The gas membrane sensor (GMS) method: a new analytical approach for real-time gas concentration measurements in volcanic lakes
Published:January 01, 2017
Martin Zimmer, Franco Tassi, Orlando Vaselli, Christian Kujawa, Jacopo Cabassi, Joerg Erzinger, 2017. "The gas membrane sensor (GMS) method: a new analytical approach for real-time gas concentration measurements in volcanic lakes", Geochemistry and Geophysics of Active Volcanic Lakes, T. Ohba, B. Capaccioni, C. Caudron
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The primary goal of this study was to apply an innovative analytical method based on a gas membrane sensor (GMS) to quantify the concentrations of CO2 and CH4 gas in water columns from volcanic lakes. For this purpose, dissolved CO2 and CH4 from the Monticchio Grande and Piccolo (Mt Vulture, Italy) and Pavin (Massif Central, France) lakes, characterized by depths of 35, 38 and 92 m, respectively, were measured using two different approaches: GMS and SH (single hose), the latter being an independent conventional method.
The CO2 and CH4 concentrations recorded via the GMS and SH techniques were within the analytical errors of the two methods. These test measurements demonstrated that the GMS method can be successfully used to produce highly accurate in situ measurements of dissolved gas composition along the vertical profiles of lakes.
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Geochemistry and Geophysics of Active Volcanic Lakes
Volcanoes sometimes host a lake at the Earth’s surface. These lakes are the surface expressions of a reservoir, often termed a hydrothermal system, in highly fractured, permeable and porous media where fluids circulate. They can become monitoring targets since they integrate the heat flux discharged by an underlying magma body and condense some volcanic gases. Since they trap volcanic heat and gases, they are excellent tools to provide additional information about the status of a volcano and volcanic lake-related hazards.
This Special Publication comes at an exciting time for the volcanic lake community. It brings together scientific papers, which include studies of their structure, hydrogeological modelling, long-term multi-disciplinary monitoring efforts, as well as a number of innovative methods of sampling, data acquisition and in situ and laboratory experiments. Several papers challenge long-established paradigms and introduce new concepts and terminologies. This collection of papers will be a useful reference for researchers dealing with volcanic lakes and more generally with hydrothermal systems, phreatic/hydrothermal eruptions and wet volcanoes.