) form the data set for the study. These locations are characterized by accessible, vertically and/or laterally extensive exposures of Frasnian strata. At all locations where platform to basin transitions were continuously exposed, flooding surfaces, sequence boundaries, and facies contacts were walked out and/or correlated with photograph panoramas. The study focused on Frasnian strata between the sub-Devonian unconformity and the base of the Famennian. No detailed analysis of the Frasnian–Famennian boundary or Famennian strata was undertaken.

Outcrop section descriptions were made from direct observation, with only a small number of samples taken for thin sections or polished slabs. Depositional cycles, sequences, and their component lithofacies were described. Samples were taken for conodont biostratigraphy, as discussed in Potma et al. (2001) and Wong et al. (2016a). The outcrop “windows,” where very detailed work was undertaken (e.g., Toma Creek, Nikanassin Range), were correlated (by conducting reconnaissance traverses and helicopter overflights) to other stratigraphic sections from one to several kilometers distant.

Table 1.

—Summary table of lithofacies recognized in this study.

Sequence Identification and Correlation

Outcrop section descriptions focused on identifying shallowing-upward cycles and their component lithofacies as building blocks for the sequence stratigraphic interpretation. CS and HFS boundaries, minor and maximum flooding surfaces were especially useful for correlation within the study area. These surfaces, lateral facies changes, and the stacking patterns of depositional cycles were documented with a high degree of confidence. Correlations are supported by conodont biostratigraphy as summarized in Potma et al. (2001), and expanded by Wong et al. (2016a).

Composite and high-frequency sequences were defined stratigraphically based on their basal bounding surfaces: pronounced lateral facies offset, either landward or seaward, stratal geometries, and, when developed, subaerial exposure surfaces (Tables 2, 3). Stratal geometries and cycle stacking patterns were also useful in defining these units. Distinction and correlation of HFS and CS and their component systems tracts are best achieved in bank margin and slope strata, where minor changes in relative sea level are recorded in pronounced facies offset. These offsets are often more diagnostic than variations in stacking patterns observed in platform interior cycles.

Fig. 3.

—Depositional model for Frasnian reefal carbonate platform margins, Alberta (modified from Wendte and Stoakes 1982).

Fig. 3.

—Depositional model for Frasnian reefal carbonate platform margins, Alberta (modified from Wendte and Stoakes 1982).

In outcrop, dolomitization and recrystallization have removed some of the primary textures and subtle exposure features (e.g., rhizoliths). Low-relief karst surfaces could therefore be overlooked. Also, surface weathering can further obscure textures in the outcrops. However, depositional surfaces can generally be walked out; pronounced karst surfaces, facies, and bedding plane geometries, as well as depositional cycles, are easily documented.

SEQUENCE STRATIGRAPHIC FRAMEWORK

The strata between the base of the Givetian Gilwood Member (Watt Mountain Formation) and the top of the Blueridge Member (Graminia Formation) represent a second-order depositional sequence (Wong et al. 1992, Potma et al. 2001; Fig. 4). This represents a major episode of marine carbonate deposition in the Alberta Basin, bracketed by regional unconformities with associated geographically extensive siliciclastic deposits. Due to the presence of the topographically high West Alberta Ridge, the Beaverhill Lake 1 (BHL1), Beaverhill Lake 2 (BHL2), and most of the Beaverhill Lake 3 (BHL3) CS were not deposited in the current study area (Wong et al. 1992, Potma et al. 2001; Fig. 4).

Fig. 4.

—Schematic sequence stratigraphic cross section of the late Givetian to basal Famennian strata of Alberta. Outcrop lithostratigraphic terms are indicated by circled letters. The line of section is shown as G–G′ on Figure 1. An expanded version of this figure is available in the digital version and at sepm.org/Downloads.aspx.

Fig. 4.

—Schematic sequence stratigraphic cross section of the late Givetian to basal Famennian strata of Alberta. Outcrop lithostratigraphic terms are indicated by circled letters. The line of section is shown as G–G′ on Figure 1. An expanded version of this figure is available in the digital version and at sepm.org/Downloads.aspx.

Table 2.

—Third-order (composite) sequences used in this study.

Table 3.

—Fourth-order (high-frequency) sequences recognized in this study and criteria for their identification. An expanded version of this table is available in the digital version and at sepm.org/Downloads.aspx.

Fig. 5.

—Sequence stratigraphic cross section of the uppermost Beaverhill Lake 3 through lower Woodbend 2 Composite Sequences, Toma margin of the Southesk Cairn carbonate complex. The line of section is shown on Figure 2. An expanded version of this figure is available in the digital version and at sepm.org/Downloads.aspx.

Fig. 5.

—Sequence stratigraphic cross section of the uppermost Beaverhill Lake 3 through lower Woodbend 2 Composite Sequences, Toma margin of the Southesk Cairn carbonate complex. The line of section is shown on Figure 2. An expanded version of this figure is available in the digital version and at sepm.org/Downloads.aspx.

Fig. 6.

—WD 1.1 surface at Big Hill, Banff National Park, Alberta. Karsting is represented by red-oxidized rims on breccia clasts. Alteration extends 3.5 m down from this surface.

Fig. 6.

—WD 1.1 surface at Big Hill, Banff National Park, Alberta. Karsting is represented by red-oxidized rims on breccia clasts. Alteration extends 3.5 m down from this surface.

Based partly on the additional work described in this paper, we have modified our previous (CS) subdivision of the second-order depositional sequence. The criteria for these revisions are summarized in Table 2 and described further in Wong et al. (2016b).

The CS are discussed next, in stratigraphic order. By convention, the sequences are named after the basal sequence boundary, and all figures are labeled accordingly.

Beaverhill Lake 3 CS

The BHL3 CS comprises the oldest Frasnian strata in the study area. It unconformably overlies Cambrian strata (Lynx Group). Topography on the sub-Devonian unconformity is apparent from Cardinal Headwaters to the south when the top of the sequence is used as a datum (Fig. 5; line of section A to A in Fig. 2). For example, the unconformity is at least 10 m higher at the Tomad section. Consequently, the BHL3 is interpreted to be absent at Tomad and variable in thickness along the remainder of the transect due to topography on the unconformity. MacKenzie (1965a) interpreted up to 50 m of relief on the sub-Devonian unconformity in the area.

Only one BHL3 HFS occurs in the study area, representing the HST of the CS. It is less than 10 m thick over most of the study area, consisting of thin shoaling-upward cycles of Amphipora–bulbous stromatoporoid wackestones and packstones to fenestral or cryptalgal mudstones. It has a more robust bulbous stromatoporoid fauna at Cardinal Crossing. This represents open lagoon conditions compared to the restricted lagoon to tidal flat environments present across the rest of the study area in the BHL3 CS.

Several thin siltstone beds occur in the BHL3 CS, generally in the lower part of the interval (e.g., at Mt. Mackenzie North and Cardinal Crossing; Fig. 5). This is indicative of active local erosion and redeposition of Cambrian siltstones during the CS, or possibly transport of silt eroded from Ordovician–Silurian strata further west.

Fig. 7.

—The WD1.5 exposure surface, Mt. MacKenzie, East Spur. a) Caliche at the WD1.5 surface with bleached packstone to grainstone of the uppermost WD1.4 penetrated by dissolution vugs filled with greenish argillaceous mudstone. b) Laminated dolosiltstone (B) and cryptalgal laminated mudstone (A) overlying the soil illustrated in Figure 7a. (Photos by D. Mans.)

Fig. 7.

—The WD1.5 exposure surface, Mt. MacKenzie, East Spur. a) Caliche at the WD1.5 surface with bleached packstone to grainstone of the uppermost WD1.4 penetrated by dissolution vugs filled with greenish argillaceous mudstone. b) Laminated dolosiltstone (B) and cryptalgal laminated mudstone (A) overlying the soil illustrated in Figure 7a. (Photos by D. Mans.)

Woodbend 1 CS

The Woodbend 1 (WD1) CS consists of four HFS in the study area (Fig. 5). Based on regional correlations (summarized in Wong et al. 2016b), the WD1.1 HFS was deposited only in the Alberta subsurface. Consequently, the WD1.2 HFS is the oldest HFS of the WD1 CS deposited in the study area, and the WD1.2 surface coincides with the WD1.1.

The base of the WD1 CS is characterized at Mt. Mackenzie East Spur by the top of thin-bedded, crinkly laminated to stromatolitic mudstones, capping light gray Amphipora wackestones to packstones. A similar succession occurs at Mt. Mackenzie North. Southwest of the study area, at Big Hill, a red iron-oxide-stained breccia, up to 0.5 m thick, composed of centimeter-sized lithoclasts, is developed over cryptalgal laminated mudstone of the underlying BHL3 (Fig. 6). The zone of brecciation extends downward over 3.5 m. These fabrics are interpreted to result from the effects of subaerial exposure and karstification due to relative sea-level fall.

In the Nikanassin Range, a bleached cryptalgal mudstone occurs 5.5 m above the sub-Devonian unconformity (Mt. Berry). It is overlain by, in vertical succession, dark Amphipora– bulbous stromatoporoid wackestones to packstones, stromatoporoid–coral wackestones, and argillaceous mudstones. We interpret the top of the bleached mudstone to represent the subaerially exposed BHL3 CS. Deposition of the overlying fossiliferous strata was due to marine transgression.

WD1 TST: The WD1.2 through the lower part of the WD1.4 HFS constitute the transgressive systems tract (TST) of the CS. The WD1.2 is 5 to 10 m thick in the study area, consisting of thin cycles of Amphipora wackestone to packstone, interbedded with fenestral and cryptalgal mudstones. Bulbous stromatoporoid wackestones rarely occur south of Toma Creek, but they are more abundant to the north. This suggests more open-marine conditions northwest of Toma Creek.

The WD1.3 HFS forms the bulk of the WD1 TST. Its base consists of a siltstone sharply overlying burrowed mudstone (Nomad Creek) and the sharp top of a 1-m-thick cryptalgal mudstone (Mt. Mackenzie North). The WD1.3 consists primarily of thin cycles dominated by bulbous stromatoporoid and Amphipora wackestones to packstones. More fenestral and cryptalgal mudstones occur in most of the transect (Fig. 5). At Cardinal Headwaters, however, the HFS is composed mostly of peloidal dolowackestones and packstones. This reflects a deeper, subtidal lagoon environment, compared to a more restricted lagoon to peritidal environment in the south.

Fig. 8.

—Woodbend Sequence 1–2 succession at Cardinal Headwaters. Flat to gently dipping foreslope strata of the WD1 are overlain by resistant, grainy skeletal–peloidal WD2 grainstones. The latter constitute a lowstand wedge at the base of the WD2. Prominent sigmoid foresets are observed on the southeast (left) side of the wedge. An expanded version of this figure is available in the digital version and at sepm.org/Downloads.aspx.

Fig. 8.

—Woodbend Sequence 1–2 succession at Cardinal Headwaters. Flat to gently dipping foreslope strata of the WD1 are overlain by resistant, grainy skeletal–peloidal WD2 grainstones. The latter constitute a lowstand wedge at the base of the WD2. Prominent sigmoid foresets are observed on the southeast (left) side of the wedge. An expanded version of this figure is available in the digital version and at sepm.org/Downloads.aspx.

Fig. 9.

—Sequence stratigraphic cross section of the southern margin of the Frasnian Jasper Basin, from Nomad Creek to the headwaters of the Cardinal River. The line of section is shown on Figure 2. An expanded version of this figure is available in the digital version and at sepm.org/Downloads.aspx.

Fig. 9.

—Sequence stratigraphic cross section of the southern margin of the Frasnian Jasper Basin, from Nomad Creek to the headwaters of the Cardinal River. The line of section is shown on Figure 2. An expanded version of this figure is available in the digital version and at sepm.org/Downloads.aspx.

Fig. 10.

—Photomontage of the Toma Creek margin, Southesk Cairn carbonate complex (photo by J. Fabian).

Fig. 10.

—Photomontage of the Toma Creek margin, Southesk Cairn carbonate complex (photo by J. Fabian).

The upper WD1.3 consists of thin cycles of bulbous stromatoporoid–Amphipora wackestones to packstones across the southern part of the study area. By contrast, peloid–skeletal wackestones to packstones were deposited from Cardinal Headwaters to Cardinal Crossing. This represents deepening and continuously deeper subtidal conditions toward the shelf margin.

Fig. 11.

—Upper WD2 to lower WD3 stratigraphy, Nomad Creek. Partly covered interval is coral–crinoid wackestone representing the MFS of the WD2 composite sequence. The yellowish weathering reflects silt eroding from the WD3.1 sequence boundary.

Fig. 11.

—Upper WD2 to lower WD3 stratigraphy, Nomad Creek. Partly covered interval is coral–crinoid wackestone representing the MFS of the WD2 composite sequence. The yellowish weathering reflects silt eroding from the WD3.1 sequence boundary.

Fig. 12.

—Interbedded euxinic shale and mudstone of the Duvernay Formation, deposited during the WD3 HFS. Note, on the slope in the background, Ireton Formation basin fill with the rusty-weathering “silt doublet” (base WI2.1) near the top. The Famennian Wabamun Group forms the cliff at the uppermost part of the photo.

Fig. 12.

—Interbedded euxinic shale and mudstone of the Duvernay Formation, deposited during the WD3 HFS. Note, on the slope in the background, Ireton Formation basin fill with the rusty-weathering “silt doublet” (base WI2.1) near the top. The Famennian Wabamun Group forms the cliff at the uppermost part of the photo.

The remainder of the WD2 TST consists of the lower part of the WD 1.4 HFS. Its base is sharp, characterized by the following juxtaposition of lithofacies: Bulbous stromatoporoid–Amphipora wackestones overlie crinkly laminated mudstones of the uppermost WD1.3 HFS at Mt. Mackenzie (East Spur); burrowed, unfossiliferous mudstones occur above WD1.3 Amphipora wackestones to packstones at Toma South; grainy peloidal–skeletal packstones and bulbous stromatoporoid wackestones are overlain by muddy coral wackestones north of Mt. Mackenzie. These abrupt changes of lithofacies across the WD1.4 HFS surface represent a significant transgression at the margin of the Southesk Cairn complex, which caused a southward retreat of the shallow-water platform.

