Differences and similarities between emplacement models of kimberlite and basaltic maar-diatreme volcanoes
Published:January 01, 2017
Stephan Kurszlaukis, Volker Lorenz, 2017. "Differences and similarities between emplacement models of kimberlite and basaltic maar-diatreme volcanoes", Monogenetic Volcanism, K. Németh, G. Carrasco-Núñez, J. J. Aranda-Gómez, I. E. M. Smith
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Most kimberlite maar-diatreme volcanoes erupted during the Tertiary or earlier and therefore their tephra rings and, less often, their near-surface diatreme-filling deposits have usually been eliminated by erosion. Poorly eroded Quaternary non-kimberlite maar-diatreme volcanoes, especially those of mafic and ultramafic magma types, have the same diatreme size range (diameter and depth) as kimberlite pipes and show similar internal volcaniclastic diatreme lithofacies. In addition, these young volcanoes often have a more or less preserved tephra ring consisting of hundreds to perhaps a few thousand thin tephra beds. Volcanological analyses of the xenolith-rich primary volcaniclastic deposits both within these diatremes and in the tephra ring beds reflect phases of explosive pipe growth and are of convincingly phreatomagmatic origin.
The similarities between non-kimberlite pipes and kimberlite pipes suggest to some researchers that phreatomagmatic processes were also responsible for pipe excavation processes in kimberlite maar-diatreme volcanoes. In contrast, other researchers have suggested that kimberlite maar-diatreme volcanoes were emplaced largely by magmatic processes as a consequence of exsolution and the explosive expansion of juvenile volatiles. We therefore analysed and compared some key geological features of kimberlite and ultrabasic to basic ‘basaltic’ maar-diatreme volcanoes to determine similarities and differences with respect to their emplacement behaviour.
The following problems were addressed – the layout of the abstract; an amendment to the caption of Fig. 1; and some changes to Zimanowski’s references in the reference list.
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The nature and origin of the small-scale volcanic systems, generally referred to as “monogenetic”, have enjoyed an elevated level of interest during the past decade. There has been recognition that their ostensibly simple volcano types are a window into the nature of explosive volcanism, landscape evolution and the processes of magma generation in the Earth’s upper mantle. In the past few years, major conferences have offered specialized technical sessions dealing with monogenetic volcanism and there have been thematic conferences, such as the IAVCEI International Maar Conference series, which have provided a focus for discussion of volcanological and geochemical aspects of small-scale basaltic volcanism. Many new aspects of monogenetic volcanism have emerged and have clearly demonstrated that this volcanism can be very complex on a fine scale. This book is a collection of papers arising from two recent Maar Conferences (the fifth in Queretaro Mexico and the sixth in Changchun, China) and serves as a snapshot of current research on monogenetic volcanism.