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The geology of Great Smoky Mountains National Park (GRSM) in Tennessee and North Carolina is dominated by siliciclastics and metamorphic strata. However, in the western portion of GRSM, a series of carbonate fensters (windows) expose the Lower Ordovician–age section of the Knox Group, a series of dolomite and limestone units that are partially marbleized as a result of contact metamorphism from the Great Smoky fault. The fensters create opportunities for allogenic recharge to occur at points along the contact of the surrounding insoluble strata with the underlying soluble carbonates. The combination of chemically aggressive surface recharge and vertical relief...

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