Pyroclastic deposits of San Diego maar, central Colombia: an example of a silicic magma-related monogenetic eruption in a hard substrate
Published:January 01, 2017
C. Borrero, H. Murcia, J. Agustin-Flores, M. T. Arboleda, A. M. Giraldo, 2017. "Pyroclastic deposits of San Diego maar, central Colombia: an example of a silicic magma-related monogenetic eruption in a hard substrate", Monogenetic Volcanism, K. Németh, G. Carrasco-Núñez, J. J. Aranda-Gómez, I. E. M. Smith
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The San Diego maar is a volcano located at the middle of the Colombian Central Cordillera that forms part of the dispersed and isolated Samaná Volcanic Field (with at least three volcanoes). San Diego is excavated on Triassic metamorphic rocks and Neogene sub-volcanic andesitic units, and forms approximately 15 m of mostly unconsolidated eruption-related deposits. These deposits were divided into four stratigraphic units (U1–U4) that together define the evolution of the eruption: (1) an unsteady vent-clearing stage; (2) drier to wet pyroclastic base surges; (3) dry base surges; and (4) a final wet stage. At the end of the activity, the crater was enlarged due to a complex set of rock falls and slides in the crater walls. Finally, the volcanic activity switched to a magmatic phase, creating a dacitic dome. The northern dome flank was affected by a gravitational collapse that produced a small-volume debris avalanche.
The eruption style of the San Diego maar was controlled by the stratigraphic, structural and hydrogeological characteristics of the substrate, as well as the surficial environmental condition. In addition, the mountainous terrain around the maar crater controlled the deposit extension. These constraints provide additional information for a hazard assessment related to this type of eruption in the region.
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The nature and origin of the small-scale volcanic systems, generally referred to as “monogenetic”, have enjoyed an elevated level of interest during the past decade. There has been recognition that their ostensibly simple volcano types are a window into the nature of explosive volcanism, landscape evolution and the processes of magma generation in the Earth’s upper mantle. In the past few years, major conferences have offered specialized technical sessions dealing with monogenetic volcanism and there have been thematic conferences, such as the IAVCEI International Maar Conference series, which have provided a focus for discussion of volcanological and geochemical aspects of small-scale basaltic volcanism. Many new aspects of monogenetic volcanism have emerged and have clearly demonstrated that this volcanism can be very complex on a fine scale. This book is a collection of papers arising from two recent Maar Conferences (the fifth in Queretaro Mexico and the sixth in Changchun, China) and serves as a snapshot of current research on monogenetic volcanism.