Chapter 9: Remarks on Exploration Tools: Integrated Exploration Strategy Applied to Carbonate Environments1
K. Fischer, M. Holling, R. Marschall, J. Mau, 1997. "Remarks on Exploration Tools: Integrated Exploration Strategy Applied to Carbonate Environments", Carbonate Seismology, Ibrahim Palaz, Kurt J. Marfurt
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Applying an integrated exploration strategy requires (1) establishment of a data base containing the given observations and (2) development of a model data base. The model here is defined as a tool to aid in organizing the given observations and contains interrelated subgroups of detailed submodels, which include facies trends, velocity models, or maps resulting from global log correlations. Development of the submodels involves these steps:
Global basin analysis (uplift or subsidence, basin history, hydrocarbon potential, migration paths, and trapping)
Structural interpretation and sequence analysis of the seismic data (2-D or 3-D) and integration of nonseismic data (gravity and magnetics)
Classification of intervals and facies trends for selected intervals (A-B/C code), mapping of additional tops, and application of geostatistics
Refinement and extension of mapped interfaces
Final depth conversion using improved velocity functions
Application of modeling tools and special processing techniques to improve resolution and verify interpretation
Aspects of carbonate settings that can be investigated by following these guidelines include identification of buildups, mapping of shelf trends, and verification of shelf trends in terms of lithofacies units (individual impedance values) by finite-difference forward modeling (e.g., zero offset application). Further investigations include application of special processing tools, such as L1-Deconvolution and AVO-analysis, and derivation of a final velocity model for time-depth conversion using velocity checking wavefronts.
The final result of seismostratigraphic work improves the effectiveness of hydrocarbon evaluation and production due to detailed knowledge of lateral and vertical lithofacies trends, permeability distribution, local permeability barriers, and sealing potential. The chronostratigraphic information derived from seismic sequence analysis allows for improved well-to-well correlation. This is especially useful for 3-D data and the resulting 3-D stratigraphic model, which forms the basis of a reservoir model.