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The geology and stratigraphy of the Archipelago Group are reviewed and new data presented to improve understanding. Major lithofacies are bioclastic limestones, bioturbated mottled marlstones, micritic limestones, trace fossil-bearing mudstones, quartzose sandstones and reworked volcanic material of Mio-Pliocene and Pleistocene age. The succession overlies the Pre-Neogene submarine fan turbidites and tectonic mélanges of ophiolite derivation and Mithakhari rocks, and is overlain by Quaternary deposits of late Pleistocene–Holocene age. The Neogene sequences were deposited in wave- and current-agitated shallow-marine intertidal and relatively deeper-water subtidal, nearshore and offshore shelfal environments. The existing stratigraphic framework is examined and suggestions made for improvement.

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