Chapter 15: Direct Determination of Electric Permittivity and Conductivity from Air-launched GPR Surface-reflection Data
Evert Slob, Sébastien Lambot, 2010. "Direct Determination of Electric Permittivity and Conductivity from Air-launched GPR Surface-reflection Data", Advances in Near-surface Seismology and Ground-penetrating Radar, Richard D. Miller, John H. Bradford, Klaus Holliger
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Knowledge of the spatial distribution of surface-soil water content and its dynamics is important on many scales for research and applications in agriculture, hydrology, meteorology, and climatology. At the field scale of one hectare, it is difficult at present to obtain reliable estimates in an efficient way. A versatile method for determining the electric permittivity of a volume just below the earth surface uses off-ground monostatic ground-penetrating radar (GPR) reflection data. This volume average can be called the surface-soil permittivity, and the permittivity and conductivity of the ground are determined as close to the surface as possible given the bandwidth used in acquisition. It can be demonstrated that under reasonable conditions, in which the time-domain surface-reflection method works with satisfactory accuracy, the extended surface-reflection method performs better when used in the frequency domain. This method allows for accurate conductivity estimates when these conductivities can be obtained from full-waveform inversion.
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Near-surface seismology and ground-penetrating radar (GPR) have enjoyed success and increasing popularity among a wide range of geophysicists, engineers, and hydrologists since their emergence in the latter half of the twentieth century. With the common ground shared by near-surface seismology and GPR, their significant upside potential, and rapid developments in the methods, a book bringing together the most current trends in research and applications of both is fitting and timely. Conceptually, near-surface seismology and GPR are remarkably similar, and they share a range of attributes and compatibilities that provides opportunities to integrate processing and interpretation workflows, which makes them a perfect pair to share pages in a book.
With growth in numbers and professional emphasis have come sections, focus groups, and even professional societies specifically promoting near-surface geophysics. The emergence of near-surface geophysics groups, beginning in the late 1990s and extending into the early twenty-first century, has fueled a diversity of opportunities for professional collaborations. A range of workshops and shared publications has been the fruit of collaborative efforts. The near-surface community continues to extend and develop methods and approaches necessary to satisfy increasing demands in some of the socioeconomically pertinent disciplines such as civil and environmental engineering and hydrology. This book represents the first formal cooperative effort undertaken by the near-surface communities of the Society of Exploration Geophysicists, the American Geophysical Union, and the Environmental and Engineering Geophysical Society.