Influence of persistent buried ice on late glacial landscape development in part of Wisconsin's Northern Highlands
John W. Attig, J. Elmo Rawling, III, 2017. "Influence of persistent buried ice on late glacial landscape development in part of Wisconsin's Northern Highlands", Quaternary Glaciation of the Great Lakes Region: Process, Landforms, Sediments, and Chronology, Alan E. Kehew, B. Brandon Curry
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Landscape features that formed when buried ice melted and overlying sediment collapsed are abundant and widespread in the part of Wisconsin’s Northern Highland region glaciated by the Wisconsin Valley Lobe and the western part of the Langlade Lobe. Stagnation and burial of ice of the Wisconsin Valley Lobe are documented by broad tracts of hummocky moraine topography that record the position of the maximum extent of the lobe, and by extensive pitted and collapsed heads-of-outwash and outwash plains deposited during recession. Recession of the Wisconsin Valley Lobe was characterized by episodes of stagnation interspersed with episodes of readvance, documented by small west-east–trending heads-of-outwash. Advances of the western margin of the Langlade Lobe deposited large northwest-southeast–trending heads-of- outwash characterized by extensive areas of pitted and collapsed outwash plains with obscure but recognizable ice-contact faces. Following recession of the Wisconsin Valley and Langlade Lobes, the Ontonagon Lobe advanced out of the Superior Basin and over sediment containing abundant buried ice. Permafrost and debris cover combined to delay the melting of buried ice and the formation of the postglacial landscape. Regional correlation of ice-margin positions, combined with geomorphic and stratigraphic relationships, indicates that ice buried in north-central Wisconsin persisted in some places for up to 5000 yr or more following the recession of active ice.