Peloidal–skeletal packstones occur in the mid-WD1.4 HFS at Toma South and Tomad. The packstones are overlain by coral wackestones to packstones and peloidal mudstones to wackestones from Mt. Mackenzie south to Nomad Creek (Fig. 5). These strata represent a backstepped shoal margin complex reflecting both the maximum transgression of the WD1.4 HFS and the WD1 CS itself (dashed green line, Fig. 5).

WD1 HST: The upper WD1.4 represents the base of the WD1 HST. Peloidal–skeletal grainstones occur in this interval at the Mt. Mackenzie sections, passing southward into bulbous stromatoporoid–Amphipora wackestones to packstones with rare fenestral to cryptalgal mudstones. The distribution of these lithofacies supports the interpretation of a platform shoal margin between Mt. Mackenzie (East Spur) and Cardinal Crossing, with an open lagoon to the south. Overall, progradation in the upper WD1.4 was very rapid after the maximum transgression in the middle of the HFS (WD1 MFS).

The base of the WD1.5 HFS at Mt. Mackenzie East Spur occurs at the top of a peloidal packstone to grainstone, bleached almost white and penetrated by dissolution vugs extending 0.2 m downward (Fig. 7a). The vugs are filled with green to rusty weathering argillaceous mudstone. This vuggy interval is overlain by a rusty siltstone and stromatolitic mudstone (Fig. 7b). At Nomad Creek, the base WD1.5 has up to 0.3 m of relief filled with orange siltstone. These textures reflect subaerial exposure of the platform.

At Cardinal Crossing, the HFS consists of: peloidal packstone to grainstones at the base, overlain by cycles of bulbous stromatoporoid–Amphipora wackestones to packstones, and cryptalgal mudstones at the top. Coral and lamellar stromatoporoid dolowackestones of the WD1.4 and WD1.5 overlie the WD1.2 platform at both Cardinal Headwaters sections. These units thin and become muddier to the south.

WD1.4 through WD1.5 HFS strata reflect progradational stratal architecture. The shelf margin at the end of the WD1 CS is interpreted to have been between Cardinal Crossing and Cardinal Headwaters, although it is not exposed. The thinner and muddier coral beds south of Cardinal Headwaters reflect basinal conditions between the Headwaters and Cardinal Crossing (Fig. 5).

In the Nikanassin Range, between Mt. Berry and Mt. Gregg, the WD1 consists of nodular mudstones to wackestones with a fauna of lamellar stromatoporoids and corals at the base, and crinoids and brachiopods above. These indicate a lower foreslope, succeeded by a basinal environment of deposition. Its component HFSs have not been defined.

Woodbend 2 CS

The Woodbend 2 (WD2) CS consists of three HFSs, forming three distinct systems tracts—lowstand systems tract (LST), TST, and HST. These elements are identifiable in the platform interior and at the platform margin. The entire WD2 is in a basinal setting in the northern part of the study area (Nikanassin Range), including black, euxinic limestones and shales (e.g., Mt. Gregg section). Compositional variations observed in these sediments, in organic matter and mineralogy, were used to broadly define systems tracts in (basinal parts of) the study area.

The base of the CS is well expressed at Mt. Mackenzie East Spur, 93 m above the sub-Devonian unconformity (Fig. 5). A bleached peloidal grainstone with tabular stromatoporoids is overlain by a thin siltstone, capped by another bleached grainstone. The same interval has cryptalgal and fenestral mudstones capping cycles of burrowed peloidal packstone and Amphipora wackestones to packstones (uppermost WD1 CS) at Toma Creek and Toma South, respectively. The bleaching of subtidal lithofacies, and the presence of a siltstone suggest an episode of subaerial exposure, interrupting carbonate deposition.

WD2 LST: The WD2.1 HFS comprises the bulk of the WD2 LST. In the basal WD2.1, a lens of resistant carbonate, 15 to 20 m thick, forms the basal WD2 CS (Cardinal Headwaters sections; Fig. 5; photograph in Fig. 8). The resistant carbonate consists of a lower laminated peloidal–skeletal grainstone, overlain by similar grainy lithofacies interbedded with bulbous stromatoporoid packstone. These are capped by a resistant peloidal packstone to grainstone. The dip of the basal contact is variable; it is subhorizontal to the northwest (right) and abruptly increases to 20° southeastward. Coincident with this dip change, there is a thickening of the overlying HFS from 1 to 25 m over a 50 m distance. When traced further basinward (southeast), this HFS thickens to 45 m, and the basal contact becomes conformable but sharp. Northward, the erosive surface is horizontal to subhorizontal and is overlain by a 1- to 2-m-thick, coarse-grained peloidal grainstone. This thin grainstone layer is exposed over an area of approximately 0.7 km2 northwest of the lens.

Sigmoid foresets of grainstone toe into horizontal bottomsets at the southwest edge of the resistant lens. Generally, the top is a massive grainstone containing molds of robust cylindrical stromatoporoids, grading laterally into peloidal packstone with channelized grainstone.

Fig. 13.

—Interpreted photo-montages of the Frasnian outcrops on the Nikanassin Range, west-central Alberta: a) exposure on the wall of the cirque immediately north of Mt. Berry (Mt. Berry to Mt. Berry North); b) transect from Mt. Berry to the Mt. Gregg measured section (far northwest spur of Mt. Gregg). The line of section is shown on Figure 2. An expanded version of this figure is available in the digital version and at sepm.org/Downloads.aspx.

Fig. 13.

—Interpreted photo-montages of the Frasnian outcrops on the Nikanassin Range, west-central Alberta: a) exposure on the wall of the cirque immediately north of Mt. Berry (Mt. Berry to Mt. Berry North); b) transect from Mt. Berry to the Mt. Gregg measured section (far northwest spur of Mt. Gregg). The line of section is shown on Figure 2. An expanded version of this figure is available in the digital version and at sepm.org/Downloads.aspx.

These strata are interpreted as a high-energy carbonate shoal, the WD2.1 HFS an in situ lowstand. It was deposited in the basin, below the WD1 shelf margin. Based on the juxtaposition of facies, a sea-level fall of approximately 20 m is inferred. Field relationships, predominantly the discrete shape of the lens (disappearing to the southwest), suggest it is separated from the WD1 margin by basinal deposits that do not crop out.

Previous authors interpreted this and other resistant-weathering, lens-shaped features (at a similar stratigraphic position) in the area as reefs or downslope mounds (MacKenzie 1965a, 1965b; Weissenberger and McIlreath 1989; Workum 1989; Workum and Hedinger 1992; Shields and Geldsetzer 1992).

WD2 LST–TST Transition: The remainder of the WD2.1 HFS was deposited landward of the underlying HFS and represents the upper part of the LST and the transition into the TST of the WD2 CS. At Cardinal Crossing, bulbous stromatoporoid wackestones to packstones overlie the sequence boundary. These pass southeastward (landward) into wackestones to packstones dominated by Amphipora (Fig. 5). The transition from open to restricted lagoon environments migrated landward during the deposition of the HFS, reflecting progressive drowning of the platform.

At Cardinal Headwaters, beds above the WD2.1 lowstand consist of branching coral and lamellar stromatoporoid wackestone, Stromatactis mudstone, and peloidal wackestone. This facies succession is interpreted to mark a transgression above the underlying shallower-water deposits.

Between Toma South and Nomad Creek, the basal surface of the WD2.2 is sharp, with 0.5 m of siltstone overlying undulating, erosional topography at Tomad. At Toma South and Nomad Creek, the same surface is the top of a light gray mudstone with a bleached appearance.

The HFS south of Toma South is dominated by stacked cycles of bulbous stromatoporoid–Amphipora wackestones to packstones. At Tomad, a thick succession of coral–stromatoporoid wackestone to packstone occurs in the lower WD2.2. These are interpreted as deeper subtidal deposits, reflecting increased accommodation and/or lower sedimentation rates, causing unfilled topography on the platform.

The WD2.2 HFS consists of thick cycles of skeletal grainstone, massive stromatoporoid boundstone, and peloidal and coral–stromatoporoid wackestones to packstones at Toma South (Fig. 9). These represent intertonguing reefal and foreslope material at the aggradational platform margin.

Coral wackestones and peloidal packstones to wackestones extend northwest from Toma Creek to the Cardinal North section, where they grade into dark gray argillaceous limestones and shales (Fig. 9). These in turn pass northwest into black, euxinic shale and limestone at the Cardinal Waterfall and Crossing sections. These are the oldest black shale deposits in the study area.

The WD2.3 surface at Tomad has crinkly laminated to fenestral mudstones sharply overlying bulbous stromatoporoid–Amphipora wackestones to packstones of the uppermost WD2.2 HFS. The surface displays 0.1 m of relief. At Toma South, the correlative surface is the sharp top of a stromatoporoid boundstone. These stratigraphic relationships suggest minor subaerial exposure at the HFS boundary.

Immediately above, the basal WD2.3 HFS consists of nodular coral–crinoid and coral–stromatoporoid wackestones to packstones (at Nomad and Tomad, respectively; Fig. 9). These lithofacies represent a mid-foreslope environment, deposited in 10 to 20 m of water, marking a significant drowning of the platform. The MFS of the WD2 CS is placed at this transgression. It coincides with the second-order MFS.

WD2 HST: The remainder of the WD2.3 HFS consists of thick cycles of stromatoporoid boundstone and skeletal grainstone, representing reef and reef flat environments. These form the HST of the WD2 CS. As in the underlying HFS, the WD2.3 margin is exposed at Toma South. Between Toma South and Mt. Mackenzie East Spur, coral wackestones to packstones were deposited. These change facies into dark gray nodular mudstones and black mudstone and shale toward the Cardinal Waterfall. These strata represent foreslope deposits passing northwest into a deep basinal environment.

In the upper WD2.3, peloidal mud–wackestones occur downdip of muddy fossil wackestones between Toma Creek and the Mt. Mackenzie East Spur section. The occurrence of coarser sediment downslope of muddier lithofacies suggests a (grainstone margin) source for the sediment along strike from the illustrated exposures (indicated by the onlapping arrows on Fig. 9).

Woodbend 3 CS

The Woodbend 3 (WD3) CS forms the main reef margin in the study area, and it is well exposed at Toma Creek (Fig. 10). It is made up of two HFSs, divided into a TST and HST.

The expression of the basal sequence boundary varies across the study area. A well-developed siltstone weathers out of the reefal carbonates on the WD3.1 surface at Nomad Creek (Fig. 11). Thick cycles of reef flat sands and stromatoporoid rubble weather out to form vugs and occur both above and below the silt at the boundary. The silt marks a significant hiatus in reef deposition.

WD3 LST: A prominent tongue of light gray, dolomitized skeletal grainstone forms the lowermost WD3 CS at Toma Creek, resting sharply on coral wackestones of the uppermost WD2 (number 1 in Fig. 10). More than 12 m thick toward the platform (southeast), the grainstone unit thins gradually and terminates 200 m to the northwest against the WD3.1 surface. The grainstones are interpreted to represent a shelf margin environment; the wackestones represent a middle foreslope environment. However, landward, and at the same stratigraphic level (at Toma South), interbedded massive stromatoporoid packstones to grainstones and lamellar-tabular stromatoporoid–coral were deposited (Fig. 9). Consequently, the WD3.1 margin at Toma Creek is interpreted to be younger than the WD2 margin at Toma South. It represents a shelf margin shoal onlapping the WD2 margin, formed due to a relative fall in sea level.

At the Mt. Mackenzie East Spur section, basinward of the WD3.1 shoal margin, peloidal–skeletal wackestones to packstones are interbedded with dark gray argillaceous mudstone. The peloidal beds are interpreted as margin-derived foreslope sands, sourced from the thin WD3.1 shoal margin during the LST to early TST. They change facies to basinal strata at Mt. Mackenzie East Spur (Fig. 9).

A small mound of stromatoporoid boundstone occurs at the basinward edge of the lowermost tongue of the WD3 CS margin at Toma Creek (number 1 in Fig. 10). It is interpreted to have initiated during the rise of relative sea level above the sequence boundary and drowned during the subsequent transgression.

At the southeast end of the Toma outcrop, 20 m of thick reef margin boundstone and grainstone pass laterally into coral and peloidal wackestones to packstones. This represents a transition from the WD3.1 reef margin northwest into a proximal foreslope setting.

WD3 TST: The base of the WD3.2 HFS at Toma South and Tomad is composed of skeletal grainstones sharply overlying thinly bedded, mud to grainstones with fenestral fabrics of the WD2.3 below the sequence boundary. This contact reflects marine transgression above the WD3.1 surface in the TST of the CS. The 30-m-thick interval of grainstones and associated stromatoporoid boundstones from Toma Creek southward represents reef margin to reef flat environments. At Toma Creek, the upper 10-m section of grainstone progrades about 50 m over peloidal packstones and coral wackestones to packstones. The latter represent a proximal foreslope depositional environment.

The uppermost WD3.2 consists of stromatoporoid boundstone and skeletal grainstone at Toma South, passing into Amphipora wacke-stones and fenestral mudstones to the southeast (Nomad). This reflects a several-hundred-meter retreat of the platform margin relative to the lower WD3.2 (Fig. 9).

Fig. 14.

—a) Photo showing medium-bedded ramp margin intraclast grainstones from the WD4 composite sequence between Mt. Berry and Mt. Gregg. b) Close-up of this lithology, showing the dark gray subrounded intraclasts with white interparticle dolomite (early burial?) cement. This lithology forms the bulk of the ramp margin grainstones at the Nikanassin Range.

Fig. 14.

—a) Photo showing medium-bedded ramp margin intraclast grainstones from the WD4 composite sequence between Mt. Berry and Mt. Gregg. b) Close-up of this lithology, showing the dark gray subrounded intraclasts with white interparticle dolomite (early burial?) cement. This lithology forms the bulk of the ramp margin grainstones at the Nikanassin Range.

