Section 2: Methodology
Much previous seismic and ground-penetrating radar (GPR) research has focused on investigating, theoretically and empirically, the relationship between the statistical characteristics of subsurface velocity heterogeneity and those of the associated surface-based reflection image. However, an effective and robust method for solving the corresponding inverse problem has not been presented. Assuming that waves are weakly scattered in the subsurface, a relatively simple relationship can be derived between the 2D autocorrelation of a geophysical reflection image and that of the underlying velocity field. A Monte Carlo inversion strategy based on this relationship can then be used to generate sets of parameters describing the autocorrelation of velocity that are consistent with recorded reflection data. Results of applying that strategy to realistic synthetic seismic and GPR data indicate that the inverse solution is inherently nonunique in that many combinations of the vertical and horizontal correlation lengths that describe the velocity heterogeneity can yield reflection images with the same 2D autocorrelation structure. However, the ratio of each of those combinations is approximately the same and corresponds to the aspect ratio of the velocity heterogeneity, which suggests that the aspect ratio is a quantity that can be recovered reliably from geophysical-reflection-survey data.
Figures & Tables
Advances in Near-surface Seismology and Ground-penetrating Radar
Near-surface seismology and ground-penetrating radar (GPR) have enjoyed success and increasing popularity among a wide range of geophysicists, engineers, and hydrologists since their emergence in the latter half of the twentieth century. With the common ground shared by near-surface seismology and GPR, their significant upside potential, and rapid developments in the methods, a book bringing together the most current trends in research and applications of both is fitting and timely. Conceptually, near-surface seismology and GPR are remarkably similar, and they share a range of attributes and compatibilities that provides opportunities to integrate processing and interpretation workflows, which makes them a perfect pair to share pages in a book.
With growth in numbers and professional emphasis have come sections, focus groups, and even professional societies specifically promoting near-surface geophysics. The emergence of near-surface geophysics groups, beginning in the late 1990s and extending into the early twenty-first century, has fueled a diversity of opportunities for professional collaborations. A range of workshops and shared publications has been the fruit of collaborative efforts. The near-surface community continues to extend and develop methods and approaches necessary to satisfy increasing demands in some of the socioeconomically pertinent disciplines such as civil and environmental engineering and hydrology. This book represents the first formal cooperative effort undertaken by the near-surface communities of the Society of Exploration Geophysicists, the American Geophysical Union, and the Environmental and Engineering Geophysical Society.