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Book Chapter

Discrimination of Pore Fluids from P and Converted Shear-Wave AVO Analysis

By
Enru Liu
Enru Liu
*
British Geological Survey, Murchison House,
West Mains Road, Edinburgh EH9,3LA, United King dom
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Xiang-Yang Li
Xiang-Yang Li
*
British Geological Survey, Murchison House,
West Mains Road, Edinburgh EH9,3LA, United King dom
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John H. Queen
John H. Queen
Conoco Inc., SITC,
P.O. Box 1267, Ponca City, Oklahoma 74603, USA
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Published:
January 01, 2001

Abstract

Natural rocks usually contain discontinuities of various forms, which control fluid moment in the subsurface. Discontinuities have a wide range of scales and are a direct consequence of Earth's stress over geological history, such as faults, fractures, joints or cracks, or are due to sedimentary deposition processes, such as contact regions in pore spaces (examples include clay platelet alignment in shales and grain particle alignment in sandstones). In this study, we show that seismic waves are sensitive to fluids contained in rock discontinuities based on P and converted PS AVO analysis. We restrict ourselves to two types of rock discontinuities: shales where clay particle alignment will result in transverse isotropy with a vertical symmetry axis (TIV) and vertical aligned fractures (transverse isotropy with a horizontal symmetry axis or TIH). We establish a quantitative link between fluid saturation and interfacial or fracture compliance and derive simple analytical expressions which link seismic anisotropic measurements to pore and fracture filling fluids. The link between macroscopic parameters such as fracture compliance and physical quantities makes it possible to extract information, such as fluid saturation, from field seismic data. In particular, different behaviors of these parameters may be used to determine whether fractures are dry or saturated. The combined P-and PS-wave AVO analysis can potentially be used to differentiate fluid saturations in fractures and in shales.

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Contents

Society of Exploration Geophysicists Open File

Anisotropy 2000: Fractures, Converted Waves, and Case Studies

L. Ikelle
L. Ikelle
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A. Gangi
A. Gangi
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Society of Exploration Geophysicists
Volume
6
ISBN electronic:
9781560801771
Publication date:
January 01, 2001

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