The thick boundstone–grainstone succession in the WD3.2 HFS is interpreted as a well-developed reef to reef flat environment. Coral wackestone lithofacies extend landward at the Toma Creek margin in the mid-WD3.2.

The lowermost WD3.2 HFS at Toma Creek consists of a prominent unit of light gray skeletal grainstone and stromatoporoid boundstone. Twenty-five meters thick, it sharply overlies dark gray coral wackestone at the northwest end of the Toma Creek outcrop (number 2 in Fig. 10). A prominent siltstone overlies the HFS boundary at the Tomad section. The basal carbonate is interpreted to be basinally restricted, onlapping the WD3.2 surface between Toma Creek and Toma South. The siltstone reflects an interruption in carbonate deposition at the HFS boundary.

Fig. 15.

—a) Photo showing interbeds (25 cm thick) of mainly sand-sized, peloidal-rounded intraclast grainstone overlain by large intraclastic (up to 10 cm wide) packstone with a matrix similar to the underlying bed. The large intraclasts are composed of early cemented, either dark gray wackestone–mudstone or medium gray peloidal-rounded intraclast grainstone. The two interbedded lithologies form a basin floor/toe of slope unit, 4-m-thick unit, 30 m above the base of Mt. Berry section (extreme left, Fig. 13a). These grainstone–packstone debris sheets were derived from differentially cemented upslope grainy margins, with lower foreslope wackestone–mudstone lithologies incorporated during sediment gravity flows. b) A large intraclast packstone. Hopkins (1977) referred to a similar lithology as “breccia beds.”

Fig. 15.

—a) Photo showing interbeds (25 cm thick) of mainly sand-sized, peloidal-rounded intraclast grainstone overlain by large intraclastic (up to 10 cm wide) packstone with a matrix similar to the underlying bed. The large intraclasts are composed of early cemented, either dark gray wackestone–mudstone or medium gray peloidal-rounded intraclast grainstone. The two interbedded lithologies form a basin floor/toe of slope unit, 4-m-thick unit, 30 m above the base of Mt. Berry section (extreme left, Fig. 13a). These grainstone–packstone debris sheets were derived from differentially cemented upslope grainy margins, with lower foreslope wackestone–mudstone lithologies incorporated during sediment gravity flows. b) A large intraclast packstone. Hopkins (1977) referred to a similar lithology as “breccia beds.”

The middle and upper parts of the WD3.2 HFS consist of stromatoporoid boundstones and skeletal grainstones at Toma South and Tomad. Lateral equivalents at Toma Creek are, initially, a cycle of peloidal packstones overlain by stromatoporoid boundstone, and then by a unit of coral–lamellar stromatoporoid wackestones. At the Nomad section, coral–stromatoporoid wackestones to packstones overlie the WD3.2 surface. These relationships reflect retrogradation of the platform margin above the lowstand in the basal WD3.2 at Toma Creek, as well as drowning of the platform at Nomad. This is followed by aggradation of the reef margin at Toma South and progradation (followed by aggradation) at Nomad.

Fig. 16.

—Upper WD4 to WI1.1 strata at the Nikanassin Range. a) Truncation of underlying clinoforms by the WD4.2.1 surface, overlain by a wedge of onlapping/downlapping intraclastic grainstones (positions 5–8, Fig. 13a). b) Massive grainstone to boundstone margin of the WI1 above the erosional WI1.1 sequence boundary. Dips above the orange arrows represent true dip; shallower dips above the green arrow represent a change in progradation direction; dipping WI1.2 surface cuts down into the WI1.1 (position 13, Fig, 13a and far right of Fig. 13b). c) WI1.1 sequence boundary tracks the basinward-dipping surface of uppermost WD4. Wedge of grainstone between the sequence boundary and the trangressive surface (TS) represents an in situ lowstand deposited during rising sea level.

Fig. 16.

—Upper WD4 to WI1.1 strata at the Nikanassin Range. a) Truncation of underlying clinoforms by the WD4.2.1 surface, overlain by a wedge of onlapping/downlapping intraclastic grainstones (positions 5–8, Fig. 13a). b) Massive grainstone to boundstone margin of the WI1 above the erosional WI1.1 sequence boundary. Dips above the orange arrows represent true dip; shallower dips above the green arrow represent a change in progradation direction; dipping WI1.2 surface cuts down into the WI1.1 (position 13, Fig, 13a and far right of Fig. 13b). c) WI1.1 sequence boundary tracks the basinward-dipping surface of uppermost WD4. Wedge of grainstone between the sequence boundary and the trangressive surface (TS) represents an in situ lowstand deposited during rising sea level.

Fig. 17.

—WI1 ramp margin geometries, southeast flank of Mt. Berry, Nikanassin Range. The solid triangles mark the facies change from foreslope grainstone and packstone into reef margin boundstone of the upper WI1.1 (see Fig. 16c). The WI1.2.1 cycle set occurs immediately above, capping the reef margin boundstone, indicated by the white arrows. The open triangles above indicate the base of the WI1.2.2 cycle set, with onlapping/downlapping package of peloidal–skeletal packstones immediately above. These are interpreted as bypassed foreslope sands oriented shelf-parallel (striking out of the plane of the outcrop).

Fig. 17.

—WI1 ramp margin geometries, southeast flank of Mt. Berry, Nikanassin Range. The solid triangles mark the facies change from foreslope grainstone and packstone into reef margin boundstone of the upper WI1.1 (see Fig. 16c). The WI1.2.1 cycle set occurs immediately above, capping the reef margin boundstone, indicated by the white arrows. The open triangles above indicate the base of the WI1.2.2 cycle set, with onlapping/downlapping package of peloidal–skeletal packstones immediately above. These are interpreted as bypassed foreslope sands oriented shelf-parallel (striking out of the plane of the outcrop).

Dips from the Toma reef margin into the foreslope are relatively gentle (from left to right on Fig. 10). This may be because the Toma margin outcrop is not exactly parallel to the maximum dip direction.

Northwest of Toma Creek, the WD3 consists of coral–lamellar stromatoporoid and peloidal wackestones to packstones—interpreted as in situ foreslope and allochthonous carbonate sands, respectively (Fig. 9). These thin and change facies into dark basinal mudstones and shales on the north side of Mt. Mackenzie. The black mudstones and euxinic shale are interbedded at a submeter scale (e.g., Cardinal Crossing; Fig. 12).

This interval, the MFS of the WD3.2 HFS, is interpreted to be the WD3 MFS. The MFS is expressed in changes in the elemental composition of the euxinic (Duvernay Formation) sediment, derived from X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analyses. Enrichment in silica, up to 40% of several samples, occurs 9 m below the top of the Cardinal Crossing section. A simultaneous paucity of zirconium (relative to a calculated baseline) occurs in the same samples. Zirconium is an indicator of detrital quartz. Hence, silica enrichment, but with a lack of detrital (terrigenous) input, suggests the silica is biogenic, after radiolaria—and it is interpreted to reflect a transgressive maximum.

The WD3 portion of the euxinic basin fill is well exposed at Mt. Gregg, grading up into beds of coral and peloidal wackestone to packstone. This reflects the basinal to foreslope setting of the WD3 CS along the Nikanassin Range. Time-equivalent shallow-water carbonates are not exposed on the southern part of the range.

Woodbend 4 CS

The Woodbend 4 (WD4) CS is the oldest Frasnian CS that is well developed at both the northern margin of the Southesk Cairn complex and in the Nikanassin range (Fig. 2). It contains two HFSs and displays three distinct systems tracts: an LST, TST, and HST. For the sake of clarity, descriptions of the WD4 and Winterburn 1 (WI1) Frasnian CSs will be given separately, by area.

Southesk Cairn: The base of the WD4 CS is a sharp surface at Toma South. Stromatoporoid boundstones to skeletal grainstones of the uppermost WD3 highstand are eroded to form a 1.5-m-thick rubble zone. The erosion is interpreted to have occurred during subaerial exposure of the platform. At Tomad, the surface is sharp, but it occurs within stacked cycles of Amphipora wackestones and fenestral mudstones. These cycles thin toward and thicken above the interpreted sequence boundary. This suggests decreasing accommodation below and increasing accommodation above the surface.

The sequence boundary is placed within a foreslope succession between Toma South and Cardinal North. Enrichment in zirconium and silica—observed in XRD and XRF data—occurs at the top of the Duvernay Formation at Cardinal Crossing. This is interpreted as increased terrigenous input at the WD4 sequence boundary.

WD4 LST—The basal WD4.1 HFS between Toma Creek and Mt. Mackenzie is interpreted as the LST of the CS. It consists of a wedge of coral–lamellar stromatoporoid wackestones deposited above a similar WD3 succession. It passes basinward into variably organic nodular mudstones and shale from the East Spur section northward.

WD4 TST—In the initial TST of the WD4, skeletal–peloidal packstone to grainstone cycles developed in the WD4.1 HFS at Tomad, grading southeast into cycles of bulbous stromatoporoid–Amphipora wackestones to packstones and fenestral mudstones toward Nomad Creek. The poorly exposed WD4.1 HFS platform margin was located immediately landward of the Toma South outcrop. A thick lagoon to tidal flat succession developed at Nomad.

The base of the WD4.2 HFS is also a sharp surface on the platform between the Tomad and Nomad sections. At the former, the WD4.2 sequence boundary displays a 1 to 2 m, pink-colored altered zone with a terra rosa character, infiltrated by yellowish silt. At the latter, a 0.5-m-thick siltstone sharply overlies bulbous stromatoporoid–Amphipora wackestones to packstones. These stratigraphic relationships reflect exposure of the platform at the HFS boundary.

The WD4.2 HFS boundary is overlain by peloidal–skeletal grainstones, succeeded by an interval of grainy Amphipora wackestones to packstones at Tomad or fenestral mudstones and bulbous stromatoporoid–Amphipora wackestones to packstones at Nomad. These represent shoal margin to tidal flat environments in the lower WD4.2, spanning the two sections.

A succession of crinoid–coral wackestone in the mid-upper WD4.2 HFS is present at the Tomad section. This represents the MFS of the WD4. The coeval skeletal grainstone belt retreated up to 1 km southeast.

WD4 HST—Thin skeletal grainstones are present in the uppermost WD4.2 HFS from Nomad to just north of Toma South. They represent the poorly developed HST of the WD4 CS. The grainstones prograded more than 3 km north of the main WD4.2 shelf margin.

Nikanassin Range: Upper Frasnian outcrops in the Nikanassin Range consist of several kilometers of continuous exposures (line of section B–B′ in Fig. 2; Fig. 13a, b). These are primarily a progradational carbonate shelf. The excellent exposures allow very detailed reconstruction of the depositional history, to the cycle-set level (e.g., WD4.1.1, WD4.1.2, etc.).

Coarse peloidal–skeletal packstones of the WD4 CS sharply overlie green–gray nodular mudstones of the uppermost WD3. This surface is interpreted to represent a CS boundary in a foreslope environment. No LST is defined at this locality.

Fig. 18.

—Overview of late Winterburn Group stratigraphy, Cardinal River valley. Outer shelf WI1 and WI2 carbonates overlie basinal Duvernay and Ireton formations (WD2 through WI1 equivalents). Intermittent silty basin fill is apparent in both sequences, as is the “pinnacle” reef in the WI2. The Frasnian–Famennian boundary is roughly at the base of the Wabamun 1 composite sequence. The latter is dominated by shallow marine to coastal plain siliciclastics. The measured section is the Cardinal Waterfall (photo by J. Fabian). An expanded version of this figure is available in the digital version and at sepm.org/Downloads.aspx.

Fig. 18.

—Overview of late Winterburn Group stratigraphy, Cardinal River valley. Outer shelf WI1 and WI2 carbonates overlie basinal Duvernay and Ireton formations (WD2 through WI1 equivalents). Intermittent silty basin fill is apparent in both sequences, as is the “pinnacle” reef in the WI2. The Frasnian–Famennian boundary is roughly at the base of the Wabamun 1 composite sequence. The latter is dominated by shallow marine to coastal plain siliciclastics. The measured section is the Cardinal Waterfall (photo by J. Fabian). An expanded version of this figure is available in the digital version and at sepm.org/Downloads.aspx.

WD4 TST—Massive skeletal/intraclastic grainstones comprise the lower WD4, with the intraclasts varying in size from 1 to 5 mm (Fig. 14). They are ubiquitous in the foreslope setting of the Nikanassin exposures and initially display aggradational to slightly progradational architecture in the WD4 (Fig. 13a, numbers 1 and 2). The aggrading bank margin is indicated by the subvertical red-dashed arrow, tracking the approximate shelf break position, to location 1. “Normal” regression (Catuneanu et al. 2011) occurs to location 2a.

Downslope, dark gray coral–lamellar stromatoporoid wackestones to packstones overlie the basal (WD4.1 HFS) intraclastic packstones. These form a thick set of southeasterly dipping beds (purple on Fig. 13a). They grade updip into skeletal–intraclastic packstones to grainstones and downdip into nodular argillaceous mudstones (Fig. 15). The latter are mostly eroded and scree-covered.

Dipping beds of WD4 peloidal–intraclastic packstone overlie the coralline wackestones (orange–brown in Fig. 13a). These are overlain by resistant light gray skeletal–intraclastic grainstones of the uppermost WD4.1.1 (cycle set). The packstones were deposited during highstand progradation of the shelf (Fig. 13a, number 2). The skeletal–intraclastic grainstones shifted rapidly basinward at the same time.

From locations 2 to 3, steep (20°) upper slope foresets are truncated (location 2a), representing a relative sea-level fall of about 10 m, which resulted in the collapse of the shelf margin by slumping. Postcollapse progradation continued until a relative sea-level fall to location 3 ended WD4.1.1 deposition and initiated WD4.1.2 lowstand deposition. The bulk of the WD4.1.2 consists of a tabular body of skeletal–intraclastic grainstone overlying a thick succession of peloidal–intraclastic packstones (Fig. 13a, numbers 3 to 5).

The subhorizontal section of the WD4.1.2 surface, between locations 2 and 3, is irregular (karsted?) and overlain by two boulders with internal stratification, indicating early cementation. The WD4.1.2 corresponds to the basal surface of forced regression (sensu Hunt and Tucker 1992), marking the onset of the FSST. From locations 3 to 4, the shelf edge was initially progradational, followed by progradation with aggradation (dashed arrows). From location 4 to 5, the shelf edge trajectory is subhorizontal, signaling continued progradation. From location 5 to 6, well-rounded intraclasts of very coarse sand to granule size form a dipping grainstone layer (location 5) that extends down to the lower slope. Shelf strata (subhorizontally bedded) become progressively thinner basinward (left), and the surface is onlapped by younger strata following a downward shift of relative sea level (location 6). The dipping strata between locations 5 and 6 are interpreted to represent the erosion of the antecedent shelf edge as relative sea level gradually fell to location 7. Following this, the system prograded to location 7, where a second, more abrupt downward shift initiated LST deposition of the WD4.2 (Fig. 13a).

Fig. 19.

—Close-up of the WI2 bioherm in the Cardinal River valley (the “Cardinal mound”). “A” denotes an apparent “satellite” buildup landward of the main reef; “B” indicates where marine-reworked silts onlap the upper part of the reef, just above the WI3.1 sequence boundary; “C” marks the position of the intraclast breccia in the lower Wabamun Group (see Fig. 21 below). The oncolite horizon occurs 38 m below, where the arrow indicates the Wabamun 1.1 sequence boundary (photo by J. Fabian). An expanded version of this figure is available in the digital version and at sepm.org/Downloads.aspx.

Fig. 19.

—Close-up of the WI2 bioherm in the Cardinal River valley (the “Cardinal mound”). “A” denotes an apparent “satellite” buildup landward of the main reef; “B” indicates where marine-reworked silts onlap the upper part of the reef, just above the WI3.1 sequence boundary; “C” marks the position of the intraclast breccia in the lower Wabamun Group (see Fig. 21 below). The oncolite horizon occurs 38 m below, where the arrow indicates the Wabamun 1.1 sequence boundary (photo by J. Fabian). An expanded version of this figure is available in the digital version and at sepm.org/Downloads.aspx.

The basal WD4.2 HFS consists of a progradational wedge of skeletal–intraclast grainstone displaying subhorizontal topset beds (Fig. 13a, number 7). The wedge onlaps the WD4.2 HFS boundary (Fig. 15a). These grade laterally and downdip into muddier packstones. The lowermost WD4.2 is interpreted as an in situ lowstand.

A stack of grainstones overlies the wedge (Fig. 13a, number 8). These represent aggradation of the shelf margin. The base of the grainstone beds is relatively flat over 100 m (Fig. 13a, numbers 8 to 9), with bedding traceable from topsets to foresets. This reflects strong progradation of the shelf margin over its own foreslope sediment. A similar pattern is repeated from position 9 to 10 (Fig. 13a), i.e., initial aggradation followed by progradation. This interval reflects a series of relative sea-level rises consisting of alternating progradation and aggradation leading to the WD4.2 MFS. Total relative sea-level rise is estimated to be 28 m. In the initial rise following LST deposition, foreset truncation of the previous WD4.1 HFS was probably due to marine ravinement.

Downslope from position 10 (Fig. 13a), a tongue of nodular argillaceous mudstone extends over 100 m up the preexisting slope. This is interpreted as the MFS of the WD4.2 HFS.

WD4 HST—The HST of the WD4 consists of a thin stratigraphic interval made up of the upper part of the WD4.2 HFS. It consists of dipping beds of peloidal–intraclastic packstones, the base of which occur halfway between positions 10 and 11 (Fig. 13a). These foresets downlap onto the argillaceous wackestones of the underlying WD4.2 MFS. The topsets of the HST have been removed by erosion at the overlying WI1.1 sequence boundary.

Winterburn 1 CS

Southesk Cairn: The WI1 CS is made up of three HFSs. These organize into three systems tracks: “normal” LST and TST, as well as an HST transitional to a FSST. The base of the Winterburn 1 CS is characterized by the following stratigraphic relationships: at the Tomad section, a sharp surface with cylindrical stromatoporoid grainstones overlying crinoid–coral wackestones to packstones; at Nomad, thick crinkly laminated and fenestral mudstones sharply overlying bulbous stromatoporoid–Amphipora wackestones; at Toma South, skeletal grainstones overlying coral wackestones. At Toma Creek, the brecciated top of peloidal packstone beds is interpreted as the sequence boundary.

WH LST—The WI1.1 HFS forms the LST of the CS. The base of the WI1 is not continuously exposed between Tomad and Toma Creek. However, the vertical juxtaposition of lithofacies from Tomad southward suggests a drop in sea level at the base of the WI1, becoming more conformable to the northwest (basinward). No other shallow-water, in situ lowstand strata were observed on the described transect (Fig. 9).

The remainder of the WI1.1 HFS consists of stromatoporoid boundstones to grainstones 5 to 7 m thick southeast of Toma South. These grade south into a 5-m stack of cryptalgal mudstones at Nomad Creek. The shoal margin of the WI1.1 is interpreted to occur between Toma and Toma South.

WI1 TST—The lower part of the WI1.2 HFS represents the TST of the CS. Its base is a sharp surface, with nodular coralline wackestones to packstones overlying WI1 grainstones at Toma South. The WI1.2 at Tomad consists of thick stromatoporoid grainstones overlying the WI1.1, while at Nomad, burrowed Amphipora wackestones are present over WI1.1 fenestral mudstones. These facies juxtapositions reflect a marine transgression, interpreted as the MFS of the WI1 CS.

WI1 HST–FSST—The upper WI1.2 and WI1.3 form the HST–FSST of the CS. The WI1.2 interval consists of Amphipora wackestones to packstones, and cryptalgal laminated to fenestral mudstones from the Tomad section southward. These pass northwestward into skeletal grainstones and nodular coral and peloidal wackestones between Tomad and Toma South—interpreted as shoal margin and foreslope deposits, respectively.

Fig. 20.

—Latest Winterburn Group deposition; the exposure is 500 m northwest of the Waterfall section. Muddy foreslope to basin environments characterize the WI1 and WI2 composite sequences, but for the uppermost WI2 on the lower left of the photo. The Wabamun 1.1 sequence is a thick siliciclastic succession with prominent offlapping, cross-bedded sands in its middle part.

Fig. 20.

—Latest Winterburn Group deposition; the exposure is 500 m northwest of the Waterfall section. Muddy foreslope to basin environments characterize the WI1 and WI2 composite sequences, but for the uppermost WI2 on the lower left of the photo. The Wabamun 1.1 sequence is a thick siliciclastic succession with prominent offlapping, cross-bedded sands in its middle part.

The WI1.3 at Toma Creek forms a 13-m-thick wedge of cryptalgal and fenestral-laminated mudstones interbedded with burrowed Amphipora mudstones, in thin shallowing-upward cycles (Fig. 10). These onlap the top of the underlying cycle between Toma and Toma South. Basinward, lithofacies within the wedge change first into skeletal–peloidal grainstones, and then into coral wackestones to packstones over a distance of 700 m at Toma Creek, simultaneously increasing to 40 m in thickness. The WI1.3 HFS is interpreted as an in situ lowstand deposit.

Nikanassin Range: The WI1.1 HFS surface on the platform just north of Mt. Berry is overlain by 1.5 m of dolomitic siltstone (Fig. 13a). This marks a significant interruption of carbonate deposition on the shelf. Four-hundred meters northwest of Mt. Berry, the WI1.1 surface dips basinward (Fig. 13a, position 11).

The WI1.1 surface truncates underlying clinoforms of skeletal–intraclast packstones. The surface is overlain by onlapping and downlapping skeletal–intraclast grainstones. Strong lateral progradation of grainstones follows (Fig. 13a, numbers 11 to 12, etc.). This is immediately succeeded by deposition of offlapping skeletal–intraclastic packstones (number 13; illustrated in Fig. 16b). This succession is interpreted to reflect falling relative sea level.

Southeast of position 13, grainstones were deposited subjacent to the older, dipping foreslope strata (Fig. 16b). There is a marked decrease in dip angle from the base of the WI1.1 to the top of the HFS (Fig. 16b, orange arrows to green arrows). The dip decrease may also appear greater due to a change in the progradation direction, from true dip at the base of the exposure to more of a strike orientation at the top.

Fig. 21.

—Large Megalodon bivalves in a partly dolomitized mud matrix. These are characteristic of the open ramp interior, proximal to the ramp margin, in the WI2 and WI3 sequences in the Nikanassin Range and elsewhere in the study area.

Fig. 21.

—Large Megalodon bivalves in a partly dolomitized mud matrix. These are characteristic of the open ramp interior, proximal to the ramp margin, in the WI2 and WI3 sequences in the Nikanassin Range and elsewhere in the study area.

These strata are interpreted as the shelf margin of the WI1.1 HFS. The geometries reflect falling relative sea level. The decreasing dips at the margin (Fig. 16b) may also reflect filled accommodation space by the end of the CS.

WI1 TST—At Mt. Berry, 10 m of skeletal–intraclast grainstone immediately overlie the WI1.1 surface (Fig. 16c). Divergent bedding is observed between the lowermost grainstones and the overlying beds. The latter onlap the dipping surface below (dashed line below the transgressive surface [TS] in Fig. 16c). The onlapping grainstones (of the WI1.2.1) represent an in situ lowstand shoal, reflecting a slight basinward shift of the shelf margin, followed by aggradation and progradation of the shelf margin.

WI1 HST—A thick interval of intraclast packstones to grainstones, with marked basinward dips, forms the remainder of the WI1.2 HFS (above line TS in Fig. 16c). These change facies laterally into nodular intraclastic to argillaceous mudstones. The MFS of the WI1 is interpreted in the upper middle part of this aggradational package.

The WI1.2.2 initially consists of a distinctive mounded wedge of peloidal wackestones to packstone over 100 m wide (Figs. 13b, 17). The wedge onlaps the older (WI1.1) margin and thins basinward. It is interpreted as channelized foreslope sediment with a source out of the plane of the outcrop. Subhorizontal beds of skeletal–intraclast grainstone overlie the wedge, passing downdip into coral–lamellar stromatoporoid wackestones to packstones. These strata display increasingly offlapping stratal geometries (Fig. 13b).

The WI1.3 HFS consists of peloidal wackestones to packstones, and what appear to be small coral–stromatoporoid mounds (these are inaccessible). The entire HFS is deposited below the WI1.2 shelf edge and displays offlapping geometries (far left of Fig. 13b). Two-hundred meters south, at Mt. Gregg, the peloidal wackestone becomes silt-rich at the top of the WI1.3. This basinally restricted HFS is interpreted to represent the falling stage of the WI1 CS.

Fig. 22.

—Intraclastic breccia with “rip-up” clasts of fenestral mudstone suspended in subtidal, crinoid wackestone, Wabamun 1 composite sequence, Cardinal Waterfall section (photo by D. Mans).

Fig. 22.

—Intraclastic breccia with “rip-up” clasts of fenestral mudstone suspended in subtidal, crinoid wackestone, Wabamun 1 composite sequence, Cardinal Waterfall section (photo by D. Mans).

Winterburn 2 CS

The WI2 CS contains two HFS, divided into a (LST–) TST and a HST. It consists of two principal parts, a shelf margin between Toma Creek and (the north side of) Mt. Mackenzie, and complex siliciclastic and carbonate basin fill in the Cardinal River valley. Along the Nikanassin Range, it is part of the prograding shelf.

WI2 (LST–) TST: On the Southesk Cairn complex, the WI2.1 surface is sharp on the platform top, characterized by siltstones sharply overlying cryptalgal laminites (at Nomad), and peloidal, bulbous stromatoporoid wackestones (Tomad). At Toma South, cryptalgal mudstones sharply overlie burrowed, unfossiliferous mudstones. These stratal relationships reflect exposure of the platform during a relative drop in sea level.

The sections from Mt. Mackenzie to the north preserve significant thicknesses of silty carbonate above the WI2.1 surface (Fig. 9). They consist of sharp-based beds of quartzose, silty sandstones at Mt. Mackenzie, less than 1 m thick, with burrowed tops. These are interpreted as silt-rich foreslope sediments, deposited while the carbonate shelf was exposed or poorly developed. These beds pass downslope into two silty mudstone beds separated by coralline wackestones to nodular mudstones basinward of the Cardinal North section. The latter have been termed the “Silt Doublet” by previous workers (Shields and Geldsetzer 1992, Workum and Hedinger 1992) due to their distinctive appearance in outcrop. These silty, basinally restricted units are interpreted herein as lowstands that lap onto the preceding shelf edge (HFS WI 2.1).

The remainder of the WI2.1 HFS is composed of tabular-bedded skeletal–peloidal grainstones from the northwest part of the Toma Creek outcrop to Mt. Mackenzie (Figs. 9, 10). These represent the platform margin shoal formed during the transgression above the silty lowstand. The grainstones pass landward into Amphipora–bulbous stromatoporoid wackestones to packstones and fenestral–cryptalgal mudstones. Immediately north of Mt. Mackenzie, the grainstones grade downdip into coral and coral rubble wackestones deposited above the basal WI2.1 silt. Slight progradation of the WI2.1 grainstone margin is observed at Toma Creek.

In the Cardinal Valley, burrowed siltstones of the WI2 CS overlie a thick package of basinal deposits (Fig. 18) composed of 82 m of euxinic limestone and shale and 85 m of green–gray argillaceous limestone and shale. These overlie the WD2 carbonate platform and were deposited during the WD2, WD3, WD4, and WI1 CSs.

Fig. 23.

—Summary sequence stratigraphic cross section of the Frasnian to early Famennian succession on the Nikanassin Range, Jasper Basin, Alberta. The line of section is shown on Figure 2. An expanded version of this figure is available in the digital version and at sepm.org/Downloads.aspx.

Fig. 23.

—Summary sequence stratigraphic cross section of the Frasnian to early Famennian succession on the Nikanassin Range, Jasper Basin, Alberta. The line of section is shown on Figure 2. An expanded version of this figure is available in the digital version and at sepm.org/Downloads.aspx.

Fig. 24.

—Sequence stratigraphic cross section spanning the South Jasper Basin, from the Toma Creek margin to the Nikanassin Range. Environments of deposition are simplified into the four facies belts, as indicated. The line of section is shown on Figures 1 and 2. An expanded version of this figure is available in the digital version and at sepm.org/Downloads. aspx.

Fig. 24.

—Sequence stratigraphic cross section spanning the South Jasper Basin, from the Toma Creek margin to the Nikanassin Range. Environments of deposition are simplified into the four facies belts, as indicated. The line of section is shown on Figures 1 and 2. An expanded version of this figure is available in the digital version and at sepm.org/Downloads. aspx.

A well-exposed carbonate buildup crops out on the east face of Cardinal Mountain (Fig. 18). Between 30 and 40 m thick, the buildup overlies coral wackestone beds and intertongues with relatively flat-lying, apparently muddier sediment to the south. The internal and associated architecture of the mound is complex (Fig. 19). Dipping beds of coral–stromatoporoid rubble extend several hundred meters northwest of the mound to the Cardinal Waterfall section.

The buildup was previously described and interpreted as a downslope reefal mound (“patch reef”) by Hedinger and Workum

(1989b) and Shields and Geldsetzer (1992). We interpret that transgression above the basal, silty part of the CS allowed initiation of the Cardinal mound. Several of these, likely time-equivalent, mounds are observed in the Jasper Basin (Hedinger and Workum 1989b). Given that a number of them were exposed by successive thrust faults, which expose only a small amount of the total rock volume, it is reasonable to assume that there were many such mounds formed in the Alberta Basin during the WI2 CS.

The WI2 also consists of two fourth-order HFSs in the Nikanassin Range (Fig. 13b). The basal sequence boundary consists of a sharp, subhorizontal surface just northwest of Mt. Gregg, which erosionally truncates the underlying foresets. Skeletal–peloidal grainstones overlie burrowed siltstones and coralline wackestones at the contact. This represents a shoal margin abruptly overlying foreslope deposits. At Luscar Mountain, 4 km basinward, light gray mudstones to wackestones overlie argillaceous mudstones at the same surface. The contact is more conformable at this location.

WI2 HST: On the Southesk Cairn complex, 30 m of skeletal grainstones comprise the WI2.2 between Toma Creek and Mt. Mackenzie (Fig. 10). These grainstones represent an aggradational shelf margin deposited during the MFS of the WI2 HFS. From Toma southward, the grainstones grade into Amphipora–bulbous stromatoporoid and Megalodon wackestones to packstones, with thick cryptalgal–fenestral mudstones deposited south of Toma South (Fig. 9). At Mt. Mackenzie, the basal WD2.2 HFS consists of silty coral wackestones with stromatoporoid fragments. The silt component may reflect silt bypassed into the basin at the top of the WI2.1 and then reworked during the subsequent transgression.

The uppermost WI2.2 consists of resistant carbonate beds north of the Cardinal mound, 150 m from the Waterfall section (Fig. 20). These are composed of grainy Amphipora–coral packstone, and overlying coral wackestones. They represent progradation of the shallow platform interior over foreslope strata during the highstand of the HFS.

In the Nikanassin Range, the WI2.1 consists of peloidal–skeletal packstones to grainstones at Mt. Gregg, interbedded with thick, massively bedded boundstones. The latter contain tabular and cylindrical stromatoporoids, as well as colonial and branching corals. One kilometer north, the grainstones change facies into Megalodon wackestones and packstones (Fig. 21). These lithologies represent a shoal margin setting at Mt Gregg, with shelf interior environments to the northwest and a basin to the southeast.

The base of the WI2.2 is marked by recessive siltstones sharply overlying the WI2.1 surface at Mt. Gregg. These are in turn overlain by a succession of thin cryptalgal laminated and fenestral mudstone cycles, with occasional silty interbeds. The presence of intraclastic limestones at the WI2.2 stratigraphic level to the southeast (Luscar Mountain) suggests a change in depositional environment from platform interior/tidal flat to shelf margin or foreslope south of Mt. Gregg.

Winterburn 3 CS

The WI3 is not divided into HFS. However, two distinct systems tracts can be defined, a TST and an HST.

WI3 TST: On the Southesk Cairn complex, the basal sequence boundary of the WI3 CS can be confidently correlated along the Cardinal Valley transect (Fig. 9). A thin siltstone, overlying the sequence boundary, is traceable from Mt. Mackenzie to the north of the Cardinal Waterfall, where it sharply overlies the latest WI2.2 coral wackestones and packstones. The silts appear to onlap the Cardinal mound (Fig. 19), while coral wackestones to packstones overlie the silt 200–300 m north of the Waterfall section (Fig. 20). The siltstones are interpreted as lowstand deposits of the lowermost WI3 CS.

A second, younger, burrowed siltstone extends from Mt. Mackenzie over the Cardinal mound and into the cirque above the Waterfall section. The silt downlaps onto the WI3.1 surface, while the associated coral wackestones to packstones grade northwest into more argillaceous lithofacies. This facies change may have been controlled by the depositional edge of the underlying WI2 shoal.

The lower part of the WI3 CS at the Nikanassin Range is a dominantly silty succession (Fig. 13b). At Mt. Gregg, recessive, silty mudstone overlies cryptalgal mudstones of the WI2.2 surface. This represents restricted platform interior deposition. Seven meters above the base, a fossil packstone is observed that contains tabular to hemispherical stromatoporoids, Amphipora, and gastropods. These open lagoon deposits represent the MFS of the WI3.

WI3 HST: Most of the WI3 CS was deposited after the aforementioned silts, on the shelf southeast of Mt. Mackenzie. The CS thins dramatically and is quite variable in thickness south of Toma Creek and is completely absent at some localities (e.g., Tomad). This is due to erosion by the overlying sequence. Where preserved south of Mt. Mackenzie, the WI3 changes facies into skeletal–peloidal grainstones and subsequently Amphipora–Megalodon wackestones to packstones and fenestral mudstones south of Toma Creek. These strata are interpreted to have been deposited during the MFS of the WI3.

The upper part of the CS in the Nikanassin Range consists mainly of flaggy, thin-bedded siltstones with occasional burrowed and cryptalgal mudstone interbeds. A grainy Amphipora wackestone to packstone overlain by 0.7 m of silty, cryptalgal mudstone forms the upper part of the CS. The Amphipora are the stratigraphically highest Frasnian fossils observed in the area, in the uppermost highstand of the WI3 CS.

Wabamun 1 CS

This CS represents the first Famennian deposits in the region and, as such, will only be briefly described. As it was not the focus of this study, no HFSs or systems tracts were rigorously defined within it. Regional correlations and conodont biostratigraphy (Wong et al. 2016b) constrain the base of the Famennian Stage. The base of this CS appears to be quite erosional, with up to 10 m of relief.

The unit is almost entirely siliciclastic in the South Jasper Basin. At Toma Creek, relatively thin muddy siltstones overlie the top of the WI3 (Fig. 9). These are interpreted to be restricted platform interior deposits. North of Mt. Mackenzie, muddy burrowed siltstones form the base of a thick siliciclastic succession. Just north of Cardinal Waterfall, the succession is composed of trough cross-bedded silts and fine sands, overlain by muddier, laminated siltstones with rare, unfossiliferous, burrowed carbonate mudstones. The muddy, burrowed silts at the base and top of the HFS represent shallow subtidal environments, whereas the coarser sands and silts in the middle of the WB1 reflect transgression and a higher-energy, marginal marine setting in the middle of the HFS. The high-energy deposits display distinctly offlapping geometries (Fig. 20), which suggest an overall low-accommodation setting.

The CS is composed of 8 m of siltstone to sandstone at Mt. Gregg in the Nikanassin Range. These vary from a burrowed texture to cross-bedded intervals with Skolithos and Planolites. The latter represents a high-energy, upper shoreface to foreshore environment.

Silts of the CS extend basinward in the Nikanassin Range to Luscar Mountain, and between 70 and 90 m of siliciclastics are described in the South Jasper Basin (e.g., Tripoli and Cheviot Mountains; Workum and Hedinger 1992). These strata are termed the Sassenach Formation in outcrop and upper Graminia Formation in the subsurface. They thicken substantially in the northwestern part of the Jasper Basin (Mountjoy and Becker 2000).

Overlying the CS in the entire region are limestones of the Famennian Wabamun Group (Palliser Formation in the outcrop nomenclature). These typically consist of a succession of cryptalgal mudstones at the base, overlain by the ubiquitous burrowed Wabamun (Palliser) mudstones to wackestones. The transition is well exposed at Cardinal Waterfall, where a rip-up breccia occurs in the silts underlying burrowed mudstones (Fig. 22). This reflects a transgression in the lower Wabamun Group reestablishing subtidal deposition across an extensive shelf.

DISCUSSION

The CSs described here record one part of the Frasnian depositional history of the Alberta Basin. However, they can be used to analyze the local to subregional expression of the Frasnian second-order depositional sequence, as well as deviations from the “expected” stratigraphic architecture of such a sequence. Aspects of the second-order, CS (third-order), and HFS (fourth-order) sequences are discussed next.

The Second-Order Sequence

Eight of the 10 CSs in the Givetian–Frasnian second-order depositional sequence (Wong et al. 2016a) were deposited in the study area. Overall, the succession displays a transgressive–regressive pattern of deposition (Figs. 9, 23, 24). The lower three CSs (BHL3, WD1, and WD2) form the second-order TST, and the WD3, WD4, and lower WI1 form the HST. A transition to a second-order FSST occurs in the WI1 CS, which continues in the WI2 and WI3. The FSST is equivalent to the “late highstand” of Wong et al. (2016a).

The second-order architecture is readily observed on the Toma to Nikanassin Range cross section (Fig. 24). The Frasnian carbonate facies belts (in blue) initially retreat southeast and then extend across the entire transect by the end of the Frasnian. Also apparent is the thick euxinic basin fill in the middle of the sequence, the second-order MFS occurring in the WD2. A regionally significant influx of siliciclastics occurs toward the top of the second-order sequence (WI2 and WI3; Fig. 24, yellow color-fill). The middle of the sequence (WD2 and WD3) also developed the thickest and most areally extensive stromatoporoid reef margin sediments in the South Jasper Basin (light blue, Fig. 9). The upper part of the sequence displays rapidly prograding belts of shelf margin grainstone (stippled blue, Fig. 23). Each systems tract of the second-order sequence is discussed next.

Second-Order TST, Retrogradational Architecture: The BHL3 sequence is the oldest part of the second-order sequence deposited in the study area. This is due to the presence of a low-relief landmass, the West Alberta Arch (Weissenberger and Potma 2001; Fig. 1). It was almost completely onlapped by the end of the BHL3.

The BHL3 CS is mostly composed of cyclic restricted lagoon deposits (with reworked silt), reflecting the progressive inundation of the West Alberta Arch. A thin BHL3 platform appears to have been present across the South Jasper Basin (Fig. 24).

The WD1 CS is characterized by continued transgression and the ultimate stabilization of the platform margin at Cardinal Crossing (Figs. 5, 9). Increased accommodation is reflected by the dominance of open lagoon environments (dark brown, Fig. 9) on the platform.

The southern margin of the Jasper Basin was inundated during the MFS of the WD1 (purple, Figs. 5, 9). WD1 platform shoals (e.g., at Cardinal North) persisted during the transgression, as unfilled accommodation space was created on the platform. The development of only thin platform margin shoals (stippled blue, Fig. 9) throughout the WD1 CS is further evidence of open marine circulation onto the platform. Basin fill in the WD1 CS is relatively calcareous and illitic, and it extends across the South Jasper Basin (Majeau Lake Formation).

A significant deviation from the second-order retrogradational architecture occurred in the WD1 HST. The rapid progradation in the WD1 highstand likely reflects the diminished rate of relative sea-level rise, or actual sea-level fall. The latter is suggested by the more basinward position of the shelf margin shoals at Mt. Mackenzie North relative to the older margin (at East Spur), suggesting a relative sea-level drop of a few meters. These relationships imply that in some instances, fourth-order sea-level fluctuations could significantly interrupt the overall second-order transgression.

Another interruption occurred at the base of the WD2 CS. Initial sea-level drop allowed deposition of a lowstand high-energy shelf margin shoal at Cardinal Headwaters in the basal WD2. Based on facies offset and stratal geometries, we estimate a sea-level drop of up to 20 m. Compared to the sea-level drop in the WD1 HST, this third-order drop is of greater magnitude and hence more dramatically expressed.

Transgression renewed in the lower WD2 with restricted lagoon deposition followed by a major retreat of the platform margin—more than 11 km—to the southwest. That WD2 retrogradation initiated the essentially aggradational (Leduc Formation) reef margin at Toma Creek and the associated thick foreslope succession (purple, Fig. 9), which grades downdip into the oldest euxinic basin fill in the study area.

The MFS of the second-order sequence is placed within the lower WD2.3 HFS, coincident with a major drowning of the shallow-water platform margin south of Cardinal Headwaters. Concurrently, deposition of euxinic shale and mudstones occurred as far landward as Mt. Mackenzie.

The WD2.3 HFS marked the first extensive high-energy reef development at Toma Creek, above the WD2.2 lagoonal deposits. This vertical transition from the (dark gray) Cairn Formation into the (light gray) Peechee Member of the Southesk Formation (surface lithostratigraphic terms) represents the change in depositional environment, from platform interior to platform margin strata. This lithofacies change is observed regionally (e.g., Cripple Creek—Eliuk et al. 1987; Big Hill—Dolphin and Klovan, 1970, Fig. 12; and Mount Russell–Toma Creek—Shields and Geldsetzer 1992, p. 283) but is not synchronous. On Figure 9, the change occurs just above the MFS in HFS WD2.3 at Tomad and Toma South.

Second-Order HST, Variable Stratal Patterns: The second-order HST consists of the WD3, WD4, and part of the WI1 CSs. Its stratigraphic architecture followed the second-order trend, being dominantly aggradational. This corresponded to extensive reef deposition at the margin of the Southesk Cairn carbonate complex (from Toma to south of Nomad Creek). The second-order highstand also saw euxinic shale and carbonate deposition across the South Jasper Basin (gray, Fig. 24).

There is a strong contrast in the stratigraphic architecture between the two main parts of the study area in the WD4 CS. The WD4 is backstepped relative to the WD3 at Toma, whereas at the Nikanassin Range, it is strongly progradational (Figs. 9, 13a, 23, 24). Comparable variations occur at other time-equivalent margins: Wapiabi Gap and Cripple Creek resemble Toma, whereas Redwater is similar to the Nikanassin Range (Wong et al. 2016a). These differing stacking patterns are likely due to paleogeography and the amount and timing of local basin fill.

Redwater is a reef complex relatively far east in the basin, so that comparatively early basin fill there would have favored progradation (Wong et al. 2016a). Conversely, localities now in the mountain outcrops did not see significant basin fill until late in the WD4— limiting progradation. The Nikanassin margin appears somewhat unique, however, in that significant progradation occurred over a foundation of locally produced sediment. Off-bank sediment transport and progradation was so dominant in the Nikanassin Range localities that the regionally correlatable MFS of the WD4 (“Upper Ireton”)is not well expressed there.

Palinspastic restoration of Laramide thrust sheets suggests the WD4 shelf margin in the Nikanassin Range was deposited as much as 40 or 50 km basinward of the WD3 CS margin at the Miette reef complex (Fig. 1). Given that the shelf abruptly overlies basinal strata at the Nikanassin Range, some or all of the WD4 is likely representative of a basinally restricted lowstand.

Second-Order FSST, Offlapping and Siliciclastic Influx: The transition from second-order highstand to falling stage occurred in the WI1 CS. Sea level dropped an estimated 25 m or more at the base of the WI1 (e.g., Cripple Creek and central Alberta: Wong et al. 2016b, Potma et al. 2001, respectively). Burnt Timber (Wong et al. 2016a) and the southeast margin of the Ancient Wall reef complex also developed in situ lowstands above the WI1.1 (Whalen et al. 2000, Whalen and Day 2008). These were ascribed to relative drops in sea level. A change from dominantly organic to illitic basin fill occurred in the WI1 CS.

The influence of the falling limb of the second-order sea-level trend increased in the WI1.1 HFS. For example, basinally restricted carbonate wedges were deposited on both margins of the South Jasper Basin in the HFS (Fig. 24). Rapid progradation with well-developed offlapping and then downstepping geometries actually initiated slightly earlier in the Nikanassin Range (in the WD4 CS; Fig. 23). Local influx of terrigenous silt in the uppermost WI1 CS (e.g., Mt. Gregg) may reflect the start of longer hiatuses at HFS boundaries in the second-order falling limb, which would have allowed bypass of sediment into the basin from the hinterland. The source of the sediment was likely to the east or from the Peace River Arch (north), but a western source, similar to the basal Famennian Sassenach Formation, cannot be ruled out.

The WI2.1 marks a major regional influx of siliciclastics, mainly silt, into the basin. It is equivalent to the base of the Calmar Formation in central Alberta, and it is recognized as a significant regional unconformity (e.g., see discussion in Switzer et al. 1994; Potma et al. 2001, 2002). From this surface upward, silt was deposited episodically in the basin (until the lower part of the Wabamun Group).

We postulate that siliciclastic silt deposition would occur when carbonate deposition essentially ceased, by concentration of windblown silt on the exposed platform (e.g., the Permian; Kerans and Fitchen 1995; Harris and Saller 1999), or by silt carried across the basin from the east by ephemeral streams. Subsequent inundation of the platform during transgression would rework the silt and mix it with carbonate mud. Similarly, with exposure at the end of each CS and/or HFS, silt was bypassed into the basin and deposited in the outer ramp. The silts would be reworked, and commonly burrowed in place, during subsequent transgression. Fewer macrofossils occur in the silty carbonates (particularly in the ramp interior), perhaps due to suspension of fines during silt reworking, causing turbidity, or the siltier substrate having been unfavorable for certain organisms.

Overall, stratigraphic architecture in the falling stage was offlapping and basin filling. With the basin largely filled, siliciclastics could more easily reach the study area. As mentioned above, the falling secondorder sea-level trend also tended to reinforce (lengthen) hiatuses at CS and HFS boundaries, allowing more time for silt transport and preservation.

The carbonate units in the second-order falling stage (WI2 and 3 CS) are generally characterized by progradational shelf deposition, with significantly restricted marine circulation in the platform interior. The stacking patterns at the shelf margin were variable in the study area: aggradational at Toma, progradational on the Nikanassin Range. The architecture differs despite comparable antecedent basin fill in both areas. Basin fill was dominantly calcareous.

Second-Order (Famennian) LST, Final Basin Filling: These strata constitute a complex depositional system—primarily siliciclastics with a minor carbonate component. It was largely deposited as the basal Famennian in situ lowstand within the Jasper Basin (Mountjoy and Becker 2000). We term this the WB1 CS, deposited immediately above the Givetian–Frasnian second-order sequence of Potma et al. (2001). Mountjoy and Becker (2000) postulated that a sea-level fall on the order of 100 m was required to deposit the sediments and create the stratigraphic geometries observed in the northwest Jasper Basin. The magnitude of this sea-level fall was derived by comparing the pre-Sassenach stratigraphic position of the shelf with the lowest level observed in the lowstand and the depositional bathymetries of the latter’s constituent lithofacies.

The Frasnian–Famennian boundary may occur in the uppermost beds of the WI3 CS, based on biostratigraphy in the area (Cinquefoil Mountain, central Jasper Basin; Wang and Geldsetzer 1995). Consequently, the strata in the uppermost part of the Jasper Basin sections (WB1 CS; Figs. 9, 24) would be part of the Sassenach depositional system. If the Mountjoy and Becker (2000) model is correct, the marginal marine siliciclastics outboard of the Toma Creek margin may be the youngest part of the second-order lowstand (Fig. 20). The significance of this postulated sequence of events is that the WB1.1 surface would represent a long hiatus—almost one CS in duration—during which the bulk of the lowstand was deposited to the northwest. The basinal topography between Toma Creek and the Nikanassin Range would then only have been filled in the early part of the Famennian transgression.

Third- and Fourth-Order Deviations from the Second-Order Sea-Level Trend

There are significant perturbations in the overall second-order depositional trends observed in the study area at both the CS (third-order) and HFS (fourth-order) scale. These are discussed next in stratigraphic order and summarized in Tables 2 and 3.

Second-Order TST (BHL3, WD1, and WD2): During the second-order transgression, the WD1.1 sequence boundary is a recognizable and correlatable exposure surface. The light gray, “bleached” limestone bed (e.g., Big Hill, Fig. 6), termed the Utopia Member, was described between Ancient Wall, Miette, and Big Hill (Sunwapta Pass, Flume Formation; Noble 1970). Workum and Hedinger (1992) also recognized it in the Jasper Basin. We interpret a similar bed at Wapiabi Gap (Wong et al. 2016a) to be the top of the BHL3 (WD1.1 sequence boundary).

The color and fabrics at this surface suggest significant subaerial exposure at the CS scale—during the second-order transgression. The surface forms a subregional marker bed, and biostratigraphic control supports its equivalence to the WD1.1 in the subsurface (Wong et al. 2016a). Because the WD1.1 HFS is interpreted as a basinally restricted LST, deposited only in central Alberta, the WD1.1 and 1.2 are amalgamated in the study area. This may account for the marked exposure textures on the surface (Fig. 6).

It is worth noting that as described here, the WD1 also records a significant fourth-order sea-level drop during the second-order transgression. Overall, the WD1 CS is marked by retrogradation of the platform margin. It appears that the second-order transgression was actually reinforced by at least one fourth-order relative sea-level fluctuation. During the WD1.4 HFS, the platform was drowned in the entire southern part of the study area. However, this was followed by rapid progradation (Fig. 9). The turnaround, after the pronounced WD1.4 MFS on the Toma margin (purple on Fig. 9), was abrupt, ending with the formation of a prominent soil horizon on the WD1.5 surface (Fig. 7, East Spur section). The siltstones interbedded with this soil also indicate interruption of normal carbonate deposition.

Sea-level fall at the WD1.5 HFS boundary is suggested by: the offlapping stratal pattern in the upper WD1.4; the exposure surface and soil; and rapid progradation in the basal WD1.5. This relative sea-level fall constitutes a deviation from the second transgression at the HFS scale. Regionally, distinctive surfaces of the WD1 can be used for correlation (Wong et al. 2016a), including: (1) the basal WD1 sequence boundary, and (2) the MFS, a pronounced backstep and deepening in the platform interior.

The basinally restricted lowstand wedge in the lowermost WD2 (Fig. 8) marked a significant Third-order interruption in the second-order sea-level rise. As described above, observations support deposition of the wedge after a fall in relative sea level. First, the wedge is composed of skeletal grainstone and abruptly overlies and onlaps underlying lower foreslope strata. Second, the flat-topped grainstone progrades basinward, suggesting in situ deposition during lowered relative sea level. Last, the wedge is a strike-parallel feature.

The WD2.1 lowstand is significant because shelf margins in the Cline Channel and Burnt Timber areas developed a lowstand wedge in the same stratigraphic position (Wong et al. 2016a). The lack of basin fill preceding the sea-level drop means that the in situ lowstands were fairly narrow in a dip sense, and wedge-shaped (Wong et al. 2016a). The subregional to regional expression of sea-level drop on this surface suggests a third-order relative sea-level event strong enough to interrupt the second-order trend.

Second-Order HST (WD3, WD4, Part of WI1): The second-order highstand, best reflected by the reef margin at Toma Creek, was dominantly aggradational, as discussed already, i.e., generally following the second-order trend. However, significant relative sea-level drops interrupted this aggradational stacking pattern. The Toma margin itself initiated at a CS boundary (WD3.1), with its lower part being an in situ lowstand (lower white band, position number 1 in Fig. 10). Progradation in the mid-WD3 also involved a drop in sea level— in this case, at an HFS boundary (WD3.3). This is represented by the higher white grainstone band on the Toma outcrop (number 2 in Fig. 10).

Stratal geometries in the WD4 varied dramatically between the southern and northern parts of the study area (see above). The retrogradational stacking patterns in the WD4 at Toma appear to have been strongly influenced by the MFS of the CS—a transgression well expressed across the basin. By contrast, evidence for the WD4 MFS at Nikanassin is poor. The strongly progradational margin and complex stratal geometries were more likely controlled by robust carbonate productivity, local current and wind patterns, and incipient low accommodation associated with the late second-order highstand. The contrasting WD4 stratal patterns in the two areas underscore the influence of paleogeographic setting, basin fill, and off-bank sediment transport.

Progradation of the shelf margin in the Nikanassin Range localities was interrupted during the MFS of the WD4.2 HFS (between positions 10 and 11 in Fig. 13a). The interruption was brief, however, as the upper WD4 reverted to strong progradation.

Second-Order FSST (Part of WI1, WI2, and WI3): A dramatic increase in terrigenous silt influx reflects the increased influence of the second-order falling stage, as discussed above. Silt is only rarely present at bounding surfaces in the lower Frasnian of the study area, but it commonly bypassed the platform to be deposited into the basin at CS and HFS boundaries in the upper Frasnian. The abundance of silt may indicate longer periods of exposure at bounding surfaces, during which silt could be transported into the study area. Silt transport from the east would also have been more likely once the West Shale Basin was largely filled (after the WI2 and WI3 CSs).

Abundant silt is present on the WI2.1 surface (base Calmar Formation) in the South Jasper Basin. This includes the so-called “silt doublet” (Hedinger and Workum 1989b), a subregional marker bed in the South Jasper Basin. The doublet consists of silts passed into the basin at the WI2.1, interbedded with coral wackestones, in a foreslope environment of deposition.

Despite the strong influence of the (falling) second-order sea-level trend, as evidenced by the terrigenous silt influx, notable transgressive events occurred during the WI1 through WI3 CSs. One example of the interruption of the FSST was the thick WI1.3 foreslope deposits, including small bioherms, in the Nikanassin Range (Figs. 13b, 23). Sufficient bathymetry clearly persisted long enough for the buildups to form, prior to the next drop in relative sea level. The “Cardinal Mound” downslope reef in the WI2 CS (Fig. 19) and the thick, fossiliferous, calcareous basin fill in the WI3 CS between Mt. Mackenzie and Luscar Mountain (Fig. 24) also represent significant transgressions in the upper part of the second-order sequence.

Summary

Large- and small-scale controls on the stratigraphic architecture of the carbonate platforms include second-order sea-level trends, sea-level fluctuations at the scale of CS and HFS, as well as paleogeography and timing of basin fill.

To reiterate, there are several noteworthy examples of CS- and HFS-scale events reinforcing or deviating from the second-order sea-level trend. In the second-order transgression and highstand, deviations include the extremely rapid progradation and slight downstepping of the shoal margin above the MFS of the WD1 (WD1.5 surface), and sea-level fall and in situ lowstand deposition in the WD2, WD3.1, and WD3.2. During the second-order falling stage, significant reinforcement of the second-order trend is observed in the dramatic offlapping geometries, downstepping, and in situ lowstand development in the WD4 through WI3 on the Nikanassin Range, and the increased bypass of terrigenous silt at CS and HFS boundaries, suggesting longer exposure of the platform. Deviation from the trend of the second-order falling stage includes the temporary interruption of margin progradation at certain MFS (e.g., WD4.2 HFS).

CONCLUSIONS

A detailed depositional history of Frasnian strata can be reconstructed using the excellent outcrops in the Rocky Mountain Front Ranges south of the Athabasca River. Here, CS and HFS can be confidently correlated across the study area and tied to the regional sequence stratigraphic framework.

The Frasnian strata in the South Jasper Basin generally reflect stratigraphic architecture typical of a (second-order) depositional sequence: transgression followed by regression, or basin opening and filling. However, there were significant deviations from the second-order trend at scale of both the CS and HFS. Higher-order relative sea-level rises and drops in some instances reinforced, and in others muted, the second-order trend.

The second-order transgression displays an overall retrogradational architecture in the South Jasper Basin. Paleogeography and stratal architecture were strongly influenced by the interaction between the second-order trend and third- and fourth-order sea-level fluctuations. The second-order TST was particularly dominant later in WD2, with deposition of euxinic basin fill beginning in the WD2 and culminating in the second-order MFS.

The second-order highstand is characterized by the most variable stratal patterns at both the CS and HFS scales. The thickest, most areally extensive reef deposition occurred in the WD3 CS, at the Toma Creek margin. Subsequently, the WD4 and lower WI1 CSs display the greatest contrast in depositional style between the southern and northern parts of the study area. The Toma margin was dominantly retrogradational, with relatively little off-bank transport of coarse sediment, while the Nikanassin shelf margin was strongly progradational, displaying falling stage stratal geometries in the WD1 and WD2 CS and WI1.2 HFS. It may be that, at the transition from slowing rise to fall of relative sea level, factors such as paleogeography (prevailing winds and currents) and the amount and timing of local basin fill were the dominant controls on sedimentation (rather than second-order sea-level change). Progradation at the Nikanassin Range was so pronounced that the regionally significant MFS of the WD4 CS was substantially muted.

The second-order falling stage is dominantly progradational in both parts of the study area. In situ, shallow-water carbonate lowstand deposition occurred at several stratigraphic levels: above the WI1.3 HFS boundary, and the WI2.1 and 3.1 CS boundaries. However, minor interruptions in the second-order trend are observed (e.g., transgression at the WD4.2 MFS). This indicates that third- and fourth-order relative sea-level fluctuations could temporarily halt or reverse the otherwise-dominant second-order FSST.

Significant accommodation was still created in this stratigraphic interval, allowing deposition of normal marine carbonates in most of the study area. This included small reefal mounds in the WI1.3 in the Nikanassin Range and thick downslope buildups in the WI2 CS of the Cardinal River valley and elsewhere in the Jasper Basin. Overall, the uppermost Frasnian saw apparent reinforcement of the second-order falling stage at CS and HFS boundaries. Terrigenous silt was bypassed into the basin at these surfaces and reworked in foreslope environments and on the carbonate platform during the subsequent flooding of the shelf. The filling of most of the basin to the east, and longer hiatuses at sequence boundaries likely facilitated transport of terrigenous silt into the study area.

The Frasnian–Famennian boundary occurs roughly at the base of the WB1 CS. The early part of that CS was dominated by siliciclastic sediment, which thicken dramatically west of the study area (Mountjoy and Becker 2000).

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

We wish to thank all our colleagues who have contributed to this work, beginning with the management at our current and previous companies, at Imperial Oil, and particularly Craig Lamb at Husky Energy and Ian McIlreath at Pan Canadian (now Cenovus/EnCana). All those who assisted in the field are much appreciated. These include (in alphabetical order): S. Becker, C. Brintnell, I. Deniset, M. Dennis, J. Fabian, J. Gordon, L. Hunt, D. Mans, K. Meyer, A. Politylo, K. Potma, L. Regier, M. Shaw, B. Vielleux, M. Warren, R. Younker, W. Zantvoort. Thanks also go to Alpine Helicopters for their professionalism in helping us to access most of the outcrops. The aesthetic quality of our figures is due to the diligence and patience of Phil Argatoff. We appreciated the helpful comments of Paul M. (Mitch) Harris and an anonymous reviewer. Thanks also go to Ken Potma for reviewing the (nearly) complete manuscript. Any merits in this work could not have been achieved without the help of these and other colleagues. Any errors remain our own. Minor changes made during the late edits to Wong et al. 2016 involving the terms RSME (regressive surface of marine erosion) and BSFR (basal surface of forced regression) should be noted when comparing it to this paper.

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APPENDIX 1.

—Location of main outcrop sections used in this study.

Location Latitude (°N) Longitude (°W) Elevation (m) 
Nomad Creek 52°49′00.8 117°09′42.87 2143 
Tomad 52°50′04.6 117°11′23.7 2331 
Toma South 52°50′23.1 117°12′38.1 2134 
Toma Creek (platformward) 52°50′10.4 117°13′39.7 2153 
Toma Creek (basinward) 52°50′27.7 117°13′36.4 2188 
Mt. Mackenzie 52°50′53.4 117°14′00.7 2439 
Mt. Mackenzie East Spur 52°51′18.0 117°14′06.6 2340 
Cardinal North 52°51′14.7 117°14′42.8 2223 
Mt. Mackenzie North 52°51′09.4 117°15′30.1 1953 
Cardinal Waterfall 52°52′00.6 117°19′00.7 2002 
Cardinal Crossing 52°53′37.4 117°21′04.3 2150 
Cardinal River Headwaters 1/2 52°54′07.5 117°23′26.9 2272 
Mt. Gregg 53°02′27.7 117°28′57.1 2185 
Luscar Mountain 53°02′03.2 117°25′32.2 2109 
Mt. Berry 53°02′50.2 117°30′03.0 2369 
Mt. Berry North 53°03′05.7 117°31′36.4 2449 
Sphinx Mtn 53°03′32.4 117°33′53.8 2443 
Big Hill 52°10′29.5 117°04′26.7 1930 
Location Latitude (°N) Longitude (°W) Elevation (m) 
Nomad Creek 52°49′00.8 117°09′42.87 2143 
Tomad 52°50′04.6 117°11′23.7 2331 
Toma South 52°50′23.1 117°12′38.1 2134 
Toma Creek (platformward) 52°50′10.4 117°13′39.7 2153 
Toma Creek (basinward) 52°50′27.7 117°13′36.4 2188 
Mt. Mackenzie 52°50′53.4 117°14′00.7 2439 
Mt. Mackenzie East Spur 52°51′18.0 117°14′06.6 2340 
Cardinal North 52°51′14.7 117°14′42.8 2223 
Mt. Mackenzie North 52°51′09.4 117°15′30.1 1953 
Cardinal Waterfall 52°52′00.6 117°19′00.7 2002 
Cardinal Crossing 52°53′37.4 117°21′04.3 2150 
Cardinal River Headwaters 1/2 52°54′07.5 117°23′26.9 2272 
Mt. Gregg 53°02′27.7 117°28′57.1 2185 
Luscar Mountain 53°02′03.2 117°25′32.2 2109 
Mt. Berry 53°02′50.2 117°30′03.0 2369 
Mt. Berry North 53°03′05.7 117°31′36.4 2449 
Sphinx Mtn 53°03′32.4 117°33′53.8 2443 
Big Hill 52°10′29.5 117°04′26.7 1930 

Figures & Tables

Fig. 1.

—Palinspastically restored paleogeographic map of the Leduc Formation reefs of Alberta and adjacent British Columbia. The reef distribution approximately represents Woodbend Composite Sequence 3 deposition. The present study area is indicated. Line of section C-C is illustrated on Figure 24; G-G is illustrated on Figure 4.

Fig. 1.

—Palinspastically restored paleogeographic map of the Leduc Formation reefs of Alberta and adjacent British Columbia. The reef distribution approximately represents Woodbend Composite Sequence 3 deposition. The present study area is indicated. Line of section C-C is illustrated on Figure 24; G-G is illustrated on Figure 4.

Fig. 2.

—Distribution of Frasnian outcrops in the present study area, southern Jasper Basin, Alberta. Lines of section are illustrated on the following figures: A–A′ on Figures 5 and 9; B–B′ on Figures 13a, 13b, and 23; C–C on Figure 24.

Fig. 2.

—Distribution of Frasnian outcrops in the present study area, southern Jasper Basin, Alberta. Lines of section are illustrated on the following figures: A–A′ on Figures 5 and 9; B–B′ on Figures 13a, 13b, and 23; C–C on Figure 24.

Fig. 3.

—Depositional model for Frasnian reefal carbonate platform margins, Alberta (modified from Wendte and Stoakes 1982).

Fig. 3.

—Depositional model for Frasnian reefal carbonate platform margins, Alberta (modified from Wendte and Stoakes 1982).

Fig. 4.

—Schematic sequence stratigraphic cross section of the late Givetian to basal Famennian strata of Alberta. Outcrop lithostratigraphic terms are indicated by circled letters. The line of section is shown as G–G′ on Figure 1. An expanded version of this figure is available in the digital version and at sepm.org/Downloads.aspx.

Fig. 4.

—Schematic sequence stratigraphic cross section of the late Givetian to basal Famennian strata of Alberta. Outcrop lithostratigraphic terms are indicated by circled letters. The line of section is shown as G–G′ on Figure 1. An expanded version of this figure is available in the digital version and at sepm.org/Downloads.aspx.

Fig. 5.

—Sequence stratigraphic cross section of the uppermost Beaverhill Lake 3 through lower Woodbend 2 Composite Sequences, Toma margin of the Southesk Cairn carbonate complex. The line of section is shown on Figure 2. An expanded version of this figure is available in the digital version and at sepm.org/Downloads.aspx.

Fig. 5.

—Sequence stratigraphic cross section of the uppermost Beaverhill Lake 3 through lower Woodbend 2 Composite Sequences, Toma margin of the Southesk Cairn carbonate complex. The line of section is shown on Figure 2. An expanded version of this figure is available in the digital version and at sepm.org/Downloads.aspx.

Fig. 6.

—WD 1.1 surface at Big Hill, Banff National Park, Alberta. Karsting is represented by red-oxidized rims on breccia clasts. Alteration extends 3.5 m down from this surface.

Fig. 6.

—WD 1.1 surface at Big Hill, Banff National Park, Alberta. Karsting is represented by red-oxidized rims on breccia clasts. Alteration extends 3.5 m down from this surface.

Fig. 7.

—The WD1.5 exposure surface, Mt. MacKenzie, East Spur. a) Caliche at the WD1.5 surface with bleached packstone to grainstone of the uppermost WD1.4 penetrated by dissolution vugs filled with greenish argillaceous mudstone. b) Laminated dolosiltstone (B) and cryptalgal laminated mudstone (A) overlying the soil illustrated in Figure 7a. (Photos by D. Mans.)

Fig. 7.

—The WD1.5 exposure surface, Mt. MacKenzie, East Spur. a) Caliche at the WD1.5 surface with bleached packstone to grainstone of the uppermost WD1.4 penetrated by dissolution vugs filled with greenish argillaceous mudstone. b) Laminated dolosiltstone (B) and cryptalgal laminated mudstone (A) overlying the soil illustrated in Figure 7a. (Photos by D. Mans.)

Fig. 8.

—Woodbend Sequence 1–2 succession at Cardinal Headwaters. Flat to gently dipping foreslope strata of the WD1 are overlain by resistant, grainy skeletal–peloidal WD2 grainstones. The latter constitute a lowstand wedge at the base of the WD2. Prominent sigmoid foresets are observed on the southeast (left) side of the wedge. An expanded version of this figure is available in the digital version and at sepm.org/Downloads.aspx.

Fig. 8.

—Woodbend Sequence 1–2 succession at Cardinal Headwaters. Flat to gently dipping foreslope strata of the WD1 are overlain by resistant, grainy skeletal–peloidal WD2 grainstones. The latter constitute a lowstand wedge at the base of the WD2. Prominent sigmoid foresets are observed on the southeast (left) side of the wedge. An expanded version of this figure is available in the digital version and at sepm.org/Downloads.aspx.

Fig. 9.

—Sequence stratigraphic cross section of the southern margin of the Frasnian Jasper Basin, from Nomad Creek to the headwaters of the Cardinal River. The line of section is shown on Figure 2. An expanded version of this figure is available in the digital version and at sepm.org/Downloads.aspx.

Fig. 9.

—Sequence stratigraphic cross section of the southern margin of the Frasnian Jasper Basin, from Nomad Creek to the headwaters of the Cardinal River. The line of section is shown on Figure 2. An expanded version of this figure is available in the digital version and at sepm.org/Downloads.aspx.

Fig. 10.

—Photomontage of the Toma Creek margin, Southesk Cairn carbonate complex (photo by J. Fabian).

Fig. 10.

—Photomontage of the Toma Creek margin, Southesk Cairn carbonate complex (photo by J. Fabian).

Fig. 11.

—Upper WD2 to lower WD3 stratigraphy, Nomad Creek. Partly covered interval is coral–crinoid wackestone representing the MFS of the WD2 composite sequence. The yellowish weathering reflects silt eroding from the WD3.1 sequence boundary.

Fig. 11.

—Upper WD2 to lower WD3 stratigraphy, Nomad Creek. Partly covered interval is coral–crinoid wackestone representing the MFS of the WD2 composite sequence. The yellowish weathering reflects silt eroding from the WD3.1 sequence boundary.

Fig. 12.

—Interbedded euxinic shale and mudstone of the Duvernay Formation, deposited during the WD3 HFS. Note, on the slope in the background, Ireton Formation basin fill with the rusty-weathering “silt doublet” (base WI2.1) near the top. The Famennian Wabamun Group forms the cliff at the uppermost part of the photo.

Fig. 12.

—Interbedded euxinic shale and mudstone of the Duvernay Formation, deposited during the WD3 HFS. Note, on the slope in the background, Ireton Formation basin fill with the rusty-weathering “silt doublet” (base WI2.1) near the top. The Famennian Wabamun Group forms the cliff at the uppermost part of the photo.

Fig. 13.

—Interpreted photo-montages of the Frasnian outcrops on the Nikanassin Range, west-central Alberta: a) exposure on the wall of the cirque immediately north of Mt. Berry (Mt. Berry to Mt. Berry North); b) transect from Mt. Berry to the Mt. Gregg measured section (far northwest spur of Mt. Gregg). The line of section is shown on Figure 2. An expanded version of this figure is available in the digital version and at sepm.org/Downloads.aspx.

Fig. 13.

—Interpreted photo-montages of the Frasnian outcrops on the Nikanassin Range, west-central Alberta: a) exposure on the wall of the cirque immediately north of Mt. Berry (Mt. Berry to Mt. Berry North); b) transect from Mt. Berry to the Mt. Gregg measured section (far northwest spur of Mt. Gregg). The line of section is shown on Figure 2. An expanded version of this figure is available in the digital version and at sepm.org/Downloads.aspx.

Fig. 14.

