The 26 December 2004 earthquake and tsunami
Published:January 01, 2017
A. Carter, P. C. Bandopadhyay, 2017. "The 26 December 2004 earthquake and tsunami", The Andaman–Nicobar Accretionary Ridge: Geology, Tectonics and Hazards, P. C. Bandopadhyay, A. Carter
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The 26 December 2004 earthquake and tsunami had variable impacts on the Andaman and Nicobar islands. While the earthquake rupture caused land-elevation changes (uplift in the west, subsidence in the east and south) and co-seismic shaking damaged buildings and weakened the infrastucture (roads, bridges, jetties), the tsunami caused most devastation. The largely tribal-populated, low-elevation smaller islands in the Nicobars were the most affected with two islands (Katchall and Pilmillow) losing nearly 90% of their population. This chapter documents and presents new evidence of the impacts of the earthquake and tsunami.
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The Andaman–Nicobar Accretionary Ridge: Geology, Tectonics and Hazards
Rocks exposed across the hundreds of islands that belong to the 800 km long Andaman–Nicobar archipelago provide a condensed window into the active subduction zone that separates the India–Australia plate from the over-riding Burma–Sunda plate. Despite a strategic and seismically active location the Andaman-Nicobar ridge has seen comparatively little research. This Memoir provides the first detailed and comprehensive account of geological mapping and research across the island chain and adjacent ocean basins. Chapters examine models of Cenozoic rifting of the Andaman Sea and the regional tectonic and seismogenic framework. A detailed critical review of the Andaman–Nicobar stratigraphy, supported by new data, includes arc volcanism and a description of Barren Island, India’s only active volcano. Seismic history and hazards and the impacts of the 2004 earthquake and tsunami are also described. The volume ends with an examination of the region’s natural resources and hydrocarbon prospects.