Chapter 13: Inversion Methodology of Dispersive Amplitude and Phase versus Offset of GPR Curves (DAPVO) for Thin Beds
Jacques Deparis, Stéphane Garambois, 2010. "Inversion Methodology of Dispersive Amplitude and Phase versus Offset of GPR Curves (DAPVO) for Thin Beds", Advances in Near-surface Seismology and Ground-penetrating Radar, Richard D. Miller, John H. Bradford, Klaus Holliger
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The presence of a thin layer embedded in any formation creates complex reflection patterns because of interferences within the thin bed. Amplitude variation with offset (AVO) is used increasingly in seismic interpretation and has been tested more recently on ground-penetrating radar (GPR) data to characterize nonaqueous-phase liquid contaminants. In those analyses, phase and dispersion properties of the reflected signals generally are omitted, although they contain useful information. An inversion methodology to examine thin-bed properties — dispersive amplitude and phase versus offset (DAPVO) — combines all reflectivity properties (amplitude, phase, and dispersion) of the reflected GPR signal generated by a thin bed embedded within a homogeneous material. A brief description of electromagnetic (EM) phenomena is presented. The dispersive properties of the dielectric permittivity of investigated materials can be described using a Jonscher parameterization, which allows the study of the dependency of amplitude and phase versus offset (APVO) curves on the frequency of thin-bed properties (filling nature, aperture). Simplifying assumptions and using careful corrections are necessary to convert raw common-midpoint (CMP) reflected data into DAPVO curves and to study the propagation and radiation-pattern corrections. The inversion methodology is explained and validated to a synthetic set of CMP GPR data and can be illustrated with a real CMP data set acquired along a vertical cliff. This allows for extraction of the characteristics of a subvertical fracture while simultaneously satisfying resolution and confidence. Such a study motivates interest in combining the dispersion dependency of the reflection-coefficient variations with classical AVO analysis for thin-bed characterization.
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Near-surface seismology and ground-penetrating radar (GPR) have enjoyed success and increasing popularity among a wide range of geophysicists, engineers, and hydrologists since their emergence in the latter half of the twentieth century. With the common ground shared by near-surface seismology and GPR, their significant upside potential, and rapid developments in the methods, a book bringing together the most current trends in research and applications of both is fitting and timely. Conceptually, near-surface seismology and GPR are remarkably similar, and they share a range of attributes and compatibilities that provides opportunities to integrate processing and interpretation workflows, which makes them a perfect pair to share pages in a book.
With growth in numbers and professional emphasis have come sections, focus groups, and even professional societies specifically promoting near-surface geophysics. The emergence of near-surface geophysics groups, beginning in the late 1990s and extending into the early twenty-first century, has fueled a diversity of opportunities for professional collaborations. A range of workshops and shared publications has been the fruit of collaborative efforts. The near-surface community continues to extend and develop methods and approaches necessary to satisfy increasing demands in some of the socioeconomically pertinent disciplines such as civil and environmental engineering and hydrology. This book represents the first formal cooperative effort undertaken by the near-surface communities of the Society of Exploration Geophysicists, the American Geophysical Union, and the Environmental and Engineering Geophysical Society.