Phreatomagmatic maar-diatreme volcanoes and their incremental growth: a model
Volker Lorenz, Peter Suhr, Stefan Suhr, 2017. "Phreatomagmatic maar-diatreme volcanoes and their incremental growth: a model", Monogenetic Volcanism, K. Németh, G. Carrasco-Núñez, J. J. Aranda-Gómez, I. E. M. Smith
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We report here a growth model for phreatomagmatic maar-diatreme volcanoes with respect to the number of eruptions documented in the tephra beds of maar tephra rings and the upper bedded diatreme facies. We show that the number of tephra beds in large diatremes is larger than that in maar tephra rings. Base surges that lack sufficient momentum to scale high maar crater walls deposit their tephra only inside the crater. Thus the total number of eruptions at large maar-diatreme volcanoes will be larger than the number recorded in maar tephra rings. As many maar-diatreme volcanoes erupt dominantly accidental clasts, an incremental mathematical model was applied to study the growth of diatremes. The model is based only on the ejection of distinct amounts of accidental clasts per unit eruption and the chosen number of eruptions is assumed to be identical. The incremental growth of cone-shaped diatremes follows cube-root functions with respect to diameter and depth and slows down with ongoing eruptions. In nature, small and large maar-diatreme volcanoes are formed and filled syn-eruptively, mostly by tephra, depending on the duration and quantity of magma involved in phreatomagmatic eruptions. In our opinion, this mathematical model is the only current method able to model the growth of diatremes.
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The nature and origin of the small-scale volcanic systems, generally referred to as “monogenetic”, have enjoyed an elevated level of interest during the past decade. There has been recognition that their ostensibly simple volcano types are a window into the nature of explosive volcanism, landscape evolution and the processes of magma generation in the Earth’s upper mantle. In the past few years, major conferences have offered specialized technical sessions dealing with monogenetic volcanism and there have been thematic conferences, such as the IAVCEI International Maar Conference series, which have provided a focus for discussion of volcanological and geochemical aspects of small-scale basaltic volcanism. Many new aspects of monogenetic volcanism have emerged and have clearly demonstrated that this volcanism can be very complex on a fine scale. This book is a collection of papers arising from two recent Maar Conferences (the fifth in Queretaro Mexico and the sixth in Changchun, China) and serves as a snapshot of current research on monogenetic volcanism.