Chapter 13: Single-Station Triaxial Data Analysis
In a high signal-to-noise environment, a single triaxial geophone can provide estimates of the polarization state of a seismic arrival. Knowledge of the mode of the event (e.g., P-wave) and elastic properties of the host rock can be used to infer the direction of propagation. Alternatively, knowledge of the direction of propagation can be combined with the polarization state to identify the various wave modes and characterize the elastic properties of the host rock. Polarization analysis might, for example, allow body waves (rectilinear polarization) to be distinguished from surface waves (elliptical polarization). Polarization measurements are therefore important in many areas of seismology.
Figures & Tables
This reference is intended to give the geophysical signal analyst sufficient material to understand the usefulness of data covariance matrix analysis in the processing of geophysical signals. A background of basic linear algebra, statistics, and fundamental random signal analysis is assumed. This reference is unique in that the data vector covariance matrix is used throughout. Rather than dealing with only one seismic data processing problem and presenting several methods, we will concentrate on only one fundamental methodology—analysis of the sample covariance matrix—and we present many seismic data problems to which the methodology applies.