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Book Chapter

Seamounts and oceanic igneous features in the NE Atlantic: a link between plate motions and mantle dynamics

By
Carmen Gaina
Carmen Gaina
Centre for Earth Evolution and Dynamics (CEED), University of Oslo, Sem Sælands vei 24, PO Box 1048, Blindern, NO-0316 Oslo, Norway
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Anett Blischke
Anett Blischke
Iceland GeoSurvey, Branch at Akureyri, Rangárvöllum, 602 Akureyri, Iceland
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Wolfram H. Geissler
Wolfram H. Geissler
Alfred Wegener Institute, Helmholz Centre for Polar and Marine Research, Am Alten Hafen 26, 27568 Bremerhaven, Germany
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Geoffrey S. Kimbell
Geoffrey S. Kimbell
British Geological Survey, Keyworth, Nottingham, NG12 5GG, UK
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Ögmundur Erlendsson
Ögmundur Erlendsson
Iceland GeoSurvey, Grensásvegi 9, 108 Reykjavík, Iceland
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Published:
January 01, 2017

Abstract:

A new regional compilation of seamount-like oceanic igneous features (SOIFs) in the NE Atlantic points to three distinct oceanic areas of abundant seamount clusters. Seamounts on oceanic crust dated 54–50 Ma are formed on smooth oceanic basement, which resulted from high spreading rates and magmatic productivity enhanced by higher than usual mantle plume activity. Late Eocene–Early Miocene SOIF clusters are located close to newly formed tectonic features on rough oceanic crust in the Irminger, Iceland and Norway basins, reflecting an unstable tectonic regime prone to local readjustments of mid-ocean ridge and fracture zone segments accompanied by extra igneous activity. A SOIF population observed on Mid-Miocene–Present rough oceanic basement in the Greenland and Lofoten basins, and on conjugate Kolbeinsey Ridge flanks, coincides with an increase in spreading rate and magmatic productivity. We suggest that both tectonic/kinematic and magmatic triggers produced Mid-Miocene–Present SOIFs, but the Early Miocene westwards ridge relocation may have played a role in delaying SOIF formation south of the Jan Mayen Fracture Zone. We conclude that Iceland plume episodic activity combined with regional changes in relative plate motion led to local mid-ocean ridge readjustments, which enhanced the likelihood of seamount formation.

Supplementary material: Figures detailing NE Atlantic seamounts and SOIF distribution, and the location of earthquake epicentres are available at https://doi.org/10.6084/m9.figshare.c.3459729

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Contents

Geological Society, London, Special Publications

The NE Atlantic Region. A Reappraisal of Crustal Structure, Tectonostratigraphy and Magmatic Evolution

G. Péron-Pinvidic
G. Péron-Pinvidic
Geological Survey of Norway, Norway
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J. R. Hopper
J. R. Hopper
Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland, Denmark
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T. Funck
T. Funck
Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland, Denmark
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M. S. Stoker
M. S. Stoker
British Geological Survey, UK
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C. Gaina
C. Gaina
University of Oslo, Norway
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J. C. Doornenbal
J. C. Doornenbal
Geological Survey of The Netherlands, The Netherlands
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U. E. Árting
U. E. Árting
Faroese Geological Survey, Faroe Islands
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The Geological Society of London
Volume
447
ISBN electronic:
978-1-78620-37-00
Publication date:
January 01, 2017

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