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Joint inversion of crosshole ground-penetrating radar and seismic data can improve model resolution and fidelity of the resultant individual models. Model coupling obtained by minimizing or penalizing some measure of structural dissimilarity between models appears to be the most versatile approach because only weak assumptions about petrophysical relationships are required. Nevertheless, experimental results and petrophysical arguments suggest that when porosity variations are weak in saturated unconsolidated environments, then radar wave speed is approximately linearly related to seismic wave speed. Under such circumstances, model coupling also can be achieved by incorporating cross-covariances in the model regularization. In two case studies, structural similarity is imposed by penalizing models for which the model cross-gradients are nonzero. A first case study demonstrates improvements in model resolution by comparing the resulting models with borehole information, whereas a second case study uses point-spread functions. Although radar seismic wave-speed crossplots are very similar for the two case studies, the models plot in different portions of the graph, suggesting variances in porosity. Both examples display a close, quasilinear relationship between radar seismic wave speed in unconsolidated environments that is described rather well by the corresponding lower Hashin-Shtrikman (HS) bounds. Combining crossplots of the joint inversion models with HS bounds can constrain porosity and pore structure better than individual inversion results can.

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