—a) Photo showing medium-bedded ramp margin intraclast grainstones from the WD4 composite sequence between Mt. Berry and Mt. Gregg. b) Close-up of this lithology, showing the dark gray subrounded intraclasts with white interparticle dolomite (early burial?) cement. This lithology forms the bulk of the ramp margin grainstones at the Nikanassin Range.

Fig. 14.

—a) Photo showing medium-bedded ramp margin intraclast grainstones from the WD4 composite sequence between Mt. Berry and Mt. Gregg. b) Close-up of this lithology, showing the dark gray subrounded intraclasts with white interparticle dolomite (early burial?) cement. This lithology forms the bulk of the ramp margin grainstones at the Nikanassin Range.

Fig. 15.

—a) Photo showing interbeds (25 cm thick) of mainly sand-sized, peloidal-rounded intraclast grainstone overlain by large intraclastic (up to 10 cm wide) packstone with a matrix similar to the underlying bed. The large intraclasts are composed of early cemented, either dark gray wackestone–mudstone or medium gray peloidal-rounded intraclast grainstone. The two interbedded lithologies form a basin floor/toe of slope unit, 4-m-thick unit, 30 m above the base of Mt. Berry section (extreme left, Fig. 13a). These grainstone–packstone debris sheets were derived from differentially cemented upslope grainy margins, with lower foreslope wackestone–mudstone lithologies incorporated during sediment gravity flows. b) A large intraclast packstone. Hopkins (1977) referred to a similar lithology as “breccia beds.”

Fig. 15.

—a) Photo showing interbeds (25 cm thick) of mainly sand-sized, peloidal-rounded intraclast grainstone overlain by large intraclastic (up to 10 cm wide) packstone with a matrix similar to the underlying bed. The large intraclasts are composed of early cemented, either dark gray wackestone–mudstone or medium gray peloidal-rounded intraclast grainstone. The two interbedded lithologies form a basin floor/toe of slope unit, 4-m-thick unit, 30 m above the base of Mt. Berry section (extreme left, Fig. 13a). These grainstone–packstone debris sheets were derived from differentially cemented upslope grainy margins, with lower foreslope wackestone–mudstone lithologies incorporated during sediment gravity flows. b) A large intraclast packstone. Hopkins (1977) referred to a similar lithology as “breccia beds.”

Fig. 16.

—Upper WD4 to WI1.1 strata at the Nikanassin Range. a) Truncation of underlying clinoforms by the WD4.2.1 surface, overlain by a wedge of onlapping/downlapping intraclastic grainstones (positions 5–8, Fig. 13a). b) Massive grainstone to boundstone margin of the WI1 above the erosional WI1.1 sequence boundary. Dips above the orange arrows represent true dip; shallower dips above the green arrow represent a change in progradation direction; dipping WI1.2 surface cuts down into the WI1.1 (position 13, Fig, 13a and far right of Fig. 13b). c) WI1.1 sequence boundary tracks the basinward-dipping surface of uppermost WD4. Wedge of grainstone between the sequence boundary and the trangressive surface (TS) represents an in situ lowstand deposited during rising sea level.

Fig. 16.

—Upper WD4 to WI1.1 strata at the Nikanassin Range. a) Truncation of underlying clinoforms by the WD4.2.1 surface, overlain by a wedge of onlapping/downlapping intraclastic grainstones (positions 5–8, Fig. 13a). b) Massive grainstone to boundstone margin of the WI1 above the erosional WI1.1 sequence boundary. Dips above the orange arrows represent true dip; shallower dips above the green arrow represent a change in progradation direction; dipping WI1.2 surface cuts down into the WI1.1 (position 13, Fig, 13a and far right of Fig. 13b). c) WI1.1 sequence boundary tracks the basinward-dipping surface of uppermost WD4. Wedge of grainstone between the sequence boundary and the trangressive surface (TS) represents an in situ lowstand deposited during rising sea level.

Fig. 17.

—WI1 ramp margin geometries, southeast flank of Mt. Berry, Nikanassin Range. The solid triangles mark the facies change from foreslope grainstone and packstone into reef margin boundstone of the upper WI1.1 (see Fig. 16c). The WI1.2.1 cycle set occurs immediately above, capping the reef margin boundstone, indicated by the white arrows. The open triangles above indicate the base of the WI1.2.2 cycle set, with onlapping/downlapping package of peloidal–skeletal packstones immediately above. These are interpreted as bypassed foreslope sands oriented shelf-parallel (striking out of the plane of the outcrop).

Fig. 17.

—WI1 ramp margin geometries, southeast flank of Mt. Berry, Nikanassin Range. The solid triangles mark the facies change from foreslope grainstone and packstone into reef margin boundstone of the upper WI1.1 (see Fig. 16c). The WI1.2.1 cycle set occurs immediately above, capping the reef margin boundstone, indicated by the white arrows. The open triangles above indicate the base of the WI1.2.2 cycle set, with onlapping/downlapping package of peloidal–skeletal packstones immediately above. These are interpreted as bypassed foreslope sands oriented shelf-parallel (striking out of the plane of the outcrop).

Fig. 18.

—Overview of late Winterburn Group stratigraphy, Cardinal River valley. Outer shelf WI1 and WI2 carbonates overlie basinal Duvernay and Ireton formations (WD2 through WI1 equivalents). Intermittent silty basin fill is apparent in both sequences, as is the “pinnacle” reef in the WI2. The Frasnian–Famennian boundary is roughly at the base of the Wabamun 1 composite sequence. The latter is dominated by shallow marine to coastal plain siliciclastics. The measured section is the Cardinal Waterfall (photo by J. Fabian). An expanded version of this figure is available in the digital version and at sepm.org/Downloads.aspx.

Fig. 18.

—Overview of late Winterburn Group stratigraphy, Cardinal River valley. Outer shelf WI1 and WI2 carbonates overlie basinal Duvernay and Ireton formations (WD2 through WI1 equivalents). Intermittent silty basin fill is apparent in both sequences, as is the “pinnacle” reef in the WI2. The Frasnian–Famennian boundary is roughly at the base of the Wabamun 1 composite sequence. The latter is dominated by shallow marine to coastal plain siliciclastics. The measured section is the Cardinal Waterfall (photo by J. Fabian). An expanded version of this figure is available in the digital version and at sepm.org/Downloads.aspx.

Fig. 19.

—Close-up of the WI2 bioherm in the Cardinal River valley (the “Cardinal mound”). “A” denotes an apparent “satellite” buildup landward of the main reef; “B” indicates where marine-reworked silts onlap the upper part of the reef, just above the WI3.1 sequence boundary; “C” marks the position of the intraclast breccia in the lower Wabamun Group (see Fig. 21 below). The oncolite horizon occurs 38 m below, where the arrow indicates the Wabamun 1.1 sequence boundary (photo by J. Fabian). An expanded version of this figure is available in the digital version and at sepm.org/Downloads.aspx.

Fig. 19.

—Close-up of the WI2 bioherm in the Cardinal River valley (the “Cardinal mound”). “A” denotes an apparent “satellite” buildup landward of the main reef; “B” indicates where marine-reworked silts onlap the upper part of the reef, just above the WI3.1 sequence boundary; “C” marks the position of the intraclast breccia in the lower Wabamun Group (see Fig. 21 below). The oncolite horizon occurs 38 m below, where the arrow indicates the Wabamun 1.1 sequence boundary (photo by J. Fabian). An expanded version of this figure is available in the digital version and at sepm.org/Downloads.aspx.

Fig. 20.

—Latest Winterburn Group deposition; the exposure is 500 m northwest of the Waterfall section. Muddy foreslope to basin environments characterize the WI1 and WI2 composite sequences, but for the uppermost WI2 on the lower left of the photo. The Wabamun 1.1 sequence is a thick siliciclastic succession with prominent offlapping, cross-bedded sands in its middle part.

Fig. 20.

—Latest Winterburn Group deposition; the exposure is 500 m northwest of the Waterfall section. Muddy foreslope to basin environments characterize the WI1 and WI2 composite sequences, but for the uppermost WI2 on the lower left of the photo. The Wabamun 1.1 sequence is a thick siliciclastic succession with prominent offlapping, cross-bedded sands in its middle part.

Fig. 21.

—Large Megalodon bivalves in a partly dolomitized mud matrix. These are characteristic of the open ramp interior, proximal to the ramp margin, in the WI2 and WI3 sequences in the Nikanassin Range and elsewhere in the study area.

Fig. 21.

—Large Megalodon bivalves in a partly dolomitized mud matrix. These are characteristic of the open ramp interior, proximal to the ramp margin, in the WI2 and WI3 sequences in the Nikanassin Range and elsewhere in the study area.

Fig. 22.

—Intraclastic breccia with “rip-up” clasts of fenestral mudstone suspended in subtidal, crinoid wackestone, Wabamun 1 composite sequence, Cardinal Waterfall section (photo by D. Mans).

Fig. 22.

—Intraclastic breccia with “rip-up” clasts of fenestral mudstone suspended in subtidal, crinoid wackestone, Wabamun 1 composite sequence, Cardinal Waterfall section (photo by D. Mans).

Fig. 23.

—Summary sequence stratigraphic cross section of the Frasnian to early Famennian succession on the Nikanassin Range, Jasper Basin, Alberta. The line of section is shown on Figure 2. An expanded version of this figure is available in the digital version and at sepm.org/Downloads.aspx.

Fig. 23.

—Summary sequence stratigraphic cross section of the Frasnian to early Famennian succession on the Nikanassin Range, Jasper Basin, Alberta. The line of section is shown on Figure 2. An expanded version of this figure is available in the digital version and at sepm.org/Downloads.aspx.

Fig. 24.

—Sequence stratigraphic cross section spanning the South Jasper Basin, from the Toma Creek margin to the Nikanassin Range. Environments of deposition are simplified into the four facies belts, as indicated. The line of section is shown on Figures 1 and 2. An expanded version of this figure is available in the digital version and at sepm.org/Downloads. aspx.

Fig. 24.

—Sequence stratigraphic cross section spanning the South Jasper Basin, from the Toma Creek margin to the Nikanassin Range. Environments of deposition are simplified into the four facies belts, as indicated. The line of section is shown on Figures 1 and 2. An expanded version of this figure is available in the digital version and at sepm.org/Downloads. aspx.

Table 1.

—Summary table of lithofacies recognized in this study.

Table 2.

—Third-order (composite) sequences used in this study.

Table 3.

—Fourth-order (high-frequency) sequences recognized in this study and criteria for their identification. An expanded version of this table is available in the digital version and at sepm.org/Downloads.aspx.

APPENDIX 1.

—Location of main outcrop sections used in this study.

Location Latitude (°N) Longitude (°W) Elevation (m) 
Nomad Creek 52°49′00.8 117°09′42.87 2143 
Tomad 52°50′04.6 117°11′23.7 2331 
Toma South 52°50′23.1 117°12′38.1 2134 
Toma Creek (platformward) 52°50′10.4 117°13′39.7 2153 
Toma Creek (basinward) 52°50′27.7 117°13′36.4 2188 
Mt. Mackenzie 52°50′53.4 117°14′00.7 2439 
Mt. Mackenzie East Spur 52°51′18.0 117°14′06.6 2340 
Cardinal North 52°51′14.7 117°14′42.8 2223 
Mt. Mackenzie North 52°51′09.4 117°15′30.1 1953 
Cardinal Waterfall 52°52′00.6 117°19′00.7 2002 
Cardinal Crossing 52°53′37.4 117°21′04.3 2150 
Cardinal River Headwaters 1/2 52°54′07.5 117°23′26.9 2272 
Mt. Gregg 53°02′27.7 117°28′57.1 2185 
Luscar Mountain 53°02′03.2 117°25′32.2 2109 
Mt. Berry 53°02′50.2 117°30′03.0 2369 
Mt. Berry North 53°03′05.7 117°31′36.4 2449 
Sphinx Mtn 53°03′32.4 117°33′53.8 2443 
Big Hill 52°10′29.5 117°04′26.7 1930 
Location Latitude (°N) Longitude (°W) Elevation (m) 
Nomad Creek 52°49′00.8 117°09′42.87 2143 
Tomad 52°50′04.6 117°11′23.7 2331 
Toma South 52°50′23.1 117°12′38.1 2134 
Toma Creek (platformward) 52°50′10.4 117°13′39.7 2153 
Toma Creek (basinward) 52°50′27.7 117°13′36.4 2188 
Mt. Mackenzie 52°50′53.4 117°14′00.7 2439 
Mt. Mackenzie East Spur 52°51′18.0 117°14′06.6 2340 
Cardinal North 52°51′14.7 117°14′42.8 2223 
Mt. Mackenzie North 52°51′09.4 117°15′30.1 1953 
Cardinal Waterfall 52°52′00.6 117°19′00.7 2002 
Cardinal Crossing 52°53′37.4 117°21′04.3 2150 
Cardinal River Headwaters 1/2 52°54′07.5 117°23′26.9 2272 
Mt. Gregg 53°02′27.7 117°28′57.1 2185 
Luscar Mountain 53°02′03.2 117°25′32.2 2109 
Mt. Berry 53°02′50.2 117°30′03.0 2369 
Mt. Berry North 53°03′05.7 117°31′36.4 2449 
Sphinx Mtn 53°03′32.4 117°33′53.8 2443 
Big Hill 52°10′29.5 117°04′26.7 1930 

Contents

Society for Sedimentary Geology

NEWADVANCES IN DEVONIAN CARBONATES: OUTCROP ANALOGS, RESERVOIRS AND CHRONOSTRATIGRAPHY

Ted E. Playton
Ted E. Playton
Tengizchevroil, Atyrau 060011, Kazakhstan
Search for other works by this author on:
Charles Kerans
Charles Kerans
Jackson School of Geosciences, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712, USA
Search for other works by this author on:
John A.W. Weissenberger
John A.W. Weissenberger
ATW Associates, Calgary, Alberta, T3E 7M8, Canada
Search for other works by this author on:
Society for Sedimentary Geology
Volume
107
ISBN electronic:
9781565763456
Publication date:
January 01, 2017

GeoRef

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