Interaction between gravity-driven listric normal fault linkage and their hanging-wall rollover development: a case study from the western Niger Delta, Nigeria
Hamed Fazlikhani, Stefan Back, Peter A. Kukla, Haakon Fossen, 2017. "Interaction between gravity-driven listric normal fault linkage and their hanging-wall rollover development: a case study from the western Niger Delta, Nigeria", The Geometry and Growth of Normal Faults, C. Childs, R. E. Holdsworth, C. A.-L. Jackson, T. Manzocchi, J. J. Walsh, G. Yielding
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Rollover is the folding of the hanging-wall sedimentary record in response to slip on listric normal faults, and is a common feature of sediment-rich, gravity-driven tectonic provinces. Rollovers have been extensively studied by means of geometrical reconstruction, and numerical and analogue modelling. However, the detailed interaction between the kinematics of bounding listric normal faults and their hanging-wall deformation is not yet fully understood. In this study, we use 3D seismic-reflection data from the Forcados-Yokri area, western Niger Delta, Nigeria, to study the lateral linkage and landwards backstepping history of an array of listric normal faults, particularly focusing on their influence on the development and evolution of hanging-wall rollovers. Five individual, partly overlapping rollover structures have been studied with respect to their relative initiation and decay time, their spatial distribution, and their relationship to the tectonic history of their respective bounding faults. We demonstrate that the studied rollovers are highly dependent on the development of their bounding faults in terms of initiation time, lateral linkage, internal structural development and decay. Fault–rollover interaction is dynamic and changes through time depending on the temporal evolution of listric faults. Four genetic types of fault–rollover interaction were identified in this study: (1) the rotation of a rollover–crestal-collapse system, controlled by a changing lateral bounding-fault orientation during fault growth; (2) a stepwise shift of rollover–crestal-collapse systems associated with rollover abandonment, controlled by the initiation of a new fault in the footwall of an older structure; (3) a gradual shift of successive rollovers controlled by branching main faults; and (4) a general landwards and upwards migration of crestal-collapse faults within a rollover above stationary listric main